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Virtual University ENG 101 Lesson -17. 2 Dr.Surriya Shaffi Mir.

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Presentation on theme: "Virtual University ENG 101 Lesson -17. 2 Dr.Surriya Shaffi Mir."— Presentation transcript:

1 Virtual University ENG 101 Lesson -17

2 2 Dr.Surriya Shaffi Mir

3 3 So far the main reading activity that you have had practice in has been the usual reading comprehension. It required you to concentrate only on certain sections of the reading passage. In today's lesson you will be introduced to another procedure for developing reading comprehension, known as the CLOZE procedure.

4 4 What is this cloze procedure? A passage is selected from which words are deleted at regular intervals. You, the reader, have to fill in the missing words. Very easy, you will say. Well let’s see if it is all that easy. The deletion of words at regular intervals ensures that the learner concentrates on a wider proportion of the text. It also requires him / her to make inferences as well.

5 5 The deleted words usually comprise grammatical and lexical words and it is the student’s choice of words to fill in the gaps that reveals his / her understanding of the passage as well as grasp of the language. The cloze has several points in its favour. 1. It encourages fluent reading. 2. It requires the reader to use a range of reading skills to complete the task.

6 6 3. It is thought provoking as it trains the student to explore within a semantic field or area for related concepts 4. It trains the reader to look carefully at all structural clues Cloze thus helps in developing the habit of concentrated reading, of going beyond the immediate sentence for drawing meaning, in skimming to recap on what has been read and in scanning for unspecified information in order to predict.

7 7 The cloze is essentially a cognitive / mental task which requires the completion of meaning based on understanding and reason. It involves the reader in active interaction with the text to predict the missing word while making use of context clues. Once you have grasped the basic techniques you will begin to enjoy it as a guessing game - not wild guesses, but informed guesses. Look at the following passage quickly - the whole passage so that you get a rough idea of what it is about.

8 8 Notice the first two sentences and the last sentence do not have any gaps. This is to help you understand the overall meaning of the passage. -Discuss the context of the passage. -Each gap stands for just ONE word that is missing. -Explain why certain words are appropriate. -A word can only be accepted if it fits in the context without changing the meaning of the passage.

9 9 Ex: 1. A good education should, among other things, train you to think for yourself. The examination system does anything but that. What has to be learnt 1 ____ strictly laid down by 2 _____ syllabus, so the student 3 ____ ___ only what is prescribed. Examinations 4 ______ not motivate a student 5 ______ read widely; they 6 _____ his reading. They do 7 __ encourage him to seek 8 ______ knowledge; they narrow the 9 ______ of study.

10 10 They lower 10 _____ standards of teaching, for 11 ______ deprive the teacher of 12 _____ freedom. Teachers themselves are 13 ___ judged by examination by results, 14 _____ instead of teaching their 15 _____, they are reduced to 16 ____ their students in the 17 ______ of taking examinations which 18 ______ despise. The most successful 19 _______ are not always the 20 _____ educated. They are merely the best trained in the technique of working under stress and strain.

11 11 Ex : 2. Global warming is by no means a new phenomenon: it has been around since the creation of Planet Earth itself. At first the process was beneficial: it brought Earth out of the ice ages into a time when humanity could survive on it. Now, however, it has become a problem. 1 ____ has happened in 2 _____ ways, the ‘runway’ 3 ______effect and ozone 4 _____depletion. This is 5 ____ the greenhouse effect 6 ______: ordinarily

12 12 energy from 7____ Sun reaches the 8 _____ and is reflected 9 _____ into space, but 10 ____ greenhouse gases forming layer around the planet, the reflection process cannot take place and the energy is trapped, heating up the atmosphere. (Saifullah & Ismail)

13 13 Ex: 1. A good education should, among other things, train you to think for yourself. The examination system does anything but that. What has to be learnt 1 __ is__ strictly laid down by 2 ___the__ syllabus, so the student 3 ____does / learns___ only what is prescribed. Examinations 4 ___do___ not motivate a student 5 ___to___ read widely; they 6 ___restrict / curb__ his reading. They do 7 __not__ encourage him to seek 8 ___further / more___ knowledge; they narrow the 9 ___field___ of study.

14 14 They lower 10 __the___ standards of teaching, for 11 ___they___ deprive the teacher of 12 ___all / his / her___ freedom. Teachers themselves are 13 __often__ judged by examination by results, 14 __so / and___ instead of teaching their 15,__subjects___ they are reduce to 16 __training__ their students in the 17 ___art / technique___ of taking examinations which 18 ___they___ despise. The most successful 19 __students___ are not always the 20 __best___ educated. They are merely the best trained in the technique of working under stress and strain.

