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Presentation Package for Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Section III: Concept 9 Flexibility and Stretching Exercises Anatomical graphics from: Essentials.

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Presentation on theme: "Presentation Package for Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Section III: Concept 9 Flexibility and Stretching Exercises Anatomical graphics from: Essentials."— Presentation transcript:

1 Presentation Package for Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e Section III: Concept 9 Flexibility and Stretching Exercises Anatomical graphics from: Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology McGraw-Hill, 1998 All rights reserved Regular stretching exercises promote flexibility— a component of fitness—that permits freedom of movement, contributes to ease and economy of muscular effort, allows for successful performance in certain activities, and provides less susceptibility to some types of injuries or musculoskeletal problems.

2 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e2 Flexibility Activity Flexibility is an important, but often neglected part of an exercise program.Flexibility is an important, but often neglected part of an exercise program. The importance of flexibility for health and well- being becomes more important with age.The importance of flexibility for health and well- being becomes more important with age.

3 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e3 Flexibility Fundamentals Not the same as stretching.Not the same as stretching. The range of motion in a joint or joints is used to reflect flexibility at that joint.The range of motion in a joint or joints is used to reflect flexibility at that joint. –ROM= the extent and direction of movement that is possible. –Joint specific Specific vocabulary is used to describe the movement of joints.Specific vocabulary is used to describe the movement of joints. –Flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, internal and external rotation, etc. (see next slide)

4 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e4 Common Movements FlexionFlexion ExtensionExtension AbductionAbduction AdductionAdduction RotationRotation

5 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e5 Flexibility Fundamentals continued The unique nature of the different joints causes some to allow for greater mobility than others.The unique nature of the different joints causes some to allow for greater mobility than others. –Ball-and-socket joint –Hinge joint ROM at a joint depends on how it is being assessedROM at a joint depends on how it is being assessed –Static = without movement –Dynamic = active functional activity

6 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e6 Factors Influencing Flexibility AnatomyAnatomy –Long “muscle-tendon units” (MTUs) –Properties of connective tissue and muscle –Type of joint GenderGender –Females more flexible Possibly related to:Possibly related to: –bone structure (e.g., wider hips) –hormonal influences –physical activity choices (e.g., dance, gymnastics, swimming) that require good flexibility

7 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e7 Factors Influencing Flexibility continued Genetics (loose joints)Genetics (loose joints) Lack of use or misuseLack of use or misuse –Lack of physical activity / muscle imbalances RaceRace Age (see next slide)Age (see next slide)

8 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e8 Influence of Age on Flexibility F L E X I B I L I T Y FLEXIBILITY PHYSICALACTIVITY PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AGE (years) ACTIVITYACTIVITYACTIVITYACTIVITY

9 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e9 Health Benefits of Flexibility No ideal standard for flexibility exists.No ideal standard for flexibility exists. Necessary for optimal posture.Necessary for optimal posture. Extremes of inflexibility and hyperflexibility increase the likelihood of injury.Extremes of inflexibility and hyperflexibility increase the likelihood of injury. May help prevent muscle strain and such orthopedic problems as back pain (see next 2 slides).May help prevent muscle strain and such orthopedic problems as back pain (see next 2 slides). Stretching may help to relieve muscle cramps, stiffness, and some local or referred pain.Stretching may help to relieve muscle cramps, stiffness, and some local or referred pain.

10 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e10 Flexibility & Back Pain Short and tight muscles cause poor posture which leads to back pain.Short and tight muscles cause poor posture which leads to back pain.

11 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e11 Flexibility & Back Pain n Long and strong muscles keep the body in good alignment and reduce risk of back pain.

12 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e12 Health Benefits of Flexibility Stretching is probably ineffective in preventing muscle soreness.Stretching is probably ineffective in preventing muscle soreness. Overstretching may make a person susceptible to injury or hamper performance.Overstretching may make a person susceptible to injury or hamper performance. Freedom of movementFreedom of movement Improved athletic performanceImproved athletic performance –Questionable benefits prior to competition

13 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e13 Stretching Methods StaticStatic –Active assistance –Passive assistance BallisticBallistic PNFPNF

14 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e14 Static Stretching Safer and less likely to cause injurySafer and less likely to cause injury Stretch slowly until tensionStretch slowly until tension Hold stretch for sec.Hold stretch for sec. Relax the muscleRelax the muscle Increase stretch a bit more (developmental stretch)Increase stretch a bit more (developmental stretch)

