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This guide presents an overview of current, doctrinally approved tank training plans. The intent is to familiarize the user with armor- related training.

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Presentation on theme: "This guide presents an overview of current, doctrinally approved tank training plans. The intent is to familiarize the user with armor- related training."— Presentation transcript:

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2 This guide presents an overview of current, doctrinally approved tank training plans. The intent is to familiarize the user with armor- related training plans and includes links to tips, techniques and procedure that can be used to train and test tank gunnery or tactical skills. This guide is designed for use with FM series manuals and the technical manuals or other resource materials for each device. This guide was developed as a ready reference for tank commanders, platoon sergeants, platoon leaders, master gunners, S3s, and the chain of command of armor units. From this manual, the user can determine methods that will best support the type of planned gunnery/tactical training at home station. The proponent of this publication is USF Interactive Media Productions. Submit changes for improving this publication on Internal Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) and forward it to: Gregory Motes, United States Army, Tampa, FL Main Menu

3 Individual Tasks Tank Crew Gunnery Skills Test Combat Life Saver Driver’s Training

4 Tank Crew Gunnery Skills Test (TCGST) Tank Crew Gunnery Skills Test comprises of 17 basic skills from Vehicle ID to assembling machine guns to laying the main gun on multiple targets. Skills are assessed as go/no-go, and typically, tank crews spend 2 weeks preparing for TCGST prior to taking the test

5 Combat Lifesaver Course (CLS) Each crew is required to have one soldier certified as a combat lifesaver. This page will link into more detailed programs Click here for more Information on CLS

6 Driver’s Training Driver’s training is a comprehensive paper based test with an intensive road course. Army’s Driver’s Training Page

7 Crew Tasks UCOFT –Reticle Aim 200 –Tank Tables 1-3 Chair Drills TCPC –Tank Table IV Crew Qualification –Tank Tables V – VII –Tank Table VIII

8 UCOFT The COFT is an M1/M1A1 tank gunnery training device for TC/gunner teams. Its primary purpose is to sustain basic gunnery skills and increase combat gunnery skills. The COFT places the TC and gunner in a realistically simulated crew station and presents them with a full range of computer-controlled engagement situations. The COFT produces full- color, computer-generated action scenes in which crew members interact with various target situations. Programmed exercises vary in target type and number, range, vehicle and target motion, visibility, and other complex conditions. The crew is in no danger, no fuel is consumed, and no ammunition is expended. The result is challenging, progressive gunnery training. For convenience, the COFT has a mobile unit (MCOFT) that is predominantly used by National Guard units, and provides the same training values as the COFT. (Page 1 of 3)

9 UCOFT The system simulates the following visual effects: Multiple, single, and delayed targets (T-72, BMP, BRDM, ZSU-23-4, HIND- D, truck GAZ-69, MI-8C, rocket- propelled grenade [RPG] team, troops, M1, M2/M3, M60A3, and AH- 64). Varied ranges, speeds, exposure times, and reactive targets. Own-vehicle moving and stationary. Round tracer. Scene obscuration. Round impact and effect on target. Round impact on terrain. Catastrophic kill. Mobility kill (advanced matrix). Friendly fire. Enemy direct and indirect fire. Own vehicle hit and kill. The system provides the following visibility conditions: Day unlimited. Day with haze. Day with fog. Dawn and dusk. Night unlimited. Night with thermal clutter. Mortar illumination (advanced matrix). The system provides the following aural cues to the crew: Enemy direct and indirect fire. Round loading and reloading sounds. Loader’s "UP." Main gun, M240, and M2 machine gun firing. Track clatter. Engine and transmission sounds. Gun jump. TIS cooling fan. Turret blower. Own vehicle hit and kill. Ammunition transfer sounds. (Page 2 of 3)

