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Dr. Kusumakar Sharma Assistant Director General (HRD) Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi STATUS OF HIGHER AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN INDIA.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Kusumakar Sharma Assistant Director General (HRD) Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi STATUS OF HIGHER AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN INDIA."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Kusumakar Sharma Assistant Director General (HRD) Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi STATUS OF HIGHER AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN INDIA

2 > 17% of the world’s human & 11% livestock population and counting 4.2% of the world’s water 2.4% of the world’s area 142 m ha cultivated & 60 m ha net irrigated 138% cropping intensity 52% of population earns livelihood in agriculture 14.7% contribution in GDP 10.5% earning of total exports India Today….

3 Y = 4 t/ha.. * KBS Traditional Farming (Early 1900s) Mechanization (1960s) Green Revolution (1970s) Biotechnology Era (2000s) Technology Convergence (21 st century) Y = < 0.5 t/ha, Feudalism Y = >0.5 t/ha, Land Reforms Y = >1 t/ha, Co-operatives Y = >1.5 t/ha, HRD/ Technological Break Through Distinct Transitions: History of Agriculture * Knowledge based Society

4 India in World Food Basket…. Commodity Present Annual Production, mt Rank in the World Demand by 2020, mt Food grain257III284 Pulses17.2I22 Oilseeds30V68 Horticulture Produce234II336 Milk127I152 Meat6.8V11 Eggs (billion no.)65III88 Fish8.3II12

5 Opportunities of Agricultural Science and Technology Technology led agriculture growth possible only by strengthening institutions of higher agriculture education Science, Technology and Innovation (STI)-major drivers of national development Vital role in agricultural transformation, reducing hunger and poverty Agriculture R&D policy integrated with the national R&D system and STI Policy-2013 The research focus shifted from a commodity based approach to a farming systems approach Focused, time bound multi-disciplinary research conceived through research consortia platforms Launched National Action Plan for Climate Change to cope with the climate change Inter-departmental platforms for research involving CSIR, DBT, ICMR, DRDO, DST research institutes, universities and Ministries of Environment, Space and Earth Sciences proposed

6 Promise and Perils of the agricultural sector Food self-sufficiency must for food & nutritional security, economic progress and industries The challenge is to produce more from less for more One (1) %-age point growth in agriculture is 2-3 times more effective in reducing poverty than non-agriculture sector growth Need for a shift from food-grains to other sub sectors of agriculture Importance of agriculture to due to concerns for food security, employment, rural poverty and availability of wage goods Paradox of relatively low contribution to GDP but dependency of more than 50% of India’s population

7 Low productivity- represents a huge need & opportunity Low investment in research Very limited access to markets Poor Policy & regulatory enviornment Low input usage and yield levels Low agricultural productivity : a multi-faceted problem

8 Farmers Participation Farmers Participation Improved Technologies Improved Technologies Increased Farm Income Increased Farm Income Higher Production Higher Production Diversification Trade & Market Development Trade & Market Development HRD for increased Farm Income….. Policy Initiatives Policy Initiatives Competent Human Resource Competent Human Resource

9 Legacy of Education…. Agricultural education existed in India even during ancient period. Agriculture was included in curricula of Nalanda and Takshila Universities as one of the 18 arts. In the relatively recent past, agricultural education in India started way back in 1877 with establishment of first agricultural school at Saidapet in Madras. Organized courses in agricultural education started in the beginning of the 20th century when six agricultural colleges were established.

