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Ch. 4, Scientific Method in Abnormal Psychology Prepared by Elizabeth Jacobs, Ph.D.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 4, Scientific Method in Abnormal Psychology Prepared by Elizabeth Jacobs, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 4, Scientific Method in Abnormal Psychology Prepared by Elizabeth Jacobs, Ph.D.

2 Theoretical Research Each theory conducts its own research to support its diagnoses and treatments… …some good, some bad, some horrible and dangerous… Schizophrenogenic parenting, estrogen….

3 What’s the worse thing about living in/around Phoenix, Arizona?

4 Driving!!!

5 The better driver? Males??? Females???

6 Characteristics of good drivers…?

7 A Reaction Time Experiment, By Betsy Jacobs First thing I need? – Hypothesis… (educated guess) Next thing I need? – Operational definitions… (of reaction time…) Next? – Measurement… – I choose… A yardstick!! (Reliable/valid?)

8 My Experiment continued… Some variables are in order here… – Independent… sex (quasi-experimental) – Dependent…(measurement)

9 Running the experiment Need a male first… Time: Now a female…. Time: Statistical analysis (your next class?) to determine whether there is a real difference or the difference occurred only by chance. Statistical vs. clinical significance

10 Correlational studies… NOT Cause and Effect From 0 (no Correlation ) to or Perfect Correlation)

11 More studies… Analog… effects of alcohol using rats Simulation…”sexual sadism” followed by survey Field studies…observe in nature (aggression)

12 One vs. many Nomothetic studies: study a large group of people and formulate a general law of behavior Idiographic = one person… – Case study (tests, observe, interview) – Single N (baseline, treatment, behavior, withdraw, behavior) – Multiple baseline (more than one behavior or one place) – Can’t generalize from an N of 1…

13 More studies… Genetic connection (e.g., schizophrenia) Penetrance (to what extent is the gene expressed) Biological (affect of substance on behavior….sugar?)

14 Other types of research Survey (GCC survey ) Longitudinal (over long period of time) Historical (reconstructing the past) Twin studies (twins – Thomas Bouchard)Thomas Bouchard Treatment outcomes Treatment process (how/why treatment is effective) Program evaluation (Dare, Head Start) Prevalence ( % in population with a disorder) Incidence rate (# of new case in specific time period – PTSD in last 9 years?)

15 Ethics in Research Withholding treatment? (hip research) Deception? Invasion of privacy? Risk patient’s mental/physical health? Cause pain in animals? Heavy…

16 APA Ethical Guidelines Informed consent Ability to withdraw any time Dignified Treatment Minimal pain Confidentiality


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