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November Keystone Quiz College Prep 16 questions 1.

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1 November Keystone Quiz College Prep 16 questions 1

2 Literary Content Assessed Author’s purpose Author’s technique Author’s argument Author’s defense of a claim Main idea and Supporting Details Genre (fiction vs. non-fiction) Stage devices 2

3 Tone is the reflection of an author's attitude toward his or her subject. Have you ever been in a conversation with someone, and you were able to tell if that person was angry, sad, or happy? Usually, the person talking to you will give hints about how he or she is feeling with gestures like a frown, a smile, or a nervous twitch. Authors give the similar hints when they write. An author's tone gives the reader an idea about how the author feels about a certain subject. They aren't hints that can be seen like the hints in a conversation; however, things like word choice and attitude can be recognized in writing. Author’s Purpose TONE ************ 3

4 4 Conserving water is important for our environment, future generations, and your wallet. Most people don't realize this, but water is a finite resource. All the water we will ever have is on the planet right now. It is important to consider this when thinking about the importance of water conservation. If we are not good stewards of water, our future generations will suffer for it. Fresh drinking water resources are limited for people, but also remember that animals and water species also depend on it for life. It is important for us to think about and facilitate their survival in addition to our own. Cutting back on the water used during showers or for watering plants outdoors can also help save you money. Example: The author's purpose for writing this passage is to convince readers that water conservation is important. He or she presents the argument by discussing reasons why saving water is important. The author's attitude in this passage is serious.

5 Consider what the author is trying to do with their writing?  argue  condemn  describe  enlighten  entertain  explain  express  Illustrate  inform  instruct  investigate  narrate  persuade  report  teach  warn 5

6 Guard Llamas by J. Robbins Livestock, such as sheep, cattle, and goats, are vulnerable to many threats, and predation of valuable livestock costs millions of dollars per year. A guard animal lives with a herd or flock to protect the livestock and deter predators. Shepherds, farmers, and ranchers consider the ideal guard animal to be one that is effective, fearless, cost-effective, and easy to maintain. Surprisingly, guard llamas have proven to fit the bill in most circumstances and can be found guarding animals on farms and ranches across the United States and North America. Llamas are members of the South American Camelidae family and are used as beasts of burden in many areas of the world. They are well-socialized to humans and bond quickly with livestock. Additionally, llamas react aggressively to members of the Canidae family—including dogs, coyotes, jackals, foxes, and wolves. These attributes make llamas ideal guard animals for a variety of livestock, although they are most widely used to guard sheep. Once llamas become attached to their livestock, they actively protect the animals by chasing, kicking, or spitting at predators and moving the flock to a safe location. In a study conducted by Iowa State University in 1990, llamas were rated as effective guard animals by 80 percent of sheep owners. Many ecologists and wildlife biologists are also pleased with this practice because it provides a non-lethal way to handle predators. Llamas are also a sound investment for shepherds, farmers, and ranchers because they are long-lived (often living up to 20 years), acclimated to a wide variety of climates, and able to graze on the same land as sheep, goats, and cattle. Although they are not 100% successful against predators, guard llamas can be an effective, economic, and ecologically friendly resource to help livestock owners protect their livelihood. 6

7 The main purpose of the second paragraph of this passage is to A.Introduce the idea that llamas should be limited to living with and guarding sheep B.Condemn the practice of using llamas to protect other animals from dangerous predators C.Compare the traditional practice of using llamas as beasts of burden with modern practices D.Provide information to supportive idea that llamas are useful for guarding livestock Which sentence from the passage most strongly supports the author's overall purpose in writing? A.In a study conducted by Iowa State University in 1990, llamas were rated as effective guard animals by 80 percent of sheet owners. B.A guard animal lives with a herd of lock to protect the stock and deter predators. C.Shepherds, farmers, and ranchers consider the ideal guard animal to be one that is effective, fearless, cost effective, and easy to maintain. D.Llamas are members of the South American Camelidae family and are used as beasts of burden in many areas of the world. Read this sentence from the passage. Many ecologists and wildlife biologists are also pleased with this practice because it provides a non-lethal way to handle predators. The author most likely included this information in the passage to A.Persuade the reader that all lethal options for disposing of predators should be eliminated B.Introduce a counter argument to provide a fair and balanced look at the practice of using guard llamas. C.Support the main thesis of the passage by including scientific evidence about guard llamas. D.Explain that the practice of using guard llamas has benefits that extend beyond economics. D D A A D D 7

