Presentation on theme: "Joseph R. Boog Physics 3150.   The picture on the left is the macroscopic tendency of wind patterns on Earth. These are the major zones of wind."— Presentation transcript:
 The picture on the left is the macroscopic tendency of wind patterns on Earth. These are the major zones of wind movement. The picture on the right is lower level (200m or less height from ground)
There are many types of turbines as you will soon see however as far as principals for removing energy form the wind there are really only two. Lifting principals. Where blades are shaped such that “lift” is created in the direction of wanted rotation. Much like an air plane. Drag principals. Simply work off of “cupping” the wind or allowing the wind to push the blade.
 At most are 50% as efficient as the HAWT Also known as a Darius.
 Very promising. 40% efficient at 8m/s Gains energy from front and behind and Is virtually silent. Also starts moving at a very low 1.6 m/s However needs a proprietary DC motor to deal with torque.
 Called WindMotors they are small scalable and 100% recyclable. They are Cost effective and simple. Advantages are low startup speed of around 1 m/s And the easy of scaling and operation. Great for saving or greatly dropping Housing electric consumption.
 This is another version of a VAWT however it is different enough to be a In a different category. These are known as a Savonius. They are typically used when Reliability and cost are the primary concern and not power output. They are a drag Style device meaning the extract much less energy. Most anemometers are this Style.
 Wind Power. A Danish Company. Theoretical Earth wind potential at 72 TW.
Betz Law at 16/27 th ’s or 59.3% Placing turbines in a group to average out wind bursts and variation. Install turbines by the Park efficiency concepts to avoid any interference between adjacent turbines. Capitalize on bottlenecks and hills. Minimize shearing. Total Earth “Potential Energy” Using Betz and “Earth Wind Potential” Theoretical potential at 42.7 TW
Large Scale Typically Asynchronous induction motors are used to generate power. They are self limiting and perfect for wind applications Most times high AC voltage (300v to 600v) is created directly from the generator and is rectified, filtered, synchronized and fed back into the grid. Small Scale Typically Asynchronous 3 phase motors are used. They have onboard rectifiers that output unregulated 12 to 48 vDC. These are perfect for home installations and integration with 12vDC systems.
Free 24 hour Energy minus install costs and maintenance. Negative Emissions effect. Meaning in 9 months operational time they have made enough power to offset the power needed to create it . Very small land foot print. Farmers could farm around the base of one. Cheaper per kWh than Nuclear and competitive with Coal power. Simple enough to build your own. Growing community of people believe they add to the landscapes aesthetics.
Major downfall is intermittent or variable output. This is the major factor limiting 100% wind power. Noisy depending on make/model. Typically 40 to 60 decibels or a refrigerators hum to someone practicing the piano. Growing community disliking their aesthetics Hazard to flying creatures. However realize that statistically more birds and bats are killed by cars than windmills. For large scale models they are costly to install.
Worldwide capacity reaches 122 MW. Nearly 28MW added in 2008 Wind grows 28% in 2008 All wind turbines installed by the end of 2008 worldwide are generating 260 TWh per annum, equaling approx. 1.5 % of the global electricity consumption The wind sector became a global job generator and has created 440,000 jobs worldwide. The wind sector represented in 2008 a turnover of 40 billion €. For the first time in more than a decade, the USA took over the number one position from Germany in terms of total installations. China continues its role as the most dynamic wind market in the year 2008, more than doubling the installations for the third time in a row, with today more than 12 GW of wind turbines installed. North America and Asia catch up in terms of new installations with Europe which shows stagnation. Based on accelerated development and further improved policies, a global capacity of more than 1’500’000 MW is possible by the year 2020.
Realize unless the leveling factors, or surging factors of wind power are solved wind power sadly may never be a primary 100% source for energy. Ways to solve this are : 1) have many windmills tied together. The surge when averaged over many windmills over an area is much less. 2) Store energy in any means possible Batteries, Pumped Water, Flywheels, or new storage technologies. Thus far the best combination of turbine geometry, motor design, and installation is the horizontal axis three bladed wind work horse. The global out look is excellent. Wind power is increasing with leaps and bounds.
Currently wind power is an excellent fuel saver and is critically un-utilized. Study shows we currently could supplement 70% of current power consumption using wind essentially reducing power generation emissions by approx 60%.  It is the fastest growing energy section . The ultimate goal is to be independent of oil and coal energies and move on to renewable long term energy sources. Wind power can be a key part of the hybrid power generation model needed to break the addiction.
Turns out that the optimal case of efficiency with generators, properties of wind and manufacturing costs is HAWT’s with 3 blades. Also because of Inertial moments it is a very poor decision to have an even number of blades. Will wreak havoc on bearings because of wobble. Less blades mean less torque and more speed. In the case of power generation this is optimal. More blades equals more torque, slower speed and more stress on the mechanical parts. Configuration is good for slow high torque applications like grinding grain, or pumping water.  Wind Power.