10 UCOFT EXERCISE LIBRARY FOR M1/M1A1 COFT (Original Matrix) Orientation1 Sustainment Orientation 1 Basic, Cross, and Transition Orientation Preparation1 Preparation for Operation Boresight, Calibration, and Zeroing3 Exercises Acquisition and Manipulation5 Gunner Exercises 4 Commander Exercises Evaluation4 Training Exercises Killer Tank2 Training Exercises ( European Environment) 2 Training Exercises (Desert Environment) TC Only126 Training Exercises (European Environment) 30 Training Exercises (Desert Environment) TC/Gunner390 Training Exercises (European Environment) 120 Training Exercises (Desert Environment) Total689 Training Exercises (Page 3 of 3)

11 Chair Drills Chair drills are a crew rehearsal drill to prepare the entire crew for tank situations. Typically used as preparation for Tank Table VIII and Tank Table XII, chair drills allow a crew to practice fire commands, conduct of fire and discuss various ways to execute crew battle drills.Tank Table VIII Tank Table XII For an example of a PowerPoint based chair drill with malfunctions, click hereclick here Click image to Open new Presentation

12 Tank Crew Proficiency Course (TCPC) An integral part of sustainment gunnery plan involves the use of a Tank Crew Proficiency Course (TCPC). TCPC is essentially a dry- fire, full rehearsal of Tank gunnery, including situational malfunctions. TCPC is typically executed after numerous classes on preliminary gunnery subjects such as target acquisition, engagement techniques, fire commands, and misfire procedures. Upon completion of the classes, the unit conducts a diagnostic and record TCGST. TCPC, the tasks that were evaluated included gun lay, tracking, fire commands, engagement techniques, berm drills (driving techniques), shooting in a simulated NBC environment, thermal sight usage, range determination, and target (fire) adjustment. Upon completion of the TCPC, the battalion and company master gunners can determine which crews are not as strong as other crews in their crew skills. These crews (usually the newer crews) are identified and were sent to further utilize the Conduct of Fire Trainer (COFT). This gives each of the weaker crews additional training prior to qualification.TCGSTCOFT

13 Crew Qualification Preparation for Tank Table VIII begins about six months before the annual qualification takes place and includes crews' completion of Tank Tables V, VI and VII. In Table V, the tank remains stationary and fires its machine gun at both stationary and moving targets; on Table VI, the main gun is used in defensive actions only, and Table VII employs both machine guns and main guns against both stationary and moving targets while the tank is both stationary and moving. Table VII is actually harder than Table VIII because the response times have to be quicker. In Table VII, crews don't get real good scores, but they hone their skills. Table VIII involves simultaneous engagements with the M1A1's main gun and.50-cal. machine guns, manual shooting when the range finder fails and dual moving-tank engagements, requiring that two moving tanks be "killed." In other engagements, crew members must don their protective masks in both day and night scenarios and shoot plastic "infantrymen" and plywood "armored personnel carriers" simultaneously. A perfect score is 1,000 for 10 engagements each worth up to 100 points; Crews rarely “max” Table VIII. Crews qualify with 700 points minimum; they gain a superior rating if they chalk up at least 800 points, and are classified as "distinguished" if they accrue 900 points. Precision and timing are critical. All targets pop up on computer-operated target lifters and remain up for 40 to 50 seconds, main-gun targets being between 1,200 and 2,000 meters downrange. Two evaluators per tank keep score, docking a crew points for incorrect fire commands and safety violations. One of the highest penalties is 30 points for an open hatch. A tank commander can forfeit all points on one engagement if he fails to call "cease fire" after completing the engagement, making crew drills and conduct of fire rehearsing essential.

14 Platoon Tasks Platoon Gunnery Trainer (PGT) Close Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT) Platoon Gunnery Qualification –Tank Table XII

15 Platoon Gunnery Trainer (PGT) The PGT is designed to train armor platoon leaders and platoon sergeants in command and control and fire distribution to destroy enemy targets in a tactical scenario. It does this by presenting the platoon with a series of realistic combat situations that require proper planning, reporting, and execution if the platoon is to be successful. The system reinforces those skills already learned using the COFT or AGTS. It requires the TC/gunner combinations to continue to engage targets using correct precision and degraded-mode gunnery techniques. There are two versions of the PGT currently fielded: COFT PGT and AGTS PGT. Both versions consist of four linked trainers with an attached platoon after-action review (PAAR) station. More information on in FM FM