8 Jackson and Crocker's Drive In the United States during the early 1900s, most people thought of automobiles as a passing fad. Automobile enthusiast Dr. Horatio Nelson Jackson, however, disagreed with this idea and believed that long-distance road trips were possible for everyone. On May 18, 1903, he made a $50 wager that he and his mechanic, co-driver, and driving instructor, Sewall K. Crocker, could drive across the U.S. in a used Winton car named the Vermont. Jackson and Crocker began the first trans-U.S. automobile trip on May 23, They departed from San Francisco and traveled along the Oregon Trail toward their final destination of New York City. Their journey was fraught with setbacks. Only 15 miles into their journey, the Vermont lost a tire. Soon after they replaced the tire with their only spare, their cooking gear fell off the vehicle, and they were led 108 miles off-course after following poor directions. On June 6th, the car broke down, and a fuel leak drained their only available gasoline. Three days later, the Vermont's oil ran out. During their journey, Jackson and Crocker adopted a young bulldog named Bud who wore thick driving goggles to protect his eyes from the road dust. Bud quickly adapted to life on the road and became the subject of many newspaper articles. Despite numerous problems and delays, the Vermont and its three passengers reached New York City on July 26, They had become famous due to newspaper coverage, and their inspiring journey helped to popularize the automobile in the United States. Today, the Vermont is preserved in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington D.C., to honor Jackson and Crocker for their courage, fortitude, and vision for the future of automobiles in the U.S. 8

9 Which of the following best describes the purpose of the second paragraph of this passage? A.To acknowledge the problems associated with the first cross-country automobile trip in the U.S. B.To suggest the sabotage of the Vermont led to serious delays for the first trans-U.S. automobile trip C.To contrast the numerous problems associated with early automobiles D.To suggest that Jackson ad Crocker’s cross-country automobile trip was poorly planned and badly executed The author most likely includes information about "Bud" in the third paragraph to A.Imply that Jackson and Crocker were irresponsible and did not take the automobile trip seriously B.Describe the indifferent attitudes toward pets that was prevalent in the U.S. during the early 1900’2 C.Conclude the passage by describing the most important event that occurred during the trip. D.Provide an amusing anecdote to show that the trip had fun moments along with serious setbacks. Read this sentence from the passage. In the United States during the early 1900s, most people thought of automobiles as a passing fad. How does this sentence support the author's purpose in writing the passage? A.It suggests that most U.S. citizens were violently opposed to Jackson and Crocker’s road trip B.It points out how Jackson and Crocker’s attitudes changed during their trans-US automobile trip C.It explains why no one had attempted a long-distance automobile trip before Jackson and Crocker D.It condemns the narrow-minded attitudes prevalent in the United States in the early twentieth century A A D D C C 9

10 Jim Thorpe, Pennsylvania, is one of America’s most picturesque cities and has a fascinating history. The town, originally called Mauch Chunk, was founded by Josiah White in 1818 and quickly became a central location for railroad and shipping lines. After the death of Olympic athlete Jim Thorpe in 1953, the town purchased the athlete’s remains from his widow and erected a monument in his honor. Mauch Chunk was renamed Jim Thorpe, and the growing city became a renowned tourist spot. In 2009, Jim Thorpe was listed as one of the top ten coolest small towns in America by Budget Travel Magazine. Railroading fans travel to the city from all over the world to see the remains of the Mauch Chunk Switchback Gravity Railroad. There are a wide variety of extreme sports and outdoor adventures available to tourists as well, including white-water rafting, hiking, paintball, and mountain biking. The Anthracite Triathlon, which is open to both amateur and professional athletes, is held in the city each year in July. Tourists of all ages and interests will find Jim Thorpe to be one of the most beautiful and interesting destinations in the U.S. Which of the following best describes the author's purpose in writing this selection? A.The passage is primarily intended to explain the origins of the name Mauch Chunk B.The passage is primarily intended to persuade the reader to visit Jim Thorpe, PA C.The passage is primarily intended to highlight the outdoor sports held in Jim Thorpe, PA D.The passage is primarily intended to describe the picturesque scenery of Jim Thorpe, PA B B 10

