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Institutional Bypasses in Brazil: Overcoming Ex-Ante Resistance to Reforms Mariana Mota Prado University of Toronto Manchester, May 16, 2014.

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Presentation on theme: "Institutional Bypasses in Brazil: Overcoming Ex-Ante Resistance to Reforms Mariana Mota Prado University of Toronto Manchester, May 16, 2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 Institutional Bypasses in Brazil: Overcoming Ex-Ante Resistance to Reforms Mariana Mota Prado University of Toronto Manchester, May 16, 2014

2 What is an Institutional Bypass?

3 What is a Bypass?

4

5 What is an Institutional Bypass? People Dysfunctional Institution Service/ Function New Institution

6 Institutional Bypass (i)it keeps the pre-existing institutions in place; (ii)it creates an alternative pathway through which to deliver government services or discharge governmental functions; (iii)it aims at being more efficient or functional than the pre-existing institution. (Prado 2011)

7 Presentation Structure 1. Relevance 2. Examples from Brazil 3. Implications

8 Institutions Matter 1. Why is this relevant?

9 Failed Reforms

10 1. Why is this Relevant? Institutions Matter but we do not know how to transform dysfunctional institutions

11 1. Why is this Relevant? Ex-Ante Obstacles to Reforms: Resistance Institutional Interconnections (formal and informal)

12 Why is this Relevant? People Dysfunctional Institution Service/ Function New Institution

13 Part 2 Examples of Institutional Bypasses from Brazil

14 2. Examples from Brazil Poupatempo (SP) UPPs (RJ) Private Security

15 2. Examples from Brazil

16

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18 Expansion of UPPs: 1 unit (2008) > 3 units (2009) > 32 units (2013) 10,000 (2008) > 350,000 people

19 2. Examples from Brazil Poupatempo is an Institutional Bypass (Prado and Chasin, 2011)

20 What is an Institutional Bypass? People Dysfunctional Institution Service/ Function New Institution

21 2. Examples from Brazil Citizens of SP Police Station Identity Card PoupatempoProdesp

22 2. Examples from Brazil UPPs are an Institutional Bypass (Willis and Prado, forthcoming)

23 2. Examples from Brazil

24

25 People Old Police Force Service/ Function New InstitutionUPPs

26 2. Examples from Brazil UPPs as a New Institution? 2009 Decree – Informal 2011 Decree – Formal 2013 Decree – Further Separation

27 2. Examples from Brazil UPPs in 2009 Governor Secretary of Public SecurityCommander in ChiefOperational CommanderArea CommanderBattalion UPPPMERJ

28 2. Examples from Brazil UPPs in 2011 Governor Secretary of Public SecurityCommander in Chief UPPs Operational CommanderArea CommanderBattalion UPPPMERJ

29 2. Examples from Brazil UPPs in 2013 Governor Secretary of Public SecurityCommander in Chief UPPs Operational CommanderArea CommanderBattalion PMERJ Delegacia de Polícia Judiciária Militar

30 2. Examples from Brazil UPPs are not pacifying the communities They aim at pacifying the police itself

31 2. Examples from Brazil Private Security Forces

32 2. Examples from Brazil People Old Police Force Service/ Function New InstitutionPrivate Security

33 2. Examples from Brazil Agent/ PurposeDifferent functionSame function Private Parties(1) Security Guards for Companies (e.g. Banks) (3) Private body guards and Street Vigilantes (Latin American security services) State(2) Special protection to government officials; witness protection programs (4) Private military services, outsourcing of prisons and police forces

34 Part 3 Implications

35 Failed Reforms

36 3. Implications Not a Panacea For three reasons: 1.Undesirable Bypasses 2.Badly Designed Bypasses 3.Failed Bypasses

37 3. Implications #1: Undesirable Bypasses What about Public Bypasses? “Saving time” by reducing bureaucratic scrutiny e.g. driving skills

38 3. Implications #2 Badly Designed Bypasses Central Unions (CUT) = Too attached to the pre-existing institution (Prado and Gomes, in progress)

39 3. Implications #3 Failed Bypasses Previous Community Policing Efforts in RJ > GPAE

40 3. Implications Institutional Bypasses: We need to understand WHEN and WHY they succeed

41 Thank you!


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