Presentation on theme: "Ch. 4, Scientific Method in Abnormal Psychology Prepared by Elizabeth Jacobs, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:
Ch. 4, Scientific Method in Abnormal Psychology Prepared by Elizabeth Jacobs, Ph.D.
Theoretical Research Each theory conducts its own research to support its diagnoses and treatments… …some good, some bad, some horrible and dangerous… Schizophrenogenic parenting, estrogen….
What’s the worse thing about living in/around Phoenix, Arizona?
The better driver? Males??? Females???
Characteristics of good drivers…?
A Reaction Time Experiment, By Betsy Jacobs First thing I need? – Hypothesis… (educated guess) Next thing I need? – Operational definitions… (of reaction time…) Next? – Measurement… – I choose… A yardstick!! (Reliable/valid?)
My Experiment continued… Some variables are in order here… – Independent… sex (quasi-experimental) – Dependent…(measurement)
Running the experiment Need a male first… Time: Now a female…. Time: Statistical analysis (your next class?) to determine whether there is a real difference or the difference occurred only by chance. Statistical vs. clinical significance
Correlational studies… NOT Cause and Effect From 0 (no Correlation ) to or Perfect Correlation)
More studies… Analog… effects of alcohol using rats Simulation…”sexual sadism” followed by survey Field studies…observe in nature (aggression)
One vs. many Nomothetic studies: study a large group of people and formulate a general law of behavior Idiographic = one person… – Case study (tests, observe, interview) – Single N (baseline, treatment, behavior, withdraw, behavior) – Multiple baseline (more than one behavior or one place) – Can’t generalize from an N of 1…
More studies… Genetic connection (e.g., schizophrenia) Penetrance (to what extent is the gene expressed) Biological (affect of substance on behavior….sugar?)
Other types of research Survey (GCC survey ) Longitudinal (over long period of time) Historical (reconstructing the past) Twin studies (twins – Thomas Bouchard)Thomas Bouchard Treatment outcomes Treatment process (how/why treatment is effective) Program evaluation (Dare, Head Start) Prevalence ( % in population with a disorder) Incidence rate (# of new case in specific time period – PTSD in last 9 years?)
Ethics in Research Withholding treatment? (hip research) Deception? Invasion of privacy? Risk patient’s mental/physical health? Cause pain in animals? Heavy…
APA Ethical Guidelines Informed consent Ability to withdraw any time Dignified Treatment Minimal pain Confidentiality