Presentation on theme: "What’s in Ch. 52 ? I. The Passive Periphrastic GERUNDIVES of Obligation – a.k.a. the “passive periphrastic” (page 174) Gerundives with the helping."— Presentation transcript:
What’s in Ch. 52 ? I. The Passive Periphrastic GERUNDIVES of Obligation – a.k.a. the “passive periphrastic” (page 174) Gerundives with the helping verb (form of sum, esse) show necessity, obligation (p. 174) The Dative of Agent with gerundives of obligation (page 174) Examples of the Gerundive of Obligation in indirect statement The gerundive of intransitive verbs is often used impersonally (page 174) The gerundive showing purpose as the object of curo, mitto & do (page 174) P.S. Memorabilia – famous lines from Vergil (page 175) Some glimpses of Augustus (page 114)
celebrō, celebrāre, celebrāvī, celebrātus/a/um = to celebrate ōrnō, ōrnāre, ōrnāvī, ōrnātus/a/um = to adorn, decorate appāreō, appārēre, appāruī, apparitūrus/a/um = to appear precor, precārī, precātus sum = to pray āra, ārae F. = altar modus, modī M. = way, kind, sort omnī modō = in every way; eiusmodi = of this kind, sort initium, initiī N. = beginning sacrificium, sacrificiī N. = sacrifice rēligiō, rēligiōnis F. = reverence, piety aureus, aurea, aureum = golden, of gold prīscus, prīsca, prīscum = old, olf-fashioned sānctus, sāncta, sānctum = holy sapiēns, sapientis = wise
I. The Passive Periphrastic (gerundive + form of sum, esse) GERUNDIVES of Obligation – a.k.a. the “passive periphrastic” (page 174)…examples : cēna nōbīs paranda est. = Dinner must be prepared by us. = We must prepare dinner. [nōbīs is dative of agent] hortus mihi visitandus est. = the garden must be visited by me I must visit the garden. litterae patrī scrībendae sunt. = the letters must be written by father Father must write the letters.
I. The Passive Periphrastic (gerundive + form of sum, esse) GERUNDIVES of Obligation – a.k.a. the “passive periphrastic” (page 174)… Gerundives with the helping verb (form of sum, esse) show necessity, obligation (p. 174 & above) …more examples : omnēs hī librī mihi legendī sunt. = All these books must be read by me. = I must read all these books. Drācō Dormiēns Nunquam Titillandus (est) = A Sleeping Dragon should never be tickled. ≈ Never tickle a sleeping dragon. In carcerem iudicī mittendus eris. = You will have to be sent to prison by the judge. = The judge will have to send you to prison. The Dative of Agent with gerundives of obligation (page 174 & above)
l English words / expressions that have the gerund of obligation sound * supply est ** supply sunt o agendum * = the thing which must be done o agenda ** = the things which must be done o memorandum * = something which must be remembered o memoranda ** = the things which must be remembered o addendum * = the thing which must be added o addenda ** = the things which must be added o corrigenda ** = the things which must be corrected o mūtātīs mūtandīs = Because the things have changed, they had to change (this is an ablative absolute) o Amanda * = Amanda; “she who is fit/worthy to be loved” o Miranda * = Miranda; “she who is fit/worthy to be marveled at” o legend = a story that must be read
Examples of the Gerundive of Obligation in indirect statement…just remember accusative + inf. 1. Māter dīxit cēnam nōbīs parandam esse. = Mother said that dinner must be prepared by us. = Mother said that we must prepare dinner. [nōbīs is dative of agent] 2. Magister dīcit omnēs hōs librōs mihi legendōs esse. = 3. Iudex nūntiāvit tē in carcerem mittendum esse. = 4. Hermiōne dīcit drācōnem dormientem nunquam titillandum (esse) =
The gerundive of intransitive verbs is often used impersonally (page 174) Intransitive verbs (i.e., verbs that do not take a direct object; e.g., verbs of motion) are used impersonally. In this event, the gerundives end in – ndum, and the helping verb is singular (est, erat, erit, fuit, sit, esset): Nōbīs eundum est. = We must go. (literally: there must be a going by us.) Puellīs festinandum erat. = The girls had to hurry. (literally: It had to be hurried by the girls) Nunc est bibendum = There must now be a drinking (i.e., Let’s make a toast. Famous poem of Horace) Hīc omnibus puerīs manendum erit. = All the boys will have to stay here. (There will have to be a staying by all the boys.)
The gerundive showing purpose as the object of curo, mitto & do, dare (page 174)… -Sometimes the gerundive agrees with the object of special verbs showing purpose or intent, e.g., curāre, dare, mittere (see 52.2): Domum magistra discipulum puniendum mīsit. = The teacher sent the student home to be punished. Augustus ludōs Capuae celebrandōs curāvit. = Augustus arranged for (took care to (have)) the games celebrated at Capua.
TRANSLATE into your composition books: 1. res publica regenda est; et cīvēs regendī sunt. 2. carmen mihi scrībendum est. 3. carmina mihi scrībenda sunt. (erant/erunt) 4. verba poetārum militibus audienda sunt. 5. Nos omnes moritūrī sumus. Hoc vōbīs intellegendum est. 6. hic servus miser dominō durō erit liberandus.
7. nunc puerīs abeundum est. 8. urbe captā, nunc nōbīs in exsilium eundum est. 9. Sī bellum gerendum esset, meī amīcī, peterētisne nova arma? 10. Romam omnibus virīs bonīs veniendum est. 11. Carthago delenda est. 12. volo pecuniam tibi dare ad cenam parandam. (cenae parandae) 13. dux urbem delendam curāvit.