Presentation on theme: "Session 3 Disaster Education & Participatory Approach Session 3 Disaster Education & Participatory Approach Risk Communication Katsuya Yamori and Michinori."— Presentation transcript:
Session 3 Disaster Education & Participatory Approach Session 3 Disaster Education & Participatory Approach Risk Communication Katsuya Yamori and Michinori Hatayama BEFORE THE EVENT AFTER THE EVENT EARLY WARNING EDUCATION PRE-IMPACT EMERGENCY RESTORATION PREPAREDNESS RECONSTRUCTION Disaster DISASTER IMPACT
Contents 1. Important approaches to disaster education 2. “Active risk” vs. “Neutral risk” ： Background of participatory approach to disaster education 3. Basic forms of disaster education 4. Some practical methods and procedures in disaster education and learning
Important approaches to disaster education One-way / Participatory (Collaborative) Knowledge / Skill Desktop / Field School / Adult (Life-time) Specific / Comprehensive
“Active (Perceived) risk” The importance of participatory and collaborative disaster education is explained with respect to risk. “(Perceived) Risk”: an active attitude towards natural hazards “Danger” often represents a neutral mind-set concerning hazards “Risk”: from Italian word “risicare,” which means, “dare to do something.” The active (perceived) aspect of human beings with respect to danger is an essential part of the meaning of risk
Table 1 Statistical representations of average risk level of various hazards How many people killed for the 100 thousand population? Typhoon (0.01) Thunder (0.005) Car accident (3.1) Murder (0.41)
“Neutral (Actual) Risk” In table 1, “risk” is interpreted to be almost identical to “danger.” Objective assessment based on statistical data about hazards considers risks as the ones existing independently of those who receive the data. No active position to change the statistics, but just to receive the data neutrally as given and accepted as facts. Thus “Neutral or actual risk”
Neutral risk assessmentActive risk taking Both neutral risk communication and active risk communication are needed
Basic forms of disaster education At elementary schools: Evacuation drills for an earthquake (Fig. 1) At local communities: Rediscovering what exactly happened in the past (Fig.2) From mass media: Identifying useful hints about disasters from TV programs Fig.1 Go under the desk during an earthquake Fig.2 A display indicating the height that the last Tsunami reached in a local town in Japan (Japan) (Philippine )
Some useful methods for disaster education and learning Workshop Gaming Integrated disaster reduction drill Town walking
Workshop: Disaster Imagination Game (DIG ) To involve stakeholders such as local residents, local government officials, disaster relief volunteers, and also disaster experts To co-produce a “DIG map” of their local community To discuss such issues as what kind of responses are needed for an emergency, how different sectors can cooperate with each other, and what preventative measures can be taken in advance in the community
Integrated disaster reduction drill A wide variety of participants School children Parents Teachers Local residents University professors Local government officials A wide variety of contents Disaster map drawing Fire extinguisher drill Simulated earthquake shaking experience Emergency food cooking Furniture fixing device set-up training Emergency toilet set-up training The next slide shows some snapshots from such a drill conducted at an elementary school in Aichi Prefecture
Fire extinguisher drill Emergency toilet set-up training Disaster map drawing Furniture fixing device set-up training Integrated disaster reduction drill
CrossRoad KOBE Game (1) A group game A series of forced-choices between “Yes or No” such as the example shown in the box. A tough decision which people might face when they prepare for or respond to disasters. Personal decisions by individual participants, guessing the decisions with each other, and explaining the grounds for individual decisions Example: Suppose you are a member of the local government staff. Your house was seriously damaged by a severe earthquake this morning and your wife and two kids were wounded. Although you are all safe, your family looks very nervous. Your mission is to make relief materials available to disaster victims in the regional disaster prevention plan. Are you going to your office right away, or to stay at home to take care of your family?
CrossRoad KOBE Game (2) Careful and serious consideration is required taking into account the costs/ benefits of the two choices If asked to, explain reasonable grounds for the decision Identify good practices for active risk taking Work out an appropriate solution depending on a specific situation Become aware of how differently people could react to the same dilemmatic condition
Town walking program (Outdoor workshop) Disaster prevention usually done in an explicit way. Difficult for local community to maintain concern during daily life. Disaster prevention that does not explicitly talk about preventing disasters.
Town walking program Methodology NGOs, local volunteer groups, community people (including children) walk and observe the town. The workshop is less about "Disaster Prevention" explicitly, but more about daily living concerns. Usually children can lead the workshop. They become interested in hazardous spots, disaster prevention devices, such as fire plugs, evacuation facilities, etc., along with other important elements in their own town.
Community Safety Information Map Primary SchoolWell Settlement Area Example (one of the areas in Bangladesh) To summarize local information collected in disaster education and learning activities To continuously update local information based on repeated disaster education and mutual learning activities, and lessons learned To promote participatory map making The purpose of making community safety maps
The Community Safety Information Map Making Process (1)Start town watching (2)Find useful/dangerous spot(4)Mark the spot on map (3)Take pictures (5)Collect information on map Community Safety Map Contents of Community Safety Information Map Disasters prevention organization information Medical institution information Lifeline management organization information Disaster-vulnerable people information Refuge information Disaster emergency information Others Municipal Office / Police Station / Firehouse and Fire brigade station… Hospital / Clinic / Drugstore, … Water and Sewerage Office / Phone Company / Electricity Company…. Kinder garden / Elementary School / Welfare Spot… Refuge Place / Refuge Direction and Route / Dangerous spot for Refuge… Fire Hydrant / Temporal Heliport / Rescue Materials Warehouse…. Pool / water tank / well …
Flood http://www.city.bunkyo.tokyo.jp/service /disaster_prevention/suigai/hazard.pdf Earthquake Hazard Map http://www.pref.osaka.jp/kikikanri/ crisis/plan/research/research.html #TOP By overlaying hazard maps on the community safety map you can develop a better safety map for your town. If you add a lot of information to community safety maps, a GIS( Geographic Information System) is useful as an advanced computer system.