Presentation on theme: "Distributed Computing Utilize unused PC resources Processing Complex calculations Load distribution 25% of storage is unused SANs 100 computers 80gb."— Presentation transcript:
Distributed Computing Utilize unused PC resources Processing Complex calculations Load distribution 25% of storage is unused SANs 100 computers 80gb drives = 6tb unused
Process Sharing Applications For large-scale computations Data analysis, data mining, scientific computing Research Problems SETI@Home SETI@Home Folding@Home Folding@Home distributed.net Genome@Home Genome@Home FightAIDS@Home FightAIDS@Home climate simulation Economics medicine
Distributed Computing P2P is not distributed computing; similar challenges and issues from: sharing and taking advantage of resources available at endpoints and harnessing their power for computationally intensive problems SETI@home, fightaids@home, genome@home SETI@homefightaids@homegenome@home Grid computing and e-science Computational grids to solve/simulate real-life problems E-Science Commercial applications United Devices, Entropia, Avaki, etc.
Volunteer PC Downloads and executes the application Volunteer PC Parameters Client application Params. /results. Internet Volunteer PC Coordinator Distributed Computing Dedicated Applications SETI@Home, distributed.net, Décrypthon (France) Production applications Folding@home, Genome@home, Xpulsar@home,Folderol, Exodus, Peer review, Research Platforms Javelin, Bayanihan, JET, Charlotte (based on Java), Commercial Platforms Entropia, Parabon, United Devices, Platform (AC) A central coordinator schedules tasks on volunteer computers, Master worker paradigm, Cycle stealing
Cycle Sharing Model n Chunks of data are sent to client in suspend mode n Data is processed by clients when client is not in use and returned to the master n Internet-based (Master-slave) computing SETI@Home n Example: SETI@Home scans radio telescope images Master Bob Carol Ted Alice Data Crunching Raw Data Raw Data Processed Data Processed Data
SETI@Home Main Server Launched In 1996 Scientific experiment - uses Internet-connected computers in the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Distributes a screen saver–based application to users Applies signal analysis algorithms different data sets to process radio-telescope data. Has more than 3 million users - used over a million years of CPU time to date Client/Server P2P 1. Install Screen Server Radio-telescope Data 2. SETI client (screen Saver) starts 3. SETI client gets data from server and runs 4. Client sends results back to server SETI@HOME
Distributed Computing: SETI@home Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence that has over two million computers crunching away and downloading data gathered from the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico The SETI@Home project is widely regarded as the fastest computer in the world In fact, the project has already performed the single largest cumulative computation to date From the architecture point of view Seti@Home is based upon client-server The centralised servers hold enormous amounts of data gathered from the Arecibo radio telescope "listening" to the skies That data needs to be analysed for distinct or unusual radio waves that might suggest extraterrestrial communications http://setiathome.ssl.berkeley.edu http://setiathome.ssl.berkeley.edu
SETI@Home Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence
Processing Intel’s Netbatch 10,000 workstations over 25 locations Chip design Shortened time for chip development Reduced outlay for new mainframes $500 million savings
Processing Amerada Hess Connects 200 Dell PCs to handle complex seismic data interpretation Allowed them to replace a pair of IBM supercomputers. “We’re running seven times the throughput at a fraction of the cost.” Richard Ross, CIO
Storage Intel Distribution of computer-based training Prevents large downloads from central servers Preserves bandwidth Preserves expensive network storage
Allows any node to play different roles (client, server, system infrastructure) Request may be related to Computations or data Accept concerns computation or data P2P system Client (PC) request result Server (PC) accept provide PC Server (PC) accept provide Potential communications for parallel applications P2P Distributed Computing Client (PC) request result A very simple problem statement but leading to a lot of research issues: scheduling, security, message passing, data storage Large Scale enlarges the problematic: volatility, confidence, etc.
“Three Obstacles to Making P2P Distributed Computing Routine” 1) New approaches to problem solving Data Grids, distributed computing, peer-to-peer, collaboration grids, … 2) Structuring and writing programs Abstractions, tools 3) Enabling resource sharing across distinct institutions Resource discovery, access, reservation, allocation; authentication, authorization, policy; communication; fault detection and notification; … Programming Problem Systems Problem Credit: Ian Foster
P2P for Distributed Computing or Web Computing The distributed computing P2P applications are highlighted by the use of millions of Internet clients to analyze data looking for extraterrestrial life (SETI@home http://setiathome.ssl.berkeley.edu/ ) and the Newer project examining the folding of proteins ( Folding@home http://www.stanford.edu/group/pandegroup/Cosm/ ). These are building distributed computing solutions for a special class of applications: Those that can be divided into a huge number of essentially independent computations, and a central server system doles out separate work chunks to each participating client. In the parallel computing community, these problems are called "pleasingly or embarrassingly parallel". This approach is included in the P2P category because the computing is Peer based even though it does not have the "Peer only communication" characteristic of all aspects of Gnutella and Napster for information transfer. SETI@home and Folding@home are elegantly implemented as screen savers that you download.
P2P space: Distributed Computing Distributed Collaboration Use under utilized Internet and/or network resources for improving computation and data analysis MetaComputing, CareScience, DataSynapse, Distributed.net, DistributedScience, Entropia, Parabon, The Open Lab Distributed Search Engines Used to easily lookup and share files and offer content management BearShare, Filetopia, Hotline Connect, InfraSearch, Plebio, Jibe, LimeWire, MusicBrainz.org, NeuroGrid, NextPage, Redfoot, Opencola, Project Pandango
United Devices also does Drug Simulation Parameter Study: do billions of simulations – each with different parameters Search Engine like interface to simulation Works as each calculation fits in a PC – a detailed molecular model would usually not do this