16 Close Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT) The CCTT is a system of manned modules and workstations that allow units to train armor, cavalry, and mechanized infantry collective tasks at the platoon through battalion task force level. For more information, click here Click image to Open PDF File

17 Platoon Gunnery Qualification Firing Tables XI and XII is typically a 48-hour operation. Table XI is a practice run that a platoon conducts to prepare for Table XII. The following day, the platoon conducts the live-fire portion of the exercise. Table XII gives tankers the opportunity to build on the individual crew duties that they were evaluated on during their Table VIII qualification.

18 Force on Force Battle Drills Local Training Area Situational Training Exercises Combat Training Centers

19 Battle Drills Battle drills derive from a Unit’s Mission Essential Task List (METL) More info on deriving tasks from the METL, click herehere Click image to Open new Presentation

20 Local Training Areas (LTA) Local training areas provide imaginative opportunities for leaders to train their organizations. In an LTA, a commander can conduct a Field Training Exercise (FTX), which is conducted under simulated combat conditions in the field. FTXs fully integrate the total force in a realistic combat environment. They involve combat arms, CS, and CSS units. FTXs encompass such training as battle drills, crew drills, and STXs to reinforce soldier and collective training integration. They are used to train the commander, staff, subordinate units, and slice elements-- To move and maneuver units realistically. To employ organic weapons systems effectively. To build teamwork and cohesion. To plan and coordinate supporting fires. To plan and coordinate logistical activities to support tactical operations. Example Vignettes

21 Situational Training Exercises (STX) Situational Training Exercises (STX) provide an excellent environment for the simultaneous performance of multiechelon training activities to evaluate and to sustain the skills of soldiers, leaders, teams, staffs, and units. Exercises simulate battle conditions to train leaders under mission-unique conditions and standards for applying the best tactics, techniques, and procedures to the unit METT-T. Some exercises use minimal troop support in providing commanders and staffs realistic practice in executing wartime missions. Other exercises combine units, including other services, to train critical teamwork and synchronization skills. Some goals associated with training exercises are-- Sustain soldier, leader, and collective skills. Develop and sustain command and control skills of commanders and their staffs. Support multiechelon training. Provide an opportunity to train using increasingly more realistic (difficult) conditions.

22 Combat Training Center (CTC) The Combat Training Centers are the premier establishments for force on force missions against and uncooperative OPFOR. More information in this brief –NTC (National Training Center)NTC (National Training Center) –CMTC (Combat Maneuver Training Center)CMTC (Combat Maneuver Training Center) –JRTC (Joint Readiness Training Center)JRTC (Joint Readiness Training Center)