10 National Agricultural Research & Education System NARES:- One of the largest in the World! DUs 05 DUs 05 SAUs 55 SAUs 55 CUs 04 CUs 04 ICARR Inst. 99 ICARR Inst. 99 AICRPs/Net work Project 60/18 AICRPs/Net work Project 60/18


12 Non-Formal Education Formal Education Informal Education Structure of Agricultural Education

13 Informal Agricultural Education Learning- how to learn!

14 Formal Agricultural Education:10+2 level

15 Agriculture- National Curriculum for School Education-2000 (based on minimum level of learning) Pre-Primary environmental awareness Primary Classes (III- V) environmental phenomenon Upper Primary Classes (VI-VIII) Agriculture and technology processes as part of work education ICSE, CBSE & State boards Introduced agriculture as an optional subject

16 Graduate level Agricultural Education Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE) of the Central Government responsible of coordinating agricultural education in the country through ICAR. A State Agricultural University (SAU) is established through the enactment of Legislative Act of the respective state. Standard pattern for a bachelor degree in agriculture and allied sciences, except veterinary science commonly referred to as the 10+2+4 pattern. ICAR fosters a countrywide arrangement with the AUs to set aside 15% of their seats for Bachelor degree programs to be admitted through its All India Entrance Examination to improve overall quality of agricultural education

17 Post Graduate level Agricultural Education ICAR as nodal agency at the national level is striving to bring uniformity in syllabus, nomenclature, mode of examination and distribution of credits among major and minor fields and research work PG degree awarded by AUs in 93 sub- subjects under 20 major subject groups The professional degrees are of 4 semester duration based on a 4-year bachelor ICAR conducts entrance test for PG admissions to fill all the seats of ICAR Dus and 25% of the seats of SAU’s and CAU AUs award Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) degrees in 14 major subject-groups covering 56 sub- subjects. Admission requires a Master' Degree in the same subject. The Ph.D. degree is of 6 semester duration involving original research and also coursework spread- over atleast two semesters ICAR research institutes and laboratories are recognized for doctoral work although the usual case is that a university awards the degree.

18 All India Entrance Examination UG : 15% seats PG : 25% seats All India Entrance Examination UG : 15% seats PG : 25% seats Fellowships / Scholarships SRF : 202 JRF : 475 NTS : ICAR UG Admissions outside state MCM : 7% of students Internship : BVSc RAWE Fellowships / Scholarships SRF : 202 JRF : 475 NTS : ICAR UG Admissions outside state MCM : 7% of students Internship : BVSc RAWE Students Counselling, Personality Development, Placement Examination reforms Students Counselling, Personality Development, Placement Examination reforms Attracting talents to Agricultural Education….

19 Course Curriculu m 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 ICAR’s Deans Committees regularly suggests model course curricula, syllabi and academic regulations. Rationalization of policies for admission, programme duration, credit requirements, evaluation & curricula grading-updating-revision UG curricula for 7 major faculties revised with focus on courses like IT, bio-stats., bio-tech., ABM, banking & co-operation etc. Revised UG curricula also provide 6 months of Rural Agricultural Work Experience. Detailed curricula developed for 16 PG Programmes. Transparency in the internal evaluation system at UG & PG levels.

20 Curriculum- Transition from RAWE to READY….

21 Vocational Courses in Agricultural Education To impart formal and informal training and prepare the working population employable for a broad range of occupations including agriculture. Objective Bridge Professionals with core basic skills in different domains of agriculture supply chain is required to the tune of 1.7 million by 2020. Requirement Class-room instructions Laboratory instructions Supervised occupational experiences Distance education Methodology

22 I C A R Promoting norms and standards of education I C A R Promoting norms and standards of education Union government Promotion of Research & co-ordination and determination of standards in State institutions DARE co-ordinates at National level. Governance in agriculture education Administration at National Level Union Minister of Agriculture – Ex-officio President of Society Director General of ICAR –Ex-officio Secretary DARE State governments Establishment of SAUs Integration of Agricultural research Education & extension Ag. Edn. is State responsibility

23 Tran-sectoral issues 1.Challenges to Higher Education- no longer Nation Centric 2.Agriculture Education needs to be evaluated in the context and relevance of Economic, environmental and production needs of the society 3.A holistic approach needed to expand pool of institutions, scholars and students to achieve global excellence 4.Critical areas ranging from issues of access, equity and excellence to teaching-learning process, research, governance, funding and monitoring in a coordinated manner need to be addressed