15 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e15 Static Stretching Active stretchingActive stretching Passive stretchingPassive stretching See next slide (Figure 3)

16 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e16

17 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e17 Ballistic Stretching Dynamic movementDynamic movement Specificity of movementSpecificity of movement

18 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e18 Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) Combines (active and passive) methodsCombines (active and passive) methods Most effective method for improving flexibilityMost effective method for improving flexibility Promotes increase in strengthPromotes increase in strength

19 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e19 PNF Stretching Technique (C.R.A.C. Method) Contract agonist isometricallyContract agonist isometrically Relax muscle for a few secondsRelax muscle for a few seconds Contract the antagonist for 15 secondsContract the antagonist for 15 seconds RelaxRelax Web09-02

20 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e20 How Much Flexibility is Enough? How Much Stretching is Enough?

21 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e21 How much is enough? Stretching exercises should be done regularly to achieve optimal benefits.Stretching exercises should be done regularly to achieve optimal benefits. For flexibility to be increased, you must stretch and hold muscles beyond normal length for an adequate amount of time. (see the stretch reflex on the next slide)For flexibility to be increased, you must stretch and hold muscles beyond normal length for an adequate amount of time. (see the stretch reflex on the next slide) Performing warm-up exercises is not the same as doing a stretching workout for flexibility development.Performing warm-up exercises is not the same as doing a stretching workout for flexibility development. The best time for stretching is when the muscles are warm.The best time for stretching is when the muscles are warm.

22 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e22 Stretch Reflex Maintaining stretch for seconds will allow the stretch reflex to subside and permit gains.

23 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e23 FIT Formula (Static Stretching) F times per week I 10% beyond normal length of muscle T seconds, 3-5 reps (rest 30 sec between reps)

24 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e24 Flexibility-Based Activities YogaYoga Tai ChiTai Chi PilatesPilates

25 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e25 Stretching Aids / Technology Stretching ropes can make it easier to execute and hold stretches properly.Stretching ropes can make it easier to execute and hold stretches properly. Foam rollers can improve strength, balance, and flexibility.Foam rollers can improve strength, balance, and flexibility.

26 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e26 Guidelines for Safe & Effective Stretching Exercise Do not force the stretch to the point of pain.Do not force the stretch to the point of pain. Choose safe exercises.Choose safe exercises. Avoid overstretching weak muscles.Avoid overstretching weak muscles. Use good technique.Use good technique. See samples of good stretching technique

27 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e27 Summary Flexibility is the often neglectedFlexibility is the often neglected Joint specificJoint specific Many influencing factorsMany influencing factors Many health benefitsMany health benefits Static stretching is the most widely recommended.Static stretching is the most widely recommended. 3-7 days per week target3-7 days per week target

28 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e28 Web Resources “On the Web”“On the Web” pages for Concept “On the Web” Online Learning Center Online Learning Center

29 Supplemental Graphics Lab Information

30 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e30 Lab 9a Information Evaluating Flexibility Make sure that you are warmed up prior to testing.Make sure that you are warmed up prior to testing. Follow the instructions as close as possible since the best use of the results is to compare scores over time.Follow the instructions as close as possible since the best use of the results is to compare scores over time. Perform each of the stretches in the lab (Be sure to check left and right separately).Perform each of the stretches in the lab (Be sure to check left and right separately). Complete ratings and then evaluate your personal flexibility needs according to your results.Complete ratings and then evaluate your personal flexibility needs according to your results.

31 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e31 Areas Needing Stretching HamstringsHamstrings Inner thighInner thigh CalfCalf Hip flexorsHip flexors Lower backLower back Chest / shouldersChest / shoulders In Lab 9b, you can plan a stretching program to address your personal needs.

32 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e32 Lab9b Information Planning and Logging Stretching Activity Set goals for doing specific stretches during the week.Set goals for doing specific stretches during the week. Monitor progress using logging charts.Monitor progress using logging charts.

33 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e33 Hamstring Stretches BADGOOD Standing Toe Touch Back Saver Hamstring Stretch Bar Stretch BAD

34 Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e34 Shin & Quadriceps Stretches BAD GOOD Standing Stretch Shin Stretch Quad Stretch GOOD Return to presentation


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