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® Donna Herold, Spokane Public Schools ASCD Understanding by Design Cadre / Faculty Member July 1, 2012 St. Louis --------------------------------------------------------------------

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Presentation on theme: "® Donna Herold, Spokane Public Schools ASCD Understanding by Design Cadre / Faculty Member July 1, 2012 St. Louis --------------------------------------------------------------------"— Presentation transcript:

1 ® Donna Herold, Spokane Public Schools ASCD Understanding by Design Cadre / Faculty Member July 1, 2012 St. Louis ASCD Summer Conference Writing the UbD Way: Ends-based Modeling, Coaching, and Conferencing in the Writing-Centered Secondary Classroom

2 Objectives Context O Why writing instruction matters Understanding by Design as model for writing instruction O A M T Criteria O Four characteristics of effective writing assignments Alignment (models and practice) O Creating assignments aligning skills, understandings, and criteria

3 Objectives

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8 National Commission on Writing: O We must DOUBLE the writing kids are doing in ALL content areas O Students must write more out of school O Writing must be taught in all subjects and at all grade levels O Writing and School Reform, including ‘The Neglected ‘R,’ The College Board. May 2006

9 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standard #10 O Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences. O CCSS for English/Language Arts & Literacy in, p. 41History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects

10 Writing: Of freshmen entering Harvard: “Bad spelling, incorrectness as well as inelegance of expression in writing, [and] ignorance of the simplest rules of punctuation.” O Harvard President Charles Eliot, 1871

11 Writing through time: O “Children don’t get many opportunities to write. In [a] recent study in grades one, three, and five, only 15% of the schools day was spent in any kind of writing activity.” O R.C. Anderson, Becoming a Nation of Readers: The Report of the Commission on Reading, 1985

12 Writing through time: O “Each year in their writing, students should demonstrate increasing sophistication in all aspects of of language use, from vocabulary and syntax to the development and organization of ideas, and they should address increasingly demanding content and sources. O CCSS for English/Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects, p. 42

13 Source: Balog, David, Ed. The Dana Source Book of Brain Science: Resources for Teachers and Students 4 th edition. Dana Press, c2006.

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15 Philosophy of Writing Instruction... What are your central beliefs about writing instruction?

16 Philosophy of Writing Instruction... O Successful writing instruction takes time O Writing requires planning backward from the goal O Writing deepens thinking around content O Writing is a powerful way to exhibit understanding

17 Understanding by Design’s A M T O Acquisition– O A fact is a fact; a skill is a skill. We acquire each in turn. O Skills and facts do not mean I understand, but I cannot understand without skills and facts. O Making Meaning O What do these facts imply? O What is their sense, import, value? O Transfer– O How should I apply my prior facts, skills, and ideas effectively in this particular situation? O The situation must be new and uncharted.

18 How People Learn O Transfer is “the ability to extend what has been learned in one context to new contexts.” O National Research Council, How People Learn, 2000

19 Memorize these numbers:

20 Think of... O The Declaration of Independence Minutes / Hours / Days / Years Emergencies!

21 Memorize these numbers:

22 Can you transfer? IBMATTIKEAGMDKNY

23 Can you transfer? IBM-ATT-IKEA-GM- DKNY

24 Simple A. M. T. Example O Students practice tying their shoes O Students draw/speak the steps of lace tying O Students discuss the pros and cons of laces vs. Velcro, and different methods of tying O Students teach others how to tie their shoes O Students tie something else—ropes or ribbons

25 Learning to Write-- Acquisition Writing to Learn- Making Meaning Writing to exhibit a new Understanding -- Transfer Writing the UbD Way

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27 What leads to Transfer in Writing? O Acquisition of necessary writing skills O Acquisition of writing-based concepts / knowledge of content O Adequate time to make meaning through consideration of models, practice drafting, revising, and editing, teacher and peer feedback (coaching / conferencing), and self- evaluation O Desire to practice—desire to improve

28 Consider and share: What was the best or worst writing assignment you were ever assigned as a student? What made it the best or the worst? What was the best or the worst writing assignment you gave this year? What made it the best or the worst?

29 Effective Writing Assignments: O Content and Scope: O “[An effective writing assignment] engages students in a series of cognitive processes, such as reflection, analysis, and synthesis, so that they are required to transform the information from the reading material in order to complete the writing assignment.” O --Nagin, Carl and the National Writing Project. Because Writing Matters: Improving Student Writing in our Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass p. 47.

30 Possible Writing Prompt

31 Cognitive Process: Synthesis/Analysis

32 Discuss: O A recent writing assignment that required reflection, analysis, synthesis, and / or transformation of information.

33 Effective Writing Assignments: O Organization and Development: O “An effective assignment gives students a framework for developing ideas and organizational guidelines that help them analyze and synthesize the information with which they are working.” O -Nagin, Carl and the National Writing Project. Because Writing Matters: Improving Student Writing in our Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass p. 47.