24 Challenges & Issues….  New Universities without matching resources  Faculty Shortage in the frontier areas  Extensive inbreeding  Inadequate employability  Faculty Competence in emerging areas  Lack of modern infrastructure  Inadequate hands on skills  Weak research networking & linkages  Regional inequalities and natural resource degradation

25 Recommendations….. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Attracting students to agricultural Education Academic Reforms Curriculum improvement Faculty improvement Inclusive growth Institutional development Governance and structure Globalization and partnership Centre-state partnership Non-formal education Financial sustainability

26 Initiatives proposed…. Initiation of a new fellowship “ASPIRE” for young talents, Initiation of ICAR Post Doctoral Fellowships, Broadening scope of NTS to PG students, Enhancing the stipend of RAWE/Internship, Strengthening student amenities, Sandwich/ exchange programme

27 New initiatives for Capacity Building and Addressing Faculty shortage  Initiation of Centres of Faculty Excellence in AUs,  Competitive Research Grant to faculty,  ICAR-Overseas Associateship,  International Fellowships,  Faculty exposure to International Conferences/ Symposia.  Centres of Excellence Capacity Building Addressing Faculty Shortage  Adjunct & Visiting Faculty,  Initiation of ICAR Resident Scholar Scheme,  Initiation of ICAR Emeritus Professor Scheme,  Strengthening of ICAR-Emeritus Scientist Scheme.  Teaching Associates/ Teaching Assistants

28  Attract international students  Encourage global networking Promote collaborative research Permit dual degree programmes Set up campuses abroad Strategic alliance Globalizing Education….

29 AUs having MoUs with Foreign Universities ICAR International Fellowships (15 every year, both ways) ASEAN India -Afghanistan Fellowships 115 Fellowships (75 M.Sc. + 40 Ph.D.) every year for 5 years to Afghans in India India - Africa Fellowships 75 Fellowships (50 M.Sc. + 25 Ph.D.) every year for 4 years to Africans in India Foreign Students Admission (Over 250/year) International Linkages….

30 Renovation & Modernization of Labs, Class Rooms, etc. Library Extended Faculty (Guest Lecture, Adjunct & Guest Faculty) Faculty Development e - Resources Federal Support to AUs

31 e-Courses Fast and low-cost method to increase outreach to students/colleges / universities One of the largest e-learning initiatives Provides uniform & quality learning material both online & offline to complement formal education Courses developed & delivered -262 out of 426 Degree Programs Covered (7) Agriculture, B.V.Sc. & AH, Horticulture, Fishery Science, Home Science, Dairy Tech and Agril. Engg. Total 426 Courses

32 Avg. Citation of Research Publications (2000-2004) in 2004-07 (Pre-) and 2008-11 (Post-) CeRA Covers 2900 Journals to 145 Members in NARS > 8000 DDR (Document Delivery Request) System Assuming a cost of US $ 4 per article download the Consortium has notionally recovered more than Rs. 80 Crore Consortium for e-Resources in Agriculture CeRA facilitates online access of scientific journal on Scientist's desktop at 24x7 through IP Authentication

33 Access Knowledge Gender Equity Entrepreneurship Confidence Acceptability of Students Employability of Students Faculty Competence Increased Quality Assurance Better Governance Promotion of Merit Promotion of Excellence Reduced Inbreeding Globalization Achievements in Agricultural Education

34 India has a very strong and dynamic agricultural education system in the country for ensuring sustainable agricultural development and livelihood security. Agricultural education system in India has distinctly evolved on the British system of education during pre-independence era and in post-independence era, on the US Land grant pattern. The continued support of ICAR has resulted tremendous improvement in infrastructure, skilled manpower and capacity of faculty and farms. A dynamic approach is needed to bring transformation towards producing professionals who are competent, self- reliant and capable to swiftly adjust with the ever-changing societal requirements. India is poised to become preferred destination of foreign students for agricultural education because of improved infrastructure and enhanced skills and competencies for meeting new challenges. Conclusions…

35 Our efforts in HRD continue…. Vision 2030: Green Revolution to Rainbow Revolution Vision 2030: Green Revolution to Rainbow Revolution


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