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Today is Friday (!), October 31 st (!), 2014 Pre-Class: Today we are reviewing. Have your questions ready!

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Presentation on theme: "Today is Friday (!), October 31 st (!), 2014 Pre-Class: Today we are reviewing. Have your questions ready!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Today is Friday (!), October 31 st (!), 2014 Pre-Class: Today we are reviewing. Have your questions ready!

2 Today’s Agenda Review Assassinations? Review

3 Review Game Rules I will ask a question to the class. Each participant (that’s you) writes down the answer silently. – Not each group…each individual. After a few moments, I will say, “Compare answers.” Each of you will look at what the other wrote.

4 Review Game Rules Did you each get the right answer? – 2 points. Did one of you get the right answer? – 1 point. Neither of you? – For shame. 0 points. – And eternal guilt.

5 Review Game Rules The List of Do Nots: – Do not talk to each other, make noises, gesture, give answers (my discretion here) between when the question has been read and when I say, “Compare answers.” Doing so will result in a disqualification for that round. Don’t believe me? Try it. – Do not fall asleep when I’m getting scores. If you’re not paying attention, I’m not giving you points.

6 Review Question 1 What’s the –SH functional group? – Sulfhydryl.

7 Review Question 2 Is it polar or nonpolar? – Polar.

8 Review Question 3 What is the sulfhydryl group most closely associated with? (as in, what kind of characteristics does it impart to a molecule that contains it) – It allows for disulfide bonds, which give structure to proteins (and also a degree of polarity/hydrophilicity).

9 Review Question 4 What part of a phospholipid is polar? – The “head” which is known as a glycerol molecule (with attached phosphate group).

10 Review Question 5 What is a polar molecule, anyway? – One in which the electrons involved in the covalent bond(s) are not being shared equally, leading to asymmetrical charge density and therefore “charged sides.” It results from a difference in electronegativity values.

11 Review Question 6 The cell membrane is now known to have lots of components besides phospholipids. These proteins and other molecules move freely throughout the membrane. What is this model of the cell membrane called? – The Fluid Mosaic Model.

12 Review Question 7 Which is better for a cell – to have a high surface area-to-volume ratio, or to have a low one? – High. Cells want the most surface area possible for their volumes.

13 Review Question 8 BONUS NON-BIOLOGY QUESTION You may wager any/all of your points. Category: Assassinations Conspiracy hypotheses aside, Lee Harvey Oswald is thought to have assassinated John F. Kennedy. Lee Harvey Oswald was in turn killed by whom? – Jack Ruby.

14 Review Question 9 If a cell with a concentration of 1.9% sucrose is placed in a 2% sucrose solution, what happens? (assume that sucrose cannot pass through the membrane) – The cell becomes hypotonic to its surroundings (which are hypertonic) and loses water (shrinks).

15 Review Question 10 Pure water is perfectly ___tonic, therefore  S is equal to ___. – [hypo]tonic … [0].

16 Review Question 11 If  cell = -4.2 bars and  beaker = -5.3 bars, where will water flow? Which is hypertonic? – Water will flow to the beaker (out of the cell). The beaker is hypertonic.

17 Review Question 12 When R-groups on amino acids start to interact with one another, what level of protein structure are we seeing? – Tertiary structure.

18 Review Question 13 Does facilitated diffusion require ATP? – Nope. It’s still just diffusion and that means it’s a form of passive transport.

19 Review Question 14 True or False: Hormones come in contact with every cell. – True. Not all cells respond, however, because not all cells have the appropriate receptor proteins.

20 Review Question 15 For a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), what is the next step after the ligand binds to the membrane receptor? – The receptor activates a G protein, which dissociates into its G α and G β /G γ subunits. The G α subunit’s GDP is replaced by GTP.

21 Review Question 16 BONUS NON-BIOLOGY QUESTION You may wager any/all of your points. Category: US History In 1587, at the ill-fated Roanoke Colony, the first child of English parents was born in the New World. What was her name? – Virginia Dare.

22 Review Question 17 In general, what does a protein kinase do? – A kinase is an enzyme that adds a phosphate group (usually from ATP) to a protein.

23 Review Question 18 What’s the opposite enzyme (the antagonist) of a kinase? – Phosphatase, which removes phosphate groups.

24 Review Question 19 Which cell organelle is usually responsible for some of the last processes prior to secretion of materials? – The Golgi complex.

25 Review Question 20 How is a prokaryote similar to a mitochondrion? – They both have DNA, they both have ribosomes, they both can move on their own, and they both have double membranes.

26 Review Question 21 What kinds of molecules can most easily diffuse into a cell through the membrane? – Non-polar molecules like small lipids.

27 Review Question 22 BONUS NON-BIOLOGY QUESTION You may wager any/all of your points. Category: US History (again) All the inhabitants of the Roanoke Colony, including Virginia Dare, vanished sometime before Though they were never found and evidence showed they were not forced, a visit to the site in 1590 revealed a word carved into a fencepost. What was that word? – “Croatoan.” “Cro” was also carved into a tree nearby.

28 Review Question 23 In order to link two protein monomers called _____, a _____ bond must form through the process of _____ in which _____ is _____. MUST GET ALL FOUR FOR CREDIT – amino acids … peptide … dehydration synthesis … water … removed.

29 Review Question 24 Fatty acids are made primarily of long nonpolar hydrocarbons. How can you distinguish unsaturated fats from saturated fats? – Saturated fats are solid at room temperature and have all single bonds in their hydrocarbon chains, which are straight. – Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature (oils) and have at least one double bond in their hydrocarbon chains, which are bent.

30 Review Question 25 Negative feedback loops are most closely linked with maintaining what? – Homeostasis.

31 Review Question 26 What type of cell junction allows for waterproofing? – Tight junctions.

32 Review Question 27 After phagocytosis, the ingested vesicle then fuses with what digestive organelle? – The lysosome.

33 Review Question 28 What is paracrine signaling? – Local signaling – when the target cell(s) is/are in close proximity to the signaling cell.

34 Review Question 29 What term is used to describe a cell’s ability to turn a single ligand molecule into a more substantial response? – Amplification.

35 Review Question 30 What is the name for the intracell transport system that uses, among other things, the nucleus, ER, vesicles, and Golgi apparatus? – The endomembrane system.

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