34 Possible Writing Prompt

35 Handout pages In Harper Lee’s ‘To Kill a Mockingbird,’ Jem redefines his views of courage by studying the actions of others. As he does so, he learns that courage is about doing what is right, not worrying about what others think of him. Using three chapters—his dare, Shooting Tim Johnson, and Mrs. Dubose Jem learns to stop worrying about what others think and to start doing things for the right reasons. He learns this from Mrs. Dubose and Atticus How Jem grows up and learns to see others (himself, too) in a different way What is courage? Can our definition of courage change as we grow? Courage is doing what is right, without having to be told Compare the story of the time I jumped off of the rock into the lake to Jem taking Dill’s dare It may not always feel good, but it always feels right. What is it? Courage. Use the quote about Atticus saying not to judge someone until you’ve walked a mile in their shoes The dare Tim Johnson Dubose All times when Jem thought about bravery or courage He changes throughout each experience He grows up—learns from others It may be that we need other people to teach us courage—or to be role models for us Handout pages In Harper Lee’s ‘To Kill a Mockingbird,’ Jem redefines his views of courage by studying the actions of others. As he does so, he learns that courage is about doing what is right, not worrying about what others think of him. Using three chapters—his dare, Shooting Tim Johnson, and Mrs. Dubose Jem learns to stop worrying about what others think and to start doing things for the right reasons. He learns this from Mrs. Dubose and Atticus How Jem grows up and learns to see others (himself, too) in a different way What is courage? Can our definition of courage change as we grow? Courage is doing what is right, without having to be told Compare the story of the time I jumped off of the rock into the lake to Jem taking Dill’s dare It may not always feel good, but it always feels right. What is it? Courage. Use the quote about Atticus saying not to judge someone until you’ve walked a mile in their shoes The dare Tim Johnson Dubose All times when Jem thought about bravery or courage He changes throughout each experience He grows up—learns from others It may be that we need other people to teach us courage—or to be role models for us

36 Discuss: O A recent writing scaffold or structure you provided (or might provide next school year) or created that helped students analyze or synthesize their information.

37 Effective Writing Assignments: O Audience and Communication: O “An effective assignment goes beyond the use of a ‘pretend’ audience and offers the student a genuine opportunity [to inform, entertain, or persuade].” O --Nagin, Carl and the National Writing Project. Because Writing Matters: Improving Student Writing in our Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass p. 48.

38 Relevance and authenticity O The March, 2009 NCTE report, ‘Writing Between the Lines,’ cites a 2008 study: O 86% of teenagers stated that they believed writing well was important to success in life, O 73% believe online writing does not relate to school writing. O While only 17% enjoy school writing ‘a great deal’ (the highest indicator)—49% enjoy non- school writing ‘a great deal’

39 Possible Writing Prompt

40 Authentic Audience: Classmates

41 Authentic Audience: Classroom Publishing

42 Discuss: O A recent authentic audience you provided (or wish to provide next school year) for your students.

43 Effective Writing Assignments: O Engagement and choice: O “... An effective assignment avoids the pitfalls of offering the student too much choice or none at all. Restricting the range of decisions that the student is asked to make is a way for her to increase engagement in the assignment.” --Nagin, Carl and the National Writing Project. Because Writing Matters: Improving Student Writing in our Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass p. 48.

44 Possible Writing Prompt

45 Balance of choice and support

46 Engagement and Choice: Blogging

47 Discuss: O A recent assignment that allowed for choice but also provided appropriate scaffolds for support. (or one you’ve been wanting to design for next school year)

48 Essential Questions for Writing O What essential writing skills must a professional in your discipline possess? O What is the purpose or value of the writing skill? O What must your students know, understand, and be able to do to write well? O What distinguishes an effective writing performance from an ineffective one in your discipline?

49 Developing Writing Prompts

50 Modeling, Coaching, Conferencing to improve Writing Skills “[W]riting... is an art, and should be taught more like art. Think about piano or violin. We expect wrong notes. We expect awkward expression...” O Andrew Pudewa, Director,

51 “...but through a process of modeling, listening, practicing and reviewing specific, graded techniques, anyone can learn to play violin or piano. Writing is similar. Modeling when teaching [an] art is not only effective, but absolutely necessary.” O Andrew Pudewa, Director,

52 O A recent report lists “the study of models” as one of eleven elements of writing instruction shown by research to be effective in improving the writing of adolescents. O Writing Next, Alliance for Excellent Education, 2007

53 Discuss: O Reflect back to a time when a model was helpful to you and/or a time when you wish you had been given a model.

54 Ways to model O Integrate ‘sneezes’ and ‘down/up’ writing O Write with students—compose visibly O Chunks—i.e.—thesis, introduction O Whole process—timed writes O Read your writing to them O Analyze papers ‘on the spot’ on overhead, document camera O Have students examine exemplars/score O One-on-one conferences / recorded feedback

55 Assessment O “Many state writing assessments run the risk of undercutting good writing by scoring only for focus, organization, style, and mechanics without once asking judges to consider whether the writing is powerful, memorable, provocative, or moving (all impact related criteria, and all at the heart of why people read what others write.)” O Grant Wiggins, Educative Assessment, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, p. 67.

56 Basic Six Trait Writing Rubric

57 Writing Rubric based on CCSS

58 Final words from NCTE... O “Perhaps students are right and there is little correlation between writing one does for academic purposes and everyday literacy practices outside of school. But is that is true, we are missing an opportunity.” March, 2009 NCTE report, ‘Writing Between the Lines’

59 Contact information: O Donna Herold O Web Site: O

60 O 2012 ASCD Summer Pre-Conference/ Conference Evaluations Thank you for your comments!


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