23 National Training Center (NTC) NTC is located at Fort Irwin, California, in the middle of the Mojave Desert. The NTC focuses primarily on training Brigade Combat Teams (BCTs) in mid-to-high intensity conflict. This training is accomplished through the use of realistic joint and combined arms training in contingency-based scenarios. NTC provides comprehensive force-on-force maneuver and live fire training. The maneuver box at the NTC is as large as the state of Rhode Island, 1,001 square miles. The depth and width of the battle space gives brigade elements the unique opportunity to exercise all of its elements in a realistic environment. This is often a unit’s only opportunity to test its combat service and combat service support elements over a doctrinal distance. BCTs must be able to communicate through up to 8 communications corridors, evacuate casualties over 40 kilometers, and navigate at night in treacherous terrain with few distinguishable roads. Other environmental conditions such as a 40 to 50 degree diurnal temperature range, winds over 45 knots, and constant exposure to the sun stresses every system and soldier to their limit. The NTC’s training scenario is set on the fictional island of Tierra Del Diablo. The discovery of weapons grade Uranium in the disputed region of Parumphistan (a province of Mojave) led to increasing tensions between the U.S., the People’s Democratic Republic of Krasnovia (a Warsaw pact nation and Soviet-style enemy), the Kingdom of Parumphia (a Krasnovian ally), and the Republic of Mojave (friendly, democratic, pro-western country). The Baja Republic to the south remains neutral. U.S. troops deploy to Mojave in support of the peace process and to aid in the defense of Mojave if necessary. The other group involved in the region is the Parumphian Peoples’ Guerillas (PPG). This is a loosely organized group of terrorists / freedom fighters who want Parumphistan to return to Krasnovian control. Each fiscal year, NTC conducts ten (10) rotations, each rotation consisting of 28 days. The first 5 days (RSOI 1-5) are spent generating combat power and integrating into the 52nd ID (M). During this period, there are host nation visits, demonstrations, stability and support operation (SASO) missions, media events and attacks by the PPG, which challenge the BCT JA and civil-military operations cell. The second phase, training days 6-9, is force-on-force training where the BCT conducts high intensity operations with the Krasnovian forces using MILES equipment. During this time period a BCT will normally conduct one defense in sector, two attacks and a movement to contact. The battle rhythm gives the BCT 24 hours between missions with two of the battles fought back-to-back. The third phase of the operation is live fire. This phase usually runs training days NTC is the only facility in the U.S. Army that allows a full Brigade Combat Team to conduct both a live fire attack and a live fire defense integrating all of the Battle Operating Systems (BOSs), including direct air support from the Air Force. The BCT then fights through the ground upon which it conducts the live fire. Live fire may also include an attack on a local village by light forces or MPs to clear PPG. The final 8 days of the operation is regeneration of combat power and redeployment. Click here for the National Training Center public Web Site National Training Center

24 Combat Maneuver Training Center (CMTC) The CMTC is located at Hohenfels, Germany. Until recently, CMTC was loosely considered the "NTC of Europe," focusing on force-on-force maneuver training. However, CMTC now boasts state-of-the-art MOUT and ancillary training facilities that allow CMTC to provide training in both combat operations and military operations other than war (MOOTW). The CMTC provides training across the spectrum of conflict, using scenarios developed from recent operations (Haiti, Somalia, Bosnia, and Kosovo, etc.) and mission rehearsals to prepare forces for deployment or likely contingency operations. The CMTC focuses on brigade and below commands and staffs, force-on-force maneuver training for armored and mechanized infantry battalions, company-level situational training exercises (STXs), and individual replacement training (IRT) for forces entering the Bosnia and Kosovo theaters of operations. The maneuver "box" at the CMTC is 10 km x 20 km in area. The size of the "box" is ideal for battalion task force sized elements. Typically, a brigade headquarters will deploy to the CMTC and serve as the higher headquarters as each of its battalions rotates through their training exercise. At least twice during each rotation, two battalions operate in the "box" at one time. During these periods, the brigade headquarters also deploys into the "box" and operates with the two battalions, conducting both defensive and offensive operations. The brigade judge advocate functions within the brigade headquarters, responding to legal issues both during "brigade ops" and when only one battalion is in rotation. CMTC offers training in both high-intensity conflict (HIC), force-on-force scenarios, and low-to-mid-intensity conflict (LIC/MIC), and military operations other than war (MOOTW). Except for mission-specific rehearsal exercises, CMTC uses the same general scenario. The HIC portion generally involves three neighboring countries, Sowenia, Vilslakia, and Juraland. Sowenia is a fledgling democracy and an ally with the United States and NATO. The Vilslakian government was recently overthrown by a military coup and is now making claims to a small portion of Sowenia, inhabited mostly by ethnic Vilslakians. Juraland struggles to remain neutral. The scenario begins either as a PSO scenario that moves to HIC when the Vilslakians cross the international border or it begins as a HIC rotation once the Vilslakians have already crossed the border. CMTC conducts approximately 5 brigade rotations (up to 63 days each) per year, each with imbedded battalion rotations (25 days each). CMTC also conducts two Mission Rehearsal Exercises (up to 28 days each) per year and teaches 4 Individual Readiness Training Situational Training Exercises (IRT STX) per month. Each brigade rotation is comprised of up to 3 task forces and 1 Cavalry squadron. Rotations typically employ the day rotational task force window model: 3 day deployment/MILES draw; 5 day company focus lane training (STXs); 14 day force-on-OPFOR maneuver exercise in movement to contact/attack/defend stages; and a 3 day recovery. Click here for the Combat Maneuver Training Center public Web Site Combat Maneuver Training Center

