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Computer Basics Rabie A. Ramadan, PhD 6. Viruses, Worms, Zombies, and others 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Computer Basics Rabie A. Ramadan, PhD 6. Viruses, Worms, Zombies, and others 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Computer Basics Rabie A. Ramadan, PhD 6

2 Viruses, Worms, Zombies, and others 2

3 What is Computer Security? 3

4 Computer Security is the protection of computing systems and the data that they store or access 4

5 Why is Computer Security Important? Computer Security allows the University to carry out its mission by: Enabling people to carry out their jobs, education, and research. Supporting critical business processes Protecting personal and sensitive information 5

6 Why do I need to learn about Computer Security? Isn’t this just an IT Problem? 6

7 Good Security Standards follow the “90 / 10” Rule: 10% of security safeguards are technical 90% of security safeguards rely on the computer user (“YOU”) to adhere to good computing practices 7

8 What Does This Mean for Me? This means that everyone who uses a computer or mobile device needs to understand how to keep their computer, device and data secure. Information Technology Security is everyone’s responsibility 8

9 What’s at Stake? Kinds of damage caused by insecurity Nuisance: spam, … Data erased, corrupted, or held hostage Valuable information stolen (credit card numbers, trade secrets, etc.) Services made unavailable (email and web site outages, lost business) 9

10 Breaking into a Computer 10

11 Breaking into a Computer What? Run unauthorized software How? Trick the user into running bad software (“social engineering”) Exploit software bugs to run bad software without the user’s help 11

12 Example of “social engineering”: Trojan Horse 12 CoolScreenSaver.exe

13 Viruses and Worms Automated ways of breaking in; Use self-replicating programs (Recall self-replicating programs: Print the following line twice, the second time in quotes. “Print the following line twice, the second time in quotes.” ) 13

14 Computer Viruses Self-replicating programs that spread by infecting other programs or data files Must fool users into opening the infected file 14 Payload Cool Screen Saver NotepadSolitairePaint Payload

15 Email Viruses Infected program, screen saver, or Word document launches virus when opened Use social engineering to entice you to open the virus attachment Self-spreading: after you open it, automatically emails copies to everyone in your address book Other forms of social engineering: downloadable software/games, P2P software, etc. 15

16 The Melissa Virus (1999) Social engineering: Email says attachment contains porn site passwords Self-spreading: Random 50 people from address book Traffic forced shutdown of many email servers $80 million damage 20 months and $5000 fine 16 David L. Smith Aberdeen, NJ

17 Computer Worms Self-replicating programs like viruses, except exploit security holes in OS (e.g., bugs in networking software) to spread on their own without human intervention 17 Payload

18 18 First Internet worm Created by student at Cornell Exploited holes in email servers, other programs Infected ~10% of the net Spawned multiple copies, crippling infected servers Sentenced to 3 years probation, $10,000 fine, 400 hours community service Robert Tappan Morris

19 “Can we just develop software to detect a virus/worm?” 19 [Adleman’88] This task is undecidable. (so no software can work with 100% guarantee) No real guarantee Current methods: (i) Look for snippets of known virus programs on harddrive (ii) maintain log of activities such as network requests, read/writes to hard-drive and look for “suspicious” trends (iii) look for changes to OS code.

20 Spyware/Adware 20 Hidden but not self-replicating Tracks web activity for marketing, shows popup ads, etc. Usually written by businesses: Legal gray area

21 Zombies 21 Bot Bot program runs silently in the background, awaiting instructions from the attacker Attacker’s Program

22 Can we stop computer crime? 22 Probably not! Wild West nature of the Internet Software will always have bugs Rapid exponential spread of attacks But we can take steps to reduce risks…

23 Protecting Your Computer 23 Six easy things you can do… Keep your software up-to-date Use safe programs to surf the ‘net Run anti-virus and anti-spyware regularly Add an external firewall Back up your data Learn to be “street smart” online

24 Keep Software Up-to-Date

25 Use Safe Software to Go Online Firefox (web browser) Thunderbird (email)

26 Anti-virus / Anti-spyware Scans Symantec Antivirus (Free from OIT) Spybot Search & Destroy (Free download)

27 Add an External Firewall Provides layered security (think: castle walls, moat) (Recent operating systems have built-in firewall features)

28 Back Up Your Data Tivoli Storage Manager (Free from OIT)

29 Learn Online “Street Smarts” Be aware of your surroundings Is the web site being spoofed? Don’t accept candy from strangers How do you know an attachment or download isn’t a virus, Trojan, or spyware? Don’t believe everything you read Email may contain viruses or phishing attack – remember, bad guys can forge email from your friends

30 Quiz: A hacked computer can be used to… (select all that apply) Send spam and phishing emails. Harvest and sell email addresses and passwords. Illegally distribute music, movies and software. Distribute child pornography. Infect other systems. Hide programs that launch attacks on other computers. Record keystrokes and steal passwords. Access restricted or personal information on your computer or other systems that you have access to. Generate large volumes of traffic, slowing down the entire system 30

31 Next time is an exam 31

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