11 Woginrich Named Winner of 2010 Quote-a-Thon On Thursday, one of Sandgate's brightest young residents was named the winner of the 2010 Sandgate Quote-a-Thon. This event, which is held each year, is open to all residents of Sandgate, and the $5000 prize is awarded to the person who can accurately quote the longest passage of literature. Competitors in the past have quoted passages from Edgar Allan Poe, Homer, Fyodor Dostoevsky, and Shakespeare. "We always look forward to hearing great literature recited passionately," said Quote-a-Thon judge Roberta Lampert. Lampert, a lifelong resident of Sandgate, works full-time as the head librarian of the town's public library. "This year, though, we were amazed at the wide variety of passages. Sandgate residents really outdid themselves." The 2010 winner is Bret Woginrich, a senior at Sandgate North High School. He amazed the judges by reciting the entire contents of Henry David Thoreau's Walden. Woginrich, who hopes to work for the U.S. Forestry Service after earning a college degree, plans to put his prize money to good use. "The $5000 will all be spent on college tuition," Woginrich told reporters after the competition ended. "Memorizing Walden was no problem for me because it is one of my favorite books. I hope I can inspire other people to discover Thoreau's work for themselves." Entry forms for the 2011 Quote-a-Thon are already being accepted by the Sandgate Chamber of Commerce. 11

12 Which sentence contributes LEAST to the author's main purpose in writing the passage? A.The 2010 winner is Bret Woginirch, a senior at Sandgate North High School. B.Lampert, a lifelong resident of Sandgate, works full-time as the head librarian of the town’s public library C.He amazed the judges by reciting the entire contents of Henry David Thoreau’s Walden. D.On Thursday, one of the sandgate’s brightest young residents was named the winner of the 2010 Sandgate Quote-a-Thon The main purpose of the third paragraph is to A.Suggest that memorization of classic literature is good preparation for college B.Explain the criteria used by judges in the 2010 Sandgate Quote-a-Thon C.Give background information about the most recent Quote-a-Thon winner. D.Persuade the reader to purchase a copy of Henry David Thoreau’s Walden B B C C 12

13 Winters in the Country by Gautum Sixteen pigeons in our front yard made our tree house a happy place. I watched the white feathers leave a trail of cold wind, as they flew by my face— mesmerized in the balcony. They would flap their wings and descend to the big bowl for a bath precisely at noon— when the water warmed up. They wobbled around the edge of the shiny bowl, fluttered, slipped, and flew. I watched their heads move back and forth, slightly to the side. Their bellies hugged the cement floor. They snuck the grains I spread out for them— faster than the blink of an eye. Sometimes I hear them cooing in my city dreams. Countless pigeons in my city fly over me. I don't have time to watch their falling feathers. Why did the author most likely write this passage? A.To teach the reader about melancholy winters B.To inform the reader about a melancholy winter C. to influence the reader to be melancholy at times D.To entertain the reader with a melancholy poem D D 13

14 A boy with dreams by A. Gautum Willy waited every night to wake up and turn into a Batman. He had the jaw that looked intimidating in a cowl, and the perfect chin with a hint of toughness— full lips—an embodiment of strength. But he had the eyes of a poet— searching meaning, and looking beyond what is seen. When he looked at the city from his balcony, he was learning to swim in the world— growing up to be a man was tougher than it seemed. He was a boy with dreams. He wanted wings. Which statement best describes the purpose of this passage? A.It’s a persuasive selection on how to sleep and dream B.It’s an instructive work on how to live and dream big C.It’s an informative article about a confused dreamer D.It’s an entertaining piece about a young boy’s dreams D D 14

15 Word Choice Sometimes, authors choose words to show how something feels, looks, or acts. These words give the reader a better idea of what is happening in the story. They can show you how exciting something is or how happy a person feels. Sample The long, dark road unwound before Chrisette like a serpent striking its prey. The car’s windshield was continuously covered in a fine spray of water as the wipers swung back and forth like a pendulum. Through the blurry glass, Chrisette could just make out a figure in the darkness. The author uses words to set a mood of foreboding in this passage. He or she could have simply said, "Chrisette was driving in the rain. It was dark outside. She could barely see the road in front of her." 15

