To make a window fill the entire screen, click its “Maximize” button or double-click the windows title bar. To return a maximized window to its former size, click its “Restore” button which appears in place of the Maximize button. Or, you can double- click the windows title bar. Maximize & Restore Button
For resizing a window, point to any of the windows borders or corners. When the mouse pointer changes to a two-headed arrow, drag the border or corner to shrink or enlarge the window. Dragging a corner changes the height and width simultaneously. A window that is maximized cannot be resized. You must restore it to its previous size first. Resizing A Window
Moving A Window For moving a window, point to its title bar with the mouse pointer. Then drag the window to the location that you want. Dragging means pointing the mouse to an item, holding down the mouse button, moving the item with the pointer, and then releasing the mouse button.
File In a computer, a File is an item that contains a collection of related information. Each document, whether it is a plain text file, a letter in Word or music is called a File. A computer represents files with icons. By looking at a file icon, you can tell what kind of file it is. Some common file icons are displayed here. The name of a file consists of two parts, the File Name and the Extension. Different types of files are stored with different extensions. For example, a document created using Microsoft Word 2007 is stored with the extension “.docx”, while a document created using Notepad is stored with the extension “.txt”.
Folder A Folder is a container in which you can store files. Arranging files into logical groups makes it easy to locate any particular file. It is a named area on a disk that is used to store related subfolders and files. A folder within a folder is known as a Subfolder. Libraries The new “Libraries” feature in Windows 7 makes it easier to manage your files and folders. Libraries are user-defined collections of folders, and actions that are performed on the library will be applied to all folders in the library. Libraries let you access and arrange items from one or more folders quickly without moving them from their original location. Libraries themselves don't store your files or folders. Instead, they point to different folders on your hard disk, or on an external drive attached to your computer. This gives you easy access to a category of files no matter where they are stored. For instance, if you have music files in folders on your hard disk and on an external drive, you can access all of your music files at once using the Music library.
Creating Folders Folders are a convenient way to store and organize files on your computer. You can create any number of folders and even store folders inside other folders. Go to the location where you want to create a new folder. Let’s create a folder on the desktop. 1. Right-click a blank area on the desktop, and then point to “New”, and click “Folder”. 2. Type a name for the new folder, and then press ENTER. Tip: The new folder you created appears on the desktop. You may also use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+Shift+N” to create the shortcut. The following characters cannot be used in a folder or file name: \ /: *? >< |.
Moving a File or Folder To Move a File or Folder 1. Open the drive or folder containing the file or folder you want to move. 2. Select the files or folders you want to move. 3. Click the “Organize” button on the toolbar, and then click “Cut”. 4. Open the destination folder where you want to move the files or folder. 5. Click the “Organize” button on the toolbar, and then click “Paste”.
Copy or Move a File or Folder Using Drag and Drop To Copy or Move a File or Folder Using Drag and Drop 1. Open the drive or folder containing the file or folder you want to copy or move. 2. Select the files or folders you want to copy or move. 3. In the Navigation pane, point to a folder list to display the Expand and Collapse arrows. 4. Click the arrows to display the destination folder. 5. Pressing the left key drag the selected files or folders it to the destination folder. The files or folders are moved if they are dragged in the same drive but they are copied if they are dragged to any other drive. 6. Pressing the right key drag the selected files or folders to the destination folder. A pop-up message appears informing you what will happen. Click “Copy Here” or “Move Here” from the displayed options.
Sending Files & Folders To send a file or folder to a new location on your computer use the “Send To” command, located on the shortcut menu. For example, you can send a file or folder to a removable disk to make a quick backup copy of the file or folder, to a mail recipient as an electronic message, or to the desktop to create a shortcut. Renaming Files & Folders To rename a folder, click on the folder name and select “Organize →Rename” from the menu bar. Alternatively, you may also select the folder, right-click it and select “Rename”. Files can be renamed in a similar way.