15 15 Ex : 2. Global warming is by no means a new phenomenon: it has been around since the creation of Planet Earth itself. At first the process was beneficial: it brought Earth out of the ice ages into a time when humanity could survive on it. Now, however, it has become a problem. 1 This has happened in 2 two ways, the ‘runway’ 3 greenhouse effect and ozone 4 layer depletion. This is 5 how the greenhouse effect 6 works: ordinarily

16 16 energy from 7 the Sun reaches the 8 Earth and is reflected 9 back into space, but 10 with greenhouse gases forming layer around the planet, the reflection process cannot take place and the energy is trapped, heating up the atmosphere. (Saifullah & Ismail)

17 17 These were samples of regular, standard type of cloze where the gaps / blanks occur after a fixed number of words and these blanks may be filled with any word that is appropriate in terms of linguistic and contextual criteria. There are many variations of the standard cloze. Now I shall pace you through some alternative forms.

18 18 Ex : 3Selected Deletion Cloze Notice the blanks are not after a fixed number of words. My dear children, It’s hard to believe that I’ve been here for a month. The time passes so quickly and there’s so much to do. I’ve managed to see all the members of the family. I 1 ______as much time as I can

19 19 with the children. Last week I 2 ____Mark and Michelle to the circus. 3 ______never been to one before as they live quite far from the nearest city and their parents 4 _____ have time to drive them there. I 5 ________ that’s what grandmothers are for. At any 6 _____ Susan lent me her car - it’s a brand 7 _____ bright red Mini. We left early in the morning so as to make a day of 8 ____.

20 20 In the morning we 9 _____ to the zoo and in the afternoon to the circus. As 10 _____can imagine, the children were very excited. They loved everything. Mark 11 _____ the wild animals the most exciting and Michelle is 12 _____ to be an acrobat when she grows 13 ______.

21 21 After we’d been there for about two hours we 14 ______ an announcement over the loudspeaker. The owner of the red Mini, number PUR 727V, 15 ______ requested to come to the manager’s office 16 _________. Naturally, I didn’t know the number of 17 ___________ car so I left the children and went to the manager’s office to 18 _____ out if it was our car.

22 22 The manager looked very upset and 19______________________. No one else had answered his call so I assumed correctly that it was Susan’s car. 20 ___________________that I’d left the lights on, or parked in 21 ________way, I wasn’t 22 ________concerned, but I didn’t know why the manager looked so disturbed. He began to 23 _________what happened and it took me some time to understand 24 ______confused explanation.

23 23 25 ____appears that the elephants are trained to sit on red boxes. One of the elephants 26 _____escaped and when he saw the 27 ______red car he promptly sat on 28______ ! As you can imagine the car looked a mess. One side was squashed 29 ________but it was still possible to drive. The manager assured 30 _____that the circus would pay for the 31________. He couldn’t have been more apologetic.

24 24 The children were very 32 _______ and giggled about the incident all the way home. 33 __________before we got there, we 34 _________the scene of a serious accident. About a mile 35 _______on a policeman stopped us and asked if we’d 36 _________involved in the accident. I wish I had a 37 _______of his face when I told him what had happened 38 ______the car.

25 25 I think he wanted to arrest me for drunken driving! Fortunately the 39 ______were there to back me up. 40 ______are you managing without me? Please don’t 41 ______to water my plants. I’m planning to leave here 42____ the end of the month. My love to you all. Mom. (Cloze in Class: Moller & Whiteson)

26 26 Ex : 3Selected Deletion Cloze Notice the blanks are not after a fixed number of words. My dear children, It’s hard to believe that I’ve been here for a month. The time passes so quickly and there’s so much to do. I’ve managed to see all the members of the family. I 1 spend as much time as I can

27 27 With the children. Last week I 2 took Mark and Michelle to the circus. 3 They’d never been to one before as they live quite far from the nearest city and their parents 4 never have time to drive them there. I 5 suppose / think that’s what grandmothers are for. At any 6 rate Susan lent me her car - it’s a brand 7 new bright red Mini. We left early in the morning so as to make a day of 8 it.

28 28 In the morning we 9 went to the zoo and in the afternoon to the circus. As 10 you can imagine, the children were very excited. They loved everything. Mark 11 found the wild animals the most exciting and Michelle is 12 going to be an acrobat when she grows 13 up.

29 29 After we’d been there for about two hours we 14 heard an announcement over the loudspeaker. The owner of the red Mini, number PUR 727V, 15 was requested to come to the manager’s office 16 immediately. Naturally, I didn’t know the number of 17 the / Susan’s car so I left the children and went to the manager’s office to 18 find out if it was our car.

30 30 The manager looked very upset and 19 embarrassed / disturbed. No one else had answered his call so I assumed correctly that it was Susan’s car. 20 Imagining / Thinking / Fearing / Assuming that I’d left the lights on, or parked in 21 someone’s way, I wasn’t 22 too / very concerned, but I didn’t know why the manager looked so disturbed. He began to 23 explain what happened and it took me some time to understand 24 his confused explanation.

31 31 25 It appears that the elephants are trained to sit on red boxes. One of the elephants 26 had escaped and when he saw the 27 little red car he promptly sat on 28 it! As you can imagine the car looked a mess. One side was squashed 29 badly / flat but it was still possible to drive. The manager assured 30 me that the circus would pay for the 31 damage. He couldn’t have been more apologetic.

