Presentation on theme: "13D Systems What, Why and How Oregon Fire Sprinkler Coalition."— Presentation transcript:
13D Systems What, Why and How Oregon Fire Sprinkler Coalition
The Fire Problem Statistics National Each day 7 people die home fires Each year on average over 2,500 people die and more than 13,000 people are injured in home fires Fires kill more people each year than all natural disasters combined Children and the elderly are most at risk Oregon From 2004 to 2013 there were: nearly 350 fire deaths more than 2,500 injuries Source: NFPA
Residential Sprinklers A Proven Solution Occupant safety: Sprinklers reduce civilian fire deaths by 83% Sprinklers reduce civilian fire injury medical costs by 53% Sprinklers reduce civilian fire injury total costs by 41% Source: NFPA
Residential Sprinklers A Proven Solution Firefighter safety: Sprinklers are responsible for an estimated 65% reduction in firefighter fire ground injuries Property Loss: Sprinkler reduce direct property damage per fire by 69% Source: NFPA
13D…Born of Necessity 13D…Born of Necessity America Burning – 1973: Nation Commission on Fire Prevention and Control More fire deaths in homes than any other industrialized nation Identified a need to: Reduce fire deaths in America Make sprinklers more affordable Make residential sprinklers more aesthetically appealing
America Burning – 1973 Brought about: NFIRS - National Fire Incident Reporting System USFA – US Fire Administration NFA – National Fire Academy And….
A Different Philosophy than NFPA 13: Focus on life-safety (survivability) Operate in tandem with smoke alarms for occupant notification Address affordability A Balance: Life Safety and Money
Codes point toward standards A Standard becomes code when it is referenced by an enabling document, such as a state building code Oregon Fire Code Based on IFC Oregon Structural Specialty Code Based on IBC
Codes address when sprinklers apply: Access issues Grades Lot characteristics Tradeoffs Ordinances / Statutes Standards address how the sprinklers apply: Design criteria Sprinkler locations / spacing Materials allowed Connection to water supplies
Scope of Document: 1.1.1 This standard shall cover the design, installation, and maintenance of automatic sprinkler systems for protection against the fire hazards in one- and two-family dwellings and manufactured homes. 1.1.3 This standard shall be based on the concept that the sprinkler system is designed to protect against a fire originating from a single ignition location.
Purpose of Document: 1.2.1 The purpose of this standard shall be to provide a sprinkler system that aids in the detection and control of residential fires and thus provides improved protection against injury and life loss. 1.2.2 A sprinkler system shall be designed and installed in accordance with this standard to prevent flashover (total involvement) in the room of fire origin, where sprinklered, and to improve the chance for occupants to escape or be evacuated.
Standard Applies to: Single Family residence Townhouses If built to the IRC (ORSC) Duplex Homes Manufactured homes
Design Principles Sprinklers in an easier design scenario Design approach based on historical data Water supply is only required to accommodate two sprinklers at any given time Even with that approach, 84% of the time, a single head controls the fire in this type of system If the largest room can be protected with a single sprinkler, the design can be based on one head flowing Source: NFPA
Design Principles Sprinklers in an easier design scenario Sprinklers are located where loss of life historically occurs: Kitchens Bedrooms Living rooms / Corridors Source: NFPA
Design Principles Sprinklers in an easier design scenario Sprinklers are not required in: Closets (under 24 Sq Ft) Bathrooms (under 55 Sq Ft) Exterior eaves / porches balconies / closets Rooms in attics or under structure that aren’t connected to dwelling area And do not contain fuel-fired equipment Source: NFPA
13D System Types Stand-Alone Type: A sprinkler system where the aboveground piping serves only fire sprinklers
13D System Types Multi-Purpose System: A piping system intended to serve both domestic needs in excess of a single fixture and fire protection needs from one common piping system throughout the dwelling unit(s).
13D System Types Passive Purge (Flow Through): A type of sprinkler system that serves a single toilet in addition to the fire sprinklers.
13D System Types Network System: A type of multipurpose system utilizing a common piping system supplying domes- tic fixtures and fire sprinklers where each sprinkler is supplied by a minimum of three separate paths
System Components and Features System Alarms Two Alarm scenarios: Notification provided by NFPA 72 compliant Smoke Alarms, or Waterflow device and local bell (optional) OR+
System Components and Features Residential Sprinkler Heads Performance – Higher wall wetting Fuel loads are near walls in residential occupancies Controls the environment Greater coverage areas Faster response Easily applicable design criteria Design criteria maximizes a smaller water supply : NFPA
System Components and Features Residential Sprinkler Heads: Aesthetically Appealing There are many cutting-edge, flush type heads that blend into the ceiling Some manufacturers offer as many as 300 custom paint colors. :
System Components and Features Piping and Materials A variety of common material types All listed for potable water supplies CPVC PEX / Other Copper
Municipal Water Supplies Works with the plumbing supply, not in addition to it: Only 7 PSI required for fire sprinklers Most domestic systems require 8 PSI (UPC, IPC) 16 GPM could supply a one head sprinkler design. Most average homes require a minimum of 18 GPM for domestic use (IRC) Most residential sprinkler systems will flow more, but a ¾” meter (35 GPM) will usually be plenty of water (2 sprinklers x 16 GPM = 32 GPM) Source: OPSC
Municipal Water Supplies Upgrading to a 1” meter isn’t the only option! 3/4” meters are a popular option for many Water Purveyors (35 GPM) A system can sometimes be designed using an existing 5/8” meter (20 GPM) Most average homes require a minimum of 18 GPM for domestic use Source: OPSC / IRC
Municipal Water Supplies An increasing number of Water Purveyors are starting to recognize that sprinklers use less water than the water used from unmetered fire hydrants that would otherwise be needed to suppress a fire in a home Sprinklers use 90% less water than the fire service would use if sprinklers weren’t installed. They reduce fire damage by 97% They reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 98%. Sprinklers also reduce wastewater pollution. Source: FM Global
Private / Stored Water Supplies An easy solution for private water supplies (tanks and wells) 10 minute Duration: A typical scenario: 280 Gallon Tank (28 GPM x 10 Min) 7 minute Duration (Single story under 2000 Sq Ft): This can be as low as 196 Gallon Tank (28 GPM x 7 Min) Source: NFPA 13D
Private / Stored Water Supplies Tanks and pumps not required to be listed In some scenarios, a tank and pump supply might be more cost effective than a meter upsizing fee and SDC charge Source: NFPA 13D
System Maintenance A Maintenance Friendly System - Requirements 13D Inspection, Testing and Maintenance (ITM) The maintenance requirements are simple: Walk the sprinklers periodically (no specific time requirement) to look for: Obstructions to discharge (storage, etc) Painted or damaged heads Annual backflow test, if device is installed (not typically required) Source: NFPA 13D
System Maintenance A Maintenance Friendly System - Recommendations 13D Inspection, Testing and Maintenance (ITM) The maintenance recommendations are also simple: Annual flow test if a waterflow detector and bell are installed (optional devices) Annual backflow test, if device is installed (backflow device not typically required) Annual inspection by a qualified contractor Source: NFPA 13D
13D Saves Lives…and Money! Taking advantage of the 13D Design to Save Money Bang for your buck – Pricing the system: Get several bids Oregon state online list of contractors Builders Exchanges Google it! Phone book Contact local Fire and Building Departments Call some builders Explore the different system types
Conclusion 13D is designed to be an achievable balance between protection and cost