Presentation on theme: "Medical Abbrevation Nantawarn Kitikannakorn, B.Pharm,Pharm.D."— Presentation transcript:
Medical Abbrevation Nantawarn Kitikannakorn, B.Pharm,Pharm.D
Abbreviation Advantages Convenience Time saver Space saver a way of avoiding the possibility of misspelling words
Abbreviation Disadvantages Hard to understand Misread interpreted incorrectly Lengthen time needed to train individuals in the health field Waste time to tracking down their meaning Time’s delay patient care Occasionally results in patient harm
Prescription must be specified... Dosage form Strength Direction Indication
Glasgow coma scale* Best motor responseObeys6 Localized5 Withdraws4 Abnormal flexion3 Extends2 Nil1 Verbal responseOriented5 Confused conversation4 Inappropiate words3 Incomprehensible sounds2 Nil1 Eye openingSpontaneous4 To speech3 To pain2 Nil1 ScoreMortality in head injury 3-5 > 60% 6-8 12% 9-12 2% MVE * References : Leaderman RJ.The internal Medicine& critical care pocket book. California: Tarascon publishing; 1997.
Folstein Mini-Mental State* Level of conciousness0 pointsAssess along continuum Alert-Drowsy-Stuporous-Comatous “Alert-Drowsy-Stuporous-Comatous” Orientation5 pointsYear, season, date, day, month 3 pointsState, country, town, hospital, floor Registration3 pointsPatient recites three consecutive objects name (eg. Ball, flag, tree) Attention Calculation 5 pointsSerial 7’s (5 response), alternatively spell “World” backwards Recall3 pointsThree objects registered above Language2 pointsName a pencil watch 1 pointsRepeat “ No ifs, ands, or buts” 3 points3-stage command:“take a paper in your right hand, fold it in half, and put it on the floor” 1 pointsRead and obey “close your eyes” 1 pointsWright a sentence 1 pointsCopy design Score : 0-23 suggests cognitive dysfunction, 23-29 altered mental status
Staging breast cancer StageTumorLymph nodesMetsTNM class 0 Non invasive carcinoma in situ; Paget’s disease of nipple (-) No(-)TisN0M0 I Greastest dimension < 2 cm(T1) (-) No(-)T1N0M0 IIA 2 cm < tumor < 5 cm (T2) (+) Ipsilateral but not fixed (N1) (-)T0-1N1M0 T2N0M0 IIB 2 cm < tumor < 5+ cm (T3) (+) Ipsilateral but not fixed (N1) (-)T2N1M0 T3N0M0 IIIA Tumor > 5 cm (T3)(+) Ipsilateral fixed to each other, skin or chest wall (N2) (-)T-2N2M0 T3N1-2M0 IIIB Any size (T4) with: skin nodules or skin ulceration or fixation to skin/ chest wall or chest edema include peau d’orange Supra/ infraclavicular LNs; edema of arm + palpable anxillary LNs (N3) (-)T4NanyM0 TanyN3M0 IV Any sizeAny status(+)TanyNany M1 * References : Leaderman RJ.The internal Medicine& critical care pocket book. California: Tarascon publishing; 1997.
Staging ovarian cancer FIGO stageExtent%5-yr survival I Ovaries only 1580% a 1 ovary, no ascites or tumor on ext. surface, ext. capsule intact b 2 ovaries, no ext. surface acites or tumor, ext. capsule intact c Ia or Ib + surface tumor on 1 or 2 ovaries or capsule ruptured or with malignant cell in ascites or peritoneal washings II Extension into true pelvis 1060% a Extenion/metastasis to uterus and/or tubes b Extension to the other pelvic tissues c (IIa or IIb) and Ic III Extenion/metastasis into abdominal cavity including metastasis impkantation on perironeal surface of liver, diaphragm 7040% a Macroscopic limited to true pelvis with (-) nodes b Limited to true pelvis with (-) nodes and implantation on peritoneal > 2 cm c IV Retroperitoneal or inguinal node involvement Distant metastasis, pleural effusion must contain malignant cells 50%
Staging of lung cancer TX malignant cell found but not visualized radiographically or bronchoscopically T0 No evidence of primary tumor Tis Carcinoma in situ T1 Tumor < 3 cm surrounded by lung or viseral pleura, without invidence of invasion proximal to a lobar bronchus T2 Tumor > 3 cm or either invades pleura or obstructive pneumonitis extending to the hilar region T3 Tumor of any size with direct extension to the chest wall T4 Worse than T3 or malignant pleural effusion N0 No demonstrable metastases to regional nodes N1 Mets to peribronchial including direct extension N2 Mets to ipsilateral mediastinal and subcranial N3 Mets to contralateral mediastinal, contralateral hilar, ipsilateral or contralateral scalenece or supracravicular MO no known distant metastases M1 Distant metastasis present