25 Joint Readiness Training Center (JRTC) JRTC is located at Fort Polk, Louisiana. This CTC focuses primarily on training light infantry brigade task forces in low-to-mid-intensity conflict. This is accomplished through the use of tough, realistic training conditions. Each fiscal year, JRTC conducts eight rotations and two Mission Readiness Exercises (MREs). A single rotation consists of 16 days. This time is divided roughly as follows: Days 1-4 are spent in the Intermediate Staging Base (ISB) and days 5-16 are spent performing the exercise itself ("in the box"). A typical training scenario at JRTC includes a brigade-sized joint task force deploying to the fictional island of Aragon to support the friendly nation of Cortina. In addition to the approximately 3,500 troops supporting the brigade, there are also approximately 1,500 troops supporting echelons above division (EAD) units during a normal rotation. These EAD units usually include a combat hospital as well as a corps support group. The permissive or forced entry of coalition forces into Cortina is intended to improve stability in the region by quelling an ongoing insurgency in Cortina. A non-MRE rotation generally has three operational phases. First is an insertion and counter-insurgency operation; second is a defense (in response to an Atlantican attack); and third is an attack into a state-of-the-art Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) complex. Numerous forces augment the airborne, air assault, and light infantry brigades to provide flexibility and "light- heavy" integration. Such forces include mechanized and armor units, special operations forces, Air Force Air Combat Command forces, and Naval, Marine Aviation and Marine Air Naval Gunfire Liaison Company (ANGLICO) units. Due to the low-to-mid intensity environment, the different phases of the operation, and the various parties involved, JRTC is a legally rich training environment. In the Entry/Counter-Insurgency Phase, JAs will encounter issues such the international justification for the entry of U.S. and other friendly forces, use of facilities, justification for the use of force, and the collection of intelligence from civilians. This phase also stresses issues relating to rules of engagement (ROE), security assistance, nation assistance, and force protection. In the Defensive Operations phase, additional issues arise, such as noncombatant evacuation operations (NEOs), requests for political asylum, the handling of refugees, and other diplomatic issues. Atlantican attacks will also trigger application of the law of war and civilians may have to be physically cleared from the battlefield. In the Offensive Operations Phase, JAs will encounter still more issues, such as maneuver damage claims, weapons and targeting issues, peculiarities relative to operations on urban terrain, the handling of prisoners of war, and issues relating to the occupation of territory. Click here for the Joint Readiness Training Center public Web Site Joint Readiness Training Center

26 Mission Rehearsal Exercises Rules of Engagement Country Briefings Local Training Area Combat Training Center

27 Rules of Engagement (ROE) ROE are (DOD) Directives issued by competent military authority that delineate the circumstances and limitations under which United States forces will initiate and/or continue combat engagement with other forces encountered. Critical to survival and understanding the laws of war, the ROE is a fundamental component of training for low intensity to high intensity conflicts. Examples are typically classified, but unclassified versions could be here. Law of War Website

28 Country Briefings Country briefings are outstanding resources to prepare soldiers for the social, cultural and geographical differences in the country of deployment. CIA World Fact Book

29 Local Training Areas (LTA) Local training areas afford the commander the opportunity to set up situations the unit might face when exposed in conflict. Typically, LTAs are used as preparations for the intense CTC MREs

30 Combat Training Center (CTC) The CTCs have become expert establishments for housing full scale MREs including cooperative and uncooperative OPFOR. Examples include using real foreign language speaking actors (who are unable to speak any English at all) to simulate the environment of foreign countries. This page will have info on real CTC MRE lessons learned

31 Site Map


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