Deleting Files & Folders When you no longer need a folder you can delete it. If you delete a folder containing subfolders and files, all the subfolders and files contained within the folder are removed. Select the folder that you wish to delete. Press the “Delete” key or select “Organize→ Delete” from the toolbar. Confirm deletion by clicking “Yes” in the “Folder Delete” window. When you delete an item, its temporarily stored in the Recycle Bin. To delete permanently without storing in the Recycle Bin, use the “Shift + Delete” keys. Keyboard Shortcuts The keyboard shortcuts that can be used for various activities are as displayed.
Working With Files & Folders You can copy or move a file from one folder to another. In a similar way, you can also copy or move a complete folder. Moving a file or folder on the same disk relocates it whereas dragging it from one disk to another copies it so that it appears in both locations. Let’s learn now how all this can be done. Selecting Multiple Files & Folders Multiple files and folders can be moved at one time. You can select multiple files by keeping the “Ctrl” key pressed and then clicking on the file names. To quickly select adjacent files, click the first one and keeping the “Shift” key pressed, click the last one. To select all the files and folders in a window, click “Select All” on the “Organize” menu or use the keyboard shortcut “Ctrl+A”.
Coping File & Folder To Copy a File or Folder 1. Open the drive or folder containing the file or folder you want to copy. 2. Select the files or folders you want to copy. 3. Click the “Organize” button on the toolbar, and then click “Copy”. 4. Open the destination folder where you want to copy the files or folder. 5. Click the “Organize” button on the toolbar, and then click “Paste”.
Shortcut A shortcut is a link to an item such as a file, folder, or program on your computer. While exploring the desktop, you learnt that you can create shortcuts and then place them in a convenient location, so that you can easily access the item that the shortcut links to. Shortcuts can be distinguished from the original file by the arrow that appears on the icon. Let’s learn to create a shortcut to a file. Creating Shortcuts To create a shortcut 1. Open the location containing the item that you want to create a shortcut to. 2. Right-click the item, and then click “Create shortcut”. The new shortcut appears in the same location as the original item. This shortcut can then be moved to another location from which you can easily access this file. Shortcuts to folders can be created in a similar way.
Deleting Shortcuts To delete a shortcut Right-click the shortcut that you want to delete, click “Delete”, and then click “Yes”. If you are prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation. When you delete a shortcut, only the shortcut is removed. The original item is not deleted.
Control Panel The Control Panel is a part of the Microsoft Windows graphical user interface which allows users to view and manipulate basic system settings and controls via applets, such as adding hardware, adding and removing software, controlling user accounts, and changing accessibility options. In short, it is the central location for all your operating system configuration needs.
Opening a Control Panel Open the Control Panel by clicking the Start button, and then clicking Control Panel. There are two ways to find Control Panel items: 1. Use search. To find a setting you are interested in or a task you want to perform, type a word or phrase in the search box. For example, type "sound" to find specific settings for your sound card, system sounds, and the volume icon on the taskbar. 2. Browse. You can also explore Control Panel by clicking different categories. For example:-System, Programs and Features, or Ease of Access Centre.
Category View To display the Control Panel with the Category View, click on the “View by” drop down menu arrow on the right, and select “Category”. Select “Large icons” to view control panel items with large icons view or “Small icons” for small items view. The names of the options may vary slightly in the different views.
System Date & Time The System Date and System Time are the date and time as maintained by the computers internal clock. Windows uses these settings to identify when files are created or modified. In order to change the date and time in Windows 7, click on the clock from the taskbar and then on “Change date and time settings”. Alternatively, click the “Start” button and select “Control Panel → Date and Time”. Date & Time Settings A new window will open with three tabs: Date and Time, Additional Clocks and Internet Time. Click the “Change Date and Time” button on the “Date and Time” tab to change the date and time settings. In the displayed window, set the appropriate date from the “Calendar”. To set the time, enter the correct time into the box under “Time”. To change only the hour, double-click the hour, and then click the arrows to increase or decrease the value. Similarly you may change the value of the minutes, seconds and the AM/PM indicator.