16 Aunty Mina's Vicarious Adventures Aunty Mina considered me a daughter she never had. She happened to be the first one who knew my mother was pregnant when they got on the same bus. They were perfect strangers who became friends by chance. Mom always thanked her dizziness that afternoon and, of course, the kindness of Aunty Mina. These two women were brought together by loneliness in a new town as their husbands left for work each morning. Aunty Mina cared for my mother as she would have looked after her own younger sister. My mom, the thunderbolt, was soft as cotton candy every time her best friend Mina was home. The bond between the two women had blossomed like daffodils in May. When I arrived into the world, both women showered me with all the love in the world. Mom says our apartment, as clustered as a subway station in rush hour, was finally her home when I came. I grew up with two mothers. "See the world," Aunty Mina would say. "If you do not explore, you miss out on the beauty that is waiting for you." Aunty Mina had assumed the role of a mentor and wanted to share with me all the wisdom she ever possessed. "I would not have met your mother if I didn't go out of my apartment to explore the surroundings. Think about all the interesting things you will see and people you will meet," Aunty Mina continued as she showed me the pictures of her travels to Europe, Asia, and Australia. I looked at Aunty Mina as if I had met her for the first time in my life. By now she could hardly breathe in an airplane and was limited to getting around by the bus. I understood that the happy face she put on was hiding something heavier. She wanted me to live a life she no longer saw as possible. 16

17 Which of these statements best adds persuasive language to the passage? A.“I understand that the happy face she put on was hiding something heavier. ” B.“Aunty Mina had assumed the role of a mentor and wanted to share…” C.“If you do not explore, you miss out on the beauty that is waiting for you.” D.“These two women were brought together by loneliness in a new town…” C C Why does the author use the words "thunderbolt" and "cotton candy" to describe the mother? A.To show the effect of Aunty Mina on the mother B.To inform that the mother had a personality disorder C.To describe the influence of the narrator on the mother D.To persuade that friends can be negative influence A A 17

18 18 Fishing with my Father My father always thought of fishing as a bonding ritual. His father had taught him fishing at a young age of six. The two of them would go off to a serene lake on a Sunday afternoon and return home empty-handed. They did not want to kill the fish as my father told me when I reached the age of incessant questioning. "That was not the point of fishing," he had explained. One morning, it was determined that I had taken enough swimming lessons to be able to rescue both my father and myself in the case of an emergency, and I was allowed to go fishing with my father. I wanted to pick out special clothes, but my father said I looked fine in my khakis and polo shirt. He did give me a beige visor—a bit too big for my face—to guard against the sun. That morning, he drove me in the sedan while my little brother and sister stayed home with Mom. Father spoke to me in his soothing baritone voice during the drive. "To think about nothing is important once in a while," he said. "You will know when you grow up." But I had thought fishing was my transition into adulthood. My hurried wish to grow up had pushed me into optimism at the age of eleven. As if my father could read my thoughts he said, "You are almost there, my boy." We took the scenic route to the lake. We passed the woods, the rolling hills, and approached the much talked about lake. There was sunlight—thrown in silver sprinkles on the water. I helped my father unload the fishing rods and the cooler into the boat. We met the center of the river in silence. I suspended my fishing rod in the air feeling overwhelmed and satisfied by the beauty all around me. I had understood why my father did not bring the fish home. A theme of this story is there is a right time to understand things in life. How does the author show this theme? A.By using less dialogue and more of flashback and foreshadowing in the story B.By narrating the boy’s childhood using a descriptive and poetic language C.By showing the father’s unwillingness to take all of his family to the lake D.By showing the importance of the setting to understand the reason for fishing A theme of this story is there is a right time to understand things in life. How does the author show this theme? A.By using less dialogue and more of flashback and foreshadowing in the story B.By narrating the boy’s childhood using a descriptive and poetic language C.By showing the father’s unwillingness to take all of his family to the lake D.By showing the importance of the setting to understand the reason for fishing D D