32 32 The children were very 32 amused and giggled about the incident all the way home. 33 Just / But before we got there, we 34 passed the scene of a serious accident. About a mile 35 further on a policeman stopped us and asked if we’d 36 been involved in the accident. I wish I had a 37 picture of his face when I told him what had happened 38 to the car.

33 33 I think he wanted to arrest me for drunken driving! Fortunately the 39 children were there to back me up. 40 How are you managing without me? please don’t 41 forget to water my plants. I’m planning to leave here 42 at the end of the month. My love to you all. Mom. (Cloze in Class: Moller & Whiteson)

34 34 Ex : 4.Multiple Choice Cloze Here words are provided and you have to choose and write in each blank the word you think belongs there.

35 35 Over population is one of the most serious problems facing the world today. The world’s exploding population even more growing pains for already crowded areas. new United Nations study that by the year five billion persons will added

36 36 to the 6.5 in the world today. more troubling than the number of inhabitants is estimate of where they will be concentrated. (Advanced Reading Skills) Markstein & Hirasawa

37 37 Over population is one of the most serious problems facing the world today. The world’s exploding population experiences, signals, predicts, even more growing pains before, now, ahead for already crowded areas. The, Some,A new United Nations study signals, forecasts, tells that by the year 2000, 2001, 2015 five billion persons will have, be, not be added

38 38 to the 6.5 billion, million, thousand in the world today. Even, Far, No more troubling than the big, small, increasing number of inhabitants is an, the, estimate of where they will be Concentrated. (Advanced Reading Skills) Markstein & Hirasawa

39 39 Ex : 5. Inflectional Cloze Here the inflectional endings of words are deleted. E.g. plural endings of nouns, past form of regular verbs, etc…This type of cloze is good for practicing grammar in a connected passage. e.g.

40 40 If there were a perfect robot, what would it be like? Imagine a ______able to wax the_____, wash the_____, and iron the _____,not to mention the fact that it would be able to entertain, learn, and perform several other____. What a time- saver a self-ambulatory robot would be. Who wouldn’t want to sit back and relax while a robot did the house chores?

41 41 If there were a perfect robot, what would it be like? Imagine a machine able to wax the car, wash the dishes and iron the clothes, not to mention the fact that it would be able to entertain, learn, and perform several other jobs. What a time- saver a self-ambulatory robot would be. Who wouldn’t want to sit back and relax while a robot did the house chores?

42 42 If I were to design my own robot it would need to do more than just the everyday house _____like making the ____ and dusting the ____. First of all, it would need to be intellectual. It would need to be able to reason, understand, and carry out other _____ of mental activity, such as helping me complete difficult math _____ or proofreading my English ______ for grammatical or spelling _____. Intellect would be the key quality of my personalized robot.

43 43 Ex : 6.Cloze with Phrases This type requires phrases instead of single words to fill in the blanks which occur at random. This is a more difficult exercise and is used in the development of creativity in language use. In the following passage there are blanks which may be filled with a word or a phrase. Insert the word or phrase that makes sense according to the meaning of the passage.

44 44 Oliver is a film about an orphan 1 _____. The story 2 _______ Charles Dickens, the famous novelist. It 3 ________ in England during the 4 __________. Oliver, 5 ________ escapes from a workhouse and 6 _________ London. 7 __________ he meets the villian, Bill Sykes, and Nancy, his girl friend, the pickpocket, artful Dodger, and Fagin, the old beggar.

45 45 8 ___________, the beggar and the pickpocket teach him 9 _________ to survive, but then the police 10 ________. The judge lets him 11 ____________ with his uncle, Mr. Brownlow, a 12 __________ man. 13 ___________ Bill Sykes is killed, and Oliver goes to 14 _____________ happily 15 ___________ uncle. It’s such an 16 _________ and 17 __________ story about a boy’s 18 ___________ for 19 ________ that nobody should 20 ______.

46 46 Ex :7Cloze without Blanks This is an advanced level exercise. Here a word is omitted from each line / sentence without a blank marked on the page. You are required to first mark the place where you think the word has been omitted with a stroke (/), and then write the word that has been omitted in the right hand margin. The first two have been done for you. I can give you a clue - there are ten insertions to be made.

47 47 A robot is a machine designed to do tasks usually / by people. …done... Robots already do / jobs. They …many... weld parts and spray paint in car …... factories. They do dangerous work 1…... as handling explosives. Some even …... in space and under the ocean. 2…... hard working machines usually 3…...

48 48 don’t have human shapes. If I …... were to design my own robot …... it would need to do than just 4 …... household chores. My robot will be …... a masterpiece, to perform almost 5 …... any task with agile precision. It will …... be able to solve tough problems a 6…... matter of seconds that would …...

49 49 normally human beings hours to 7…... complete. It will use intelligence and …... agility to perform numerous tasks. …... My robot will be maid, my business 8…... partner and my library rolled into 9…... unique machine. There is but 10…. problem. How many decades until …... this ideal robot is actually built? …...

50 50 With this we come to the end of this lesson.I hope you found it useful and learnt yet another way to improve your reading comprehension abilities. Allah Hafiz.


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