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An Overview of the Financial System Lecture Chapter 2.

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1 An Overview of the Financial System Lecture Chapter 2

2 Types of Financial Instruments Securities: pieces of paper that give the owner a claim on the issuer’s assets or future payment. - Simple contracts - Negotiable (can be resold, traded) - Used in both direct and indirect finance Loans: –Contracts that are more complicated than securities. –Usually non-negotiable. Have collateral requirements and covenants. –Used almost exclusively indirect finance.

3 Types of Finance 1.Direct Finance Borrowers borrow directly from lenders in financial markets by selling financial instruments (securities)which are claims on the borrower’s future income or assets 2.Indirect Finance Borrowers borrow indirectly from lenders via financial intermediaries that issue financial instruments which are claims on the borrower’s future income or assets

4 World Without Financial Intermediaries 2-3 Lender – Saver (Households…) Borrower - spender (Businesses…) Cash Equity and Debt Securities In this world - the flow of funds from savers to borrowers is likely to be low: As a lender, how do you know you will get your money back (problem of adverse selection) As a lender, how do you know the borrower will use funds as stated? (problem of moral hazard) Monitoring is a hassle. Prefer to leave the monitoring to others. Lack of liquidity.

5 World With Financial Intermediaries (FI) 2-4 Lender – Saver (Households….) Borrower – spender Businesses….) Cash Debt and Equity FI Broker FI Asset Transformer Deposits and Insurance policies Here we have both direct and indirect finance.

6 Mishkin’s Representation: Function of Financial Markets

7 Assets Something of value that you own Something you owe. Indirect Finance Involves Asset Transformation Liabilities and Net Worth Net Worth = Assets - Liabilities

8 Assets Financial Institution - Commercial Bank – Cash (vault cash) – Deposits at Fed (Reserves) – Mortgages – Commercial Loans – US Gov’t bonds –Demand Deposits –Time Deposits –Debt (Borrowing) –Equity Capital(Bank Capital) Liabilities and Net Worth Asset Transformation – Banks issue liabilities with one set of characteristics and use the proceeds to purchase assets with a different set of characteristics. Also, referred to as maturity Transformation – Bank liabilities are short-term, assets are long-term.

9 Assets Financial Institution - Insurance Company – Cash - Mortgages – Corporate Bonds – US Gov’t bonds – Equity (Google Stock – Insurance Policies (contingent liability) – Equity Capital Liabilities and Net Worth Asset Transformation – Insurance companies issue liabilities and use the proceeds to purchase assets

10 Examples of Direct Finance: –Initial Public Offering of a stock –Ford sells bonds to the public –GE issues commercial paper to public to fund its payroll –Bowie Bonds

11 Structure of Financial Markets 1.Debt Markets ─Short-Term (maturity < 1 year) ─Long-Term (maturity > 10 year) ─Intermediate term (maturity in-between) ─Represented $52.4 trillion at the end of Equity Markets ─Pay dividends, in theory forever ─Represents an ownership claim in the firm ─Total value of all U.S. equity was $20.5 trillion at the end of 2009.

12 Structure of Financial Markets 1.Primary Market ─New security issues sold to initial buyers ─Typically involves an investment bank that underwrites the offering 2.Secondary Market ─Previously issued securities are bought and sold ─Examples include the NYSE and Nasdaq ─Involves both brokers and dealers (do you know the difference?)

13 Structure of Financial Markets  Even though firms don’t get any money, per se, from the secondary market, it serves two important functions:  Provides liquidity, making it easy to buy and sell the securities of the companies  Establish a price for the securities

14 Structure of Financial Markets We can further classify secondary markets as follows: 1. Exchanges ─Trades conducted in central locations - Auction (e.g., New York Stock Exchange, CBT) 2. Over-the-Counter Markets ─Dealers at different locations buy and sell ─Best example is the market for Treasury Securities

15 Classifications of Financial Markets We can also further classify markets by the maturity of the securities: 1. Money Market: Short-Term (maturity < 1 year) 2. Capital Market: Long-Term (maturity > 1 year)

16 Principal Money Market Instruments: Short-term debt instruments with maturity < 1 year

17 Principal Capital Market Instruments Maturity > 1 year

18 Internationalization of Financial Markets Foreign Bonds: bonds sold in a foreign country and denominated in that country’s currency Eurobond: bond denominated in a currency other than that of the country in which it is sold Eurocurrencies: foreign currencies deposited in banks outside the home country –Eurodollars: U.S. dollars deposited in foreign banks outside the U.S. or in foreign branches of U.S. banks

19 Financial Intermediaries - Indirect Finance  This is actually the primary means of moving funds from lenders to borrowers.  More important source of finance than securities markets (such as stocks)  Why? Transaction costs, information costs (asymmetric information), risk sharing and liquidity.

20 Transaction Cost - Direct Finance is Expensive Legal Costs: Loans and securities are legal contracts which must be written carefully to be enforced. Loans are more complicated – covenants and collateral. Regulatory costs: Securities. SEC filing requirements. Must file registration statement, prospectus, periodic financial statements. Sales Costs: Cost of matching buyers and sellers - Primary Markets: Investment bankers market to potential buyers and guarantee a minimum initial price for a fee.

