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DAREPage 1 Non-Invasive Induction Link Model for Implantable Biomedical Microsystems: Pacemaker to Monitor Arrhythmic Patients in Body Area Networks Prepared by: Anum Tauqir

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DAREPage 2 Outline Background Problem Statement Motivation Mathematical Model Equivalent Circuits Equations Simulation Results Conclusion

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DAREPage 3 Background

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DAREPage 4 Medical Implants aim to: replace missing body parts or deliver medication, monitor body functions, or provide support to organs and tissues. Most widely implanted device: Pacemaker monitor patients with heart related issues Most commonly occurring is arrhythmia

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DAREPage 5 an abnormal heart rhythm, due to changes in the conduction of electrical impulses through the heart. Pacemakers: use low-energy electrical pulses to overcome this abnormality. They create forced rhythms according to natural human heart beats, to let the heart to function in a normal manner. consists of a small battery, a generator and wires attached to the sensor to be inserted into the patients heart. Arrhythmia

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DAREPage 6 Working of Pacemaker

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DAREPage 7 Problem Statement

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DAREPage 8 To cater for arrhythmia: generated pulses carry sensed information regarding different events occurring inside the heart to the doctor processing and transmission of data, create a strain on the battery of a pacemaker to consume huge amount of power that ultimately; depletes the sensor and hence becomes unable to further carry any informational data.

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DAREPage 9 Motivation

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DAREPage 10 Induction technique is presented to: recharge the sensors battery, implanted inside a pacemaker to avoid early depletion Technique focuses on enhancing: voltage gain link efficiency Two equivalent circuits: Series tuned primary circuit Series tuned primary and parallel tuned secondary circuit

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DAREPage 11 Mathematical Model

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DAREPage 12 Induction Link Primary Circuit powered by a voltage source Secondary Circuit Source generates magnetic flux in order to induce power at secondary side, implanted inside human body. Interface skin acts as an interface or a barrier between the two circuits.

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DAREPage 13 Induction Link Parameters Coupling Co-efficient (k) degree of coupling between the two circuits. enhances the link efficiency In WBANs for body tissues safety: k < 0.45 Voltage Gain (V out / V in ) ratio that, indicates an increase in the voltage at the output side in relative to the voltage applied at primary side Link Efficiency (η) ability of transferring power from primary side to secondary side in an efficient manner.

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DAREPage 14 Equivalent Circuits

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DAREPage 15 Series Tuned Primary Circuit (STPC)

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DAREPage 16 a capacitor is connected in series at primary side. as, only a small amount of voltage induces because of a low coupling factor of 0.45 so, a series tuned circuit is used in order to: induce sufficient amount of voltage to the secondary coil

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DAREPage 17 Series Tuned Primary and Parallel Tuned Secondary Circuit (STPPTSC)

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DAREPage 18 capacitor C 2p is connected in parallel at secondary side as, the sensors implanted inside a human body operate under low frequencies. parallel capacitor let the circuit to act as a low pass filter which, allows low frequencies to pass through and, blocking the higher frequencies thereby, preventing damages to body tissues

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DAREPage 19 Model Parameters ParameterValue Operating frequencyf = 13.56 MHz Primary coilL 1 = 5.48 μH Secondary coilL 2 = 1 μH Parasitic resistance of the transmitter coil R L1 ≃ 2.12 Ω Parasitic resistance of the receiver coil R L2 ≃ 1.63 Ω Load resistanceR load = 320 Ω

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DAREPage 20 Equations

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DAREPage 21 Voltage Gain For STPC For STPPTSC where,

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DAREPage 22 Link Efficiency For STPC For STPPTSC where,

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DAREPage 23 Simulation Results

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DAREPage 24 Voltage Gain of Series Tuned Primary Circuit

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DAREPage 25 Link Efficiency of Series Tuned Primary Circuit

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DAREPage 26 Voltage Gain of Series Tuned Primary and Parallel Tuned Secondary Circuit

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DAREPage 27 Link Efficiency of Series Tuned Primary and Parallel Tuned Secondary Circuit

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DAREPage 28 Conclusion

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DAREPage 30

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