Calendar Settings Click Change Calendar Settings. In the “Customize Format” window, you may change the date format on the “Date” tab. Use the “Time” tab to change the time format. Click “OK” when done. You may use the “Region and Language” window to specify other settings. Click “OK” in this window and then “OK” once again in the “Date and Time Settings” window. Internet Time Settings You may also synchronize your computer clock by an Internet time server. For this, make sure you are connected to the Internet. On the “Internet Time” tab in the “Date and Time” window, click “Change Settings”. If the box against “Synchronize with an Internet time server” is empty, click on it. Select the appropriate server and then click “Update Now”. Then click “OK”.
Change the Time Zone Time zones are areas of the Earth that have adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. To change your time zone, activate the “Date and Time” tab and click “Change time zone”. Select your current time zone from the list and click “OK”. Now you may close the “Date and Time” window. Gadgets Windows contains mini-programs called Gadgets, which offer information at a glance and provide easy access to frequently used tools. For example, you can display news headlines right next to your open programs.This way, if you want to keep track of what's happening in the news while you work, you don't have to stop what you're doing to switch to a news website.
Pinning Pinning is a great way to add shortcuts to your most-often used programs in Windows 7. Pinned items will always be displayed in the specified list until they are unpinned. You can pin items to the Taskbar or to the Start menu. This saves a lot of clicks and makes you more efficient. Pin Unpin Item Let’s pin the Paint application to the taskbar. Click the Start button and navigate to this application. Now, right-click on the Paint icon and then click "Pin to Taskbar". The program will be pinned to the Taskbar. You can also pin the program to the Taskbar by dragging it. For doing this, click on the icon, and while holding the mouse button down, drag it to the Taskbar. You will see a semi-transparent version of the icon, with the phrase "Pin to Taskbar". Simply release the mouse button, and the program will be pinned to the Taskbar. To unpin an item from the taskbar, right-click it and select “Unpin this program from taskbar”.
Pin to Start Menu If you use a program regularly, you can create a shortcut to it by pinning the program icon to the Start menu. Pinned program icons appear on the top left side of the Start menu. Right-click the program icon you want to pin to the Start menu, and then click “Pin to Start Menu”. Similarly, to remove a program, right-click the program icon, and then click “Remove from this list”. Removing a program icon from the Start menu doesn’t remove it from the All Programs list or uninstall the program. Jump List Jump Lists on the taskbar give you quick access to the things that you use most often. To view the Jump List for a program right-click the programs button on the taskbar. To open an item from a Jump List click the item. To pin an item to a Jump List, open the programs Jump List, point to the item, right click on the item, and then select “Pin to this list” or click the “Pushpin” icon. To unpin an item from the list, right-click on it and select “Unpin from this list” or click the “Pushpin” icon once again.
User Account A user account is a collection of information that tells windows which files and folders you can access, what changes you can make to the computer, and your personal preferences, such as your desktop background or screen saver. User accounts let you share a computer with several people, while having your own files and settings. Each person accesses his or her account with a user name and password. There are three types of user accounts. Each type gives users a different level of control over the computer: Standard accounts are for everyday computing. Administrator accounts provide the most control over a computer, and should only be used when necessary. Guest accounts are intended primarily for people who need temporary use of a computer.
User Account Control User Account Control or UAC is a feature in Windows that can help you stay in control of your computer by informing you when a program makes a change that requires administrator-level permission. It works by adjusting the permission level of your user account. User Account Control helps defend your PC against hackers and malicious software. Any time a program wants to make a major change to your computer, UAC lets you know and asks for permission. Opening User Account Control Open User Account Control Settings by clicking the Start button, and then clicking Control Panel. In the search box, type uac, and then click Change User Account Control settings. Move the slider to the setting you require and click “OK”.