21 Financial Intermediaries Reduce Transactions Costs 1.Financial intermediaries make profits by reducing transactions costs 2.Reduce transaction costs by developing expertise (screening and monitoring) and taking advantage of economies of scale

22 Financial Intermediaries - Economies of Scale Most transaction costs associated with a financial transaction are fixed costs Independent of size of transactions and number of transactions. - Legal cost for a $100,000 loan similar to $1,000,000 loan. - Repeated transactions => spread the cost over a large number of loans (e.g. spread $10,000 legal cost over 2,000 loans = $5.00 per loan)

23  Banks provide liquidity services - services that make it easier for customers to conduct transactions  Banks provide depositors with checking accounts that enable them to pay their bills easily  Depositors can earn interest on checking and savings accounts and convert them into goods and services whenever necessary Financial Intermediaries - liquidity

24 Financial Intermediaries – reduce risk  reduce the exposure of investors to risk, through risk sharing ─FIs create and sell assets with lesser risk to one party in order to buy assets with greater risk from another party ─This process is referred to as asset transformation, risky assets are turned into safer assets for investors

25 Financial Intermediaries – reduce risk  Allow individuals and businesses to diversify their asset holdings.  Low transaction costs allow them to buy a range of assets, pool them, and then sell rights to the diversified pool to individuals.

26 Financial Intermediaries: Indirect Finance  Information cost - asymmetric information. ─One party lacks crucial information about another party, impacting decision-making. ─adverse selection and moral hazard.

27 Function of Financial Intermediaries: Indirect Finance  Adverse Selection 1.Before transaction occurs 2.Potential borrowers most likely to produce adverse outcome are ones most likely to seek a loan 3.Similar problems occur with insurance where unhealthy people want their known medical problems covered

28  Moral Hazard 1.After transaction occurs 2.Hazard that borrower has incentives to engage in undesirable (immoral) activities making it more likely that won’t pay loan back 3.Again, with insurance, people may engage in risky activities only after being insured Asymmetric Information: Adverse Selection and Moral Hazard

29 Types of Financial Intermediaries

30  Depository Institutions (Banks): accept deposits and make loans. These include commercial banks and thrifts.  Commercial banks (around 7,000) ─Raise funds primarily by issuing checkable, savings, and time deposits which are used to make commercial, consumer and mortgage loans ─Collectively, these banks comprise the largest financial intermediary and have the most diversified asset portfolios

31 Types of Financial Intermediaries  Thrifts: S&Ls & Mutual Savings Banks (1,300) and Credit Unions (9,500) ─Raise funds primarily by issuing savings, time, and checkable deposits which are most often used to make mortgage and consumer loans, with commercial loans also becoming more prevalent at S&Ls and Mutual Savings Banks ─Mutual savings banks and credit unions issue deposits as shares and are owned collectively by their depositors, most of which at credit unions belong to a particular group, e.g., a company’s workers

32 Contractual Savings Institutions (CSIs)  CSIs acquire funds from clients at periodic intervals on a contractual basis and have fairly predictable future payout requirements. ─Life Insurance Companies receive funds from policy premiums, can invest in less liquid corporate securities and mortgages, since actual benefit pay outs are close to those predicted by actuarial analysis ─Fire and Casualty Insurance Companies receive funds from policy premiums, must invest most in liquid government and corporate securities, since loss events are harder to predict ─Pension and Government Retirement Funds hosted by corporations and state and local governments acquire funds through employee and employer payroll contributions, invest in corporate securities, and provide retirement income via annuities

33 Types of Financial Intermediaries Investment Intermediaries  Finance Companies sell commercial paper (a short-term debt instrument), and issue bonds and stocks to raise funds to lend to consumers to buy durable goods, and to small businesses for operations  Mutual Funds acquire funds by selling shares to individual investors (many of whose shares are held in retirement accounts) and use the proceeds to purchase large, diversified portfolios of stocks and bonds

34 Types of Financial Intermediaries  Money Market Mutual Funds acquire funds by selling checkable deposit-like shares to individual investors and use the proceeds to purchase highly liquid and safe short-term money market instruments  Investment Banks advise companies on securities to issue, underwriting security offerings, offer M&A assistance, and act as dealers in security markets.

35 Regulatory Agencies

36 Regulatory Agencies (cont.)

37 Regulation of Financial Markets Main Reasons for Regulation 1. Increase Information to Investors 2. Ensure the Soundness of Financial Intermediaries

38 Regulation of the Financial Markets Ensure the soundness of financial intermediaries: –Restrictions on entry (chartering process). –Disclosure of information (SEC) –Restrictions on Assets and Activities (control holding of risky assets). –Deposit Insurance (avoid bank runs). –In the past, regulation placed limits on competition Restrictions on bank branches Restrictions on Interest Rates

39 Classifying Financial Instruments 1. Type of claim - Equity (Common Stock): Gives owner a share of the firm’s assets and profits. Also have voting rights. Debt (loans, bonds, commercial paper): Entitles owner to specific payments on specific dates. If firm fails, get paid before equity holders. Equity holders have a residual claim. 2. Maturity: Length of the claim. Money Market or Capital Market. Equity does not mature.

40 Classifying Financial Instruments 3. Risk: degree of uncertainty as to payment. Equity generally has the highest risk. Next is various grades of debt, then unsecured debt such as consumer loans. Safest: treasury bills and insured bank deposits 4. Liquidity: How quickly converted into medium of exchange (money). Demand deposits, followed by savings deposits, treasury securities.

41 Classifying Financial Instruments 5.Expected Returns. As shown on the next slide, returns are typically higher for riskier, less liquid and longer-maturity assets. Highest risk: Equities, followed by various grades of debt. Lowest risk: Treasury bills, demand deposits.

42 Risk and Return by Asset Class - Ibbotson Associates

43 The Ibbotson Chart Returns are at 5 % increments. Most risk - Equity ( small cap). Low, spread-out “skylines”. Least Risk - Treasury bills. Narrow skyline.


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