Presentation on theme: "Section 1: The First Inhabitants Scientists believe the first people came to America across the Bering Strait. The climate was colder and the land was."— Presentation transcript:
Section 1: The First Inhabitants Scientists believe the first people came to America across the Bering Strait. The climate was colder and the land was covered with trees, mastodons, and other large animals. The first people in North Carolina are called Paleolithic (Latin for “old stone,” referring to tools). They hunted & gathered in groups.
The Archaic Period Development of the Atlatl allowed the natives to hunt small game, hunt and gather main source of food. Flint tools became more complex, resulting in scrapers, hammers, and spears. Communities began as survival skills improved, but no real permanent settlements.
The Woodland Period The introduction of corn altered life, allowing people to settle and thrive. Villages began as people were able to stay in one place longer. People learned to create items with clay. People depended on the forests for shelter and hunting, crops were supplemental to hunting and gathering. Click here to return to Main Menu.
Mississippian Influence People were influenced by the culture of settlers from along the Mississippi River. The Mississippians held ceremonies, led by priests, which were important for crops and harmony with earth. Town Creek Indian Mound was a ceremonial center and was a place of celebration Green Corn Day. Crops were the main source of food, hunting & gathering now supplemental.
Section 2: Indian Life at the Time of European Contact ESSENTIAL QUESTION – How did the Indians live when the Europeans arrived?
Section 2: Indian Life at the Time of European Contact Introduction By the 1500’s, Indian cultures were well organized. The same basic groups still live in North Carolina today. The Coastal Plain, the Piedmont, and Mountains were home to more than 30 different groups. Groups ranged in size from a few villages to thousands of members.
Algonquin Tribes The Algonquin language was spoken by groups along the coast. The groups included the Chowanoc, the Pasquotank, and the Waccamaw. The paintings of John White of the Lost Colony feature the Algonquin.
The Tuscarora The Tuscarora lived on the Coastal Plain, along the Neuse and Tar Rivers. The Tuscarora used hemp to make rope and binding cord. The name means “hemp gatherers.” The Tuscarora were connected to the Iroquois nation of New York. The correct form of posture was ensured by lacing infants to a board, resulting in well- shaped limbs.
The Catawba The largest group living in the Piedmont was the Catawba. They were known for their burnt-black pottery. Tribes in the Piedmont spoke versions of the Sioux language.
The Cherokee They were related to the Iroquois, but had been driven away from their homes. During the Woodland Period, they settled in the mountains. They controlled 40,000 square miles when the Europeans arrived. During the Woodland Period, they numbered 30,000, and had three main divisions – upper, middle, and lower. They made baskets of strips of branches from oak trees. Click here to return to Main Menu.
Native American Habits and Beliefs Woodland culture and customs dominated by the 1500’s. Villages were built of longhouses or huts. Clans were connected through the mothers (matrilineal). Tribes were governed by consensus, where most members agreed on decisions. Nature was respected and was at the center of most beliefs. Click here to return to Main Menu.
What’s Going on in Europe during the late 15 th Century? The Catholic Spanish, the French, the Portuguese, the Dutch, & the Protestant English are all wanting a piece of the New World. Three Main reasons why: 1. Money, Treasure 2. Religion 3. New Land, Expansion
Giovanni da Verrazano Italian explorer in 1524, France had ordered Verrazano to find a shorter water route to China. When Verrazano arrived at Pamlico Sound, he thought he was looking at a route to Asia. 1 st time North Carolina area discovered.
Hernando de Soto In 1540, de Soto and his 600 soldiers entered the Carolinas, looking for gold in the Mountain region. He was hateful to the Indian tribes, and the Cherokee created a Booger dance after him. He died on his expedition.
Juan Pardo and More Spaniards Pardo’s expedition included Catholic priests who tried to convert the Native Americans.
Sir Walter Raleigh and the English Gilbert went on a second expedition and was lost at sea in 1583. The queen did not let Raleigh go because she dreamt he would die. In 1584, Raleigh began his expeditions, Raleigh was a Sea Dog, or sponsored pirate. Click here to return to Main Menu.
Section 3: European Explorers Come and Go ESSENTIAL QUESTION –Who were the first explorers of North Carolina and how did they interact with the Native Americans?
Section 4: The 1 st English Expedition Introduction The commanders of two of Raleigh’s ships claimed the Carolina shore in the name of Queen Elizabeth on July 13, 1584, and landed on Roanoke island. When returning to England after six weeks, the men took two Indians, Manteo & Wanchese, notebooks of notes, and samples of plants. Queen Elizabeth knighted Raleigh, allowed him to name the colony Virginia, and allowed him to begin to establish a permanent colony.
The Lane Colony Raleigh’s second expedition of 1585 included Ralph Lane, and many men they were to create a fort for protection and settlement. Writer Thomas Harriot and artist John White brought scientific information back to England. Fort Raleigh was built, but desire for gold, conflict with native, and violence caused trouble. Frances Drake arrived in 1586. He took Lane and his party, leaving behind slaves and others. When Richard Grenville returned with supplies from England, he found no one.
The White Colony John White led 110 settlers, including women and children, to begin a settlement at Roanoke. August 18, 1587 – Virginia Dare, John White’s granddaughter, was born. She was the first baby born to Europeans in the New World. White returned to England for supplies, but was not able to return for three years because of war in England. When White returned to the island in 1590, no one was there. Two clues White found were carved. One tree had the letters CRO and a post had the word CROATOAN. White thought the carvings meant the settlers were at a nearby village. Weather and damage to the ship prevented White from looking for the missing settlers.
The Fate of the “Lost Colony” Many ideas explain what happened to the missing Roanoke settlers. Evidence that the settlers may have survived has been seen in descendants from the area. Some believe that the settlers went to the original destination – Chesapeake Bay. Many stories exist about Virginia Dare. England did not pursue settlements in the area for more than 50 years because of the tragedy at Roanoke.