Presentation on theme: "Driving Forces of Colonization? Resources Wealth “New World” New social opportunities An escape ?"— Presentation transcript:
Driving Forces of Colonization? Resources Wealth “New World” New social opportunities An escape ?
WE COME WITH GIFTS…. Cows,pigs,fowl,horses,goats. Smallpox,influenza,typhus,measles. Epidemic diseases unknown in the Americas. (connection to domesticated animals) Killing between 10 to 20 million, 95% of native peoples.
Lasting Importance – it can be measured!! Minor Players New Netherland( The Dutch) Capital – New Amsterdam (NY) 1614-1667 New Sweden( The Swedes) Capital – Fort Christina 1638- 1655 ** Both ended by British conquest** Major Players Spanish Conquest/Colonization 1492- late 1800’s French Conquest/Colonization 1534- early 1800’s British Conquest/Colonization 1585-1949( if you count Newfoundland)
Sailed the ocean blue in 1492…. "From here one might send, in the name of the Holy Trinity, as many slaves as could be sold...”
The Requerimiento: The proclamation set by Spain to the Native Americans:Requerimiento "We ask and require you to acknowledge the church as the ruler and superior of the whole world and the high priest called pope and in his name the king of Spain as lords of this land. If you submit we shall receive you in all love and charity and shall leave you, your wives and children and your lands free without servitude, but if you do not submit we shall powerfully enter into your country and shall make war against you, we shall take you and your wives and your children and shall make slaves of them and we shall take away your goods and shall do you all the harm and damage we can."
Spain – Conquest of the Western Hemisphere Christopher Columbus revealed the true potential of the area: gold, silver and “savages”. ( it beat spices) "I could conquer the whole of them with fifty men and govern them with ease". Unimaginable wealth and a new world for Christianity (Catholicism) Destroyed the mighty Aztec, Maya and Inca peoples, making present day Mexico City its capital in 1535. Expanded north to lay claim to much of what is now the Pacific Coast, Southwestern, Southern sections of USA. Spanish rule weakened with Mexico fighting for independence from 1810-1821( Americans took control with a victory in the Mexican- American War 1846-1848) and ended with an American victory in the Spanish-American War in 1898.
France – From Francis to Napoleon 1534 – Francis sent Jacques Cartier to explore the St. Lawrence. This led to the establishment of French colonies in the Maritimes, from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico.( much was lost to wars with England – Seven Year’s War) 1803 - While at war with England and conquering most of Europe, Napoleon decided to sell the Louisiana Territory to President Thomas Jefferson for $15 million(2.2 million squared km – 13!!)
England – “In a fit of absence of mind” Sir Walter Raleigh 1552-1618 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 Roanoke Island – soil seemed fruitful and the natives friendly
Historical Mystery? – The Lost Colony of Roanoke Island Raleigh sponsored most of the trips with his own money – first attempt in 1585 failed. He tried again in 1587 sending 117 men, women and children to the island. John White was the governor and left to go back to England for supplies. Historical Detective Work: Relation to Eleanor( Elinor) Dare and Virginia Dare? Importance of Virginia Dare? What did White discover when he returned in 1590? Possible reasons behind the mystery. ** Not a single Englishman in North America when Elizabeth died in 1603**
Tudors to Stuarts – James I(James VI) King James I (1603) – decided to continue with English interest in the New World. Chartered 2 companies to set sail – the Plymouth Company and the London Company. (part of the larger Virginia Company)
In honor of your king – “James”town, Virginia(1607) John Smith gave the colony leadership and protection. When he returned to England in 1609, the colony fell apart. Many were starving and dying of disease. When ships returned to the ruined Jamestown, all livestock had been eaten(horses too) and evidence of cannibalism.
Making a comeback – 1610-1624 Leadership of John Rolfe
Rolfe’s Cash Crop “Virginia was founded upon smoke” “Joviall weed” “Drinking smoke…lothsome to the eye, hatefull to the nose, harmefull to the braine and dangerous to the lungs” 20,000 lbs(1619) to 18 million lbs(1688) ** MAJOR IMPACT N THE AREA?**