19 Author’s Argument & Defense of Claim An argument is a position or thesis put forth by a writer about an particular subject or issue. A writer then supports the argument with evidence. Ways to strengthen arguments Examples The more concrete examples the writer has. The more convincing his or her argument is. Facts A concrete fact is always more reliable and convincing than someone’s opinion. Facts are essential to building a strong argument. Anecdotes An anecdote is a short, often amusing, story that helps personalize the writer’s argument. 19

20 20 Does D.A.R.E. Deliver Results? Most people who have attended public school in the years since 1983 are probably familiar with the D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) program. In fact, it has been used in 80% of U.S. schools and a total of 43 countries. It is, without a doubt, the most popular drug education program in the United States. As of 2008, 36 million kids a year (26 million in the U.S. alone) are reached by D.A.R.E. So why have 30 different studies shown that D.A.R.E. doesn’t prevent drug use in students who are exposed to its teaching? The U.S. Surgeon General’s office reported in 2001 that D.A.R.E. “does not work.” A 2009 study revealed that after four years, 31 percent of both D.A.R.E. graduates and those who had not attended the program had used marijuana. In a survey of students conducted by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, many revealed that the concepts of D.A.R.E. had been repeated so much during their school years that they basically stopped listening. Detractors of the program say part of the problem is that D.A.R.E. teachings paint all students with the same broad brush. They say that by not taking into consideration the kids’ likelihood of becoming substance abusers in the future, the program misses its mark entirely. D.A.R.E.’s “one size fits all” strategy does not adequately prepare students for the complex drug challenges that they are likely to face. What is the argument being used in paragraph 1? A.The D.A.R.E. program needs more volunteers to meet demands. B. The use of the D.A.R.E. program in schools is very pervasive. C. D.A.R.E. had not been used enough to judge its effectiveness. D. D.A.R.E. has been around since 1983, so it must work very well. What is the argument being used in paragraph 1? A.The D.A.R.E. program needs more volunteers to meet demands. B. The use of the D.A.R.E. program in schools is very pervasive. C. D.A.R.E. had not been used enough to judge its effectiveness. D. D.A.R.E. has been around since 1983, so it must work very well. B B

21 21 What is the main point the author of this passage is trying to make? A.The D.A.R.E. program is ineffective at its mission. B.The D.A.R.E. program should be more widely utilized. C.Drug prevention programs help change students’ minds. D.Studies that opposed D.A.R.E. come from unreliable sources Which of these sentences from the passage supports the author's viewpoint? A.It is, without a doubt, the most popular drug education program in the United States. B.Most people who have attended public school in the years since 1983 are probably familiar with the D.A.R.E. program. C.As of 2008, 36 million kids a year (26 million in the U.S. alone) are reached by D.A.R.E D.The U.S. Surgeon General’s office reported in 2001 that D.A.R.E. “does not work” By pointing out the results of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's survey, the author is A.Showing that students need mental health teaching instead of drug awareness. B.Attempting to show that not even D.A.R.E.’s target audience believes it works. C.Attempting to show that the government believes D.A.R.E. is the only solution. D.Trying to convince readers to teach their children drug awareness at home. Which of these sentences would support the argument used in this passage? A.A privately funded 2002 study showed that D.A.R.E. graduates were 5 percent more likely to refuse drugs compared to others. B.A 2009 study showed that some students who used marijuana prior to enrolling in D.A.R.E. stopped using it after the program. C.Police officers are usually in charge of conducting the Drug Abuse Education classes for students. D.Although D.A.R.E. was overhauled between 2000 and 2009, drug use rates among participants remained the same. A A D D B B D D

22 22 How does the author of this passage support his or her argument? A.He or she tries to persuade with stories about people D.A.R.E. did not help. B.The author argues both sides of the issue with differing expert opinions. C.The author provides readers with anecdotes to support his or her claims. D.He or she lists statistics and quotes that confirm the passage’s main point. How could the author better support this argument? A.By including statistics on drug use in other countries around the world. B.By including information on parents’ criticism of D.A.R.E. C.By giving examples of students who refused drugs because of D.A.R.E. D.By showing readers how countries without D.A.R.E. have more drug abuse. B B D D

23 Main Idea and Supporting Details The main idea of a passage is the basic point that the author wants to convey to the reader. In simpler terms, the main idea is the idea that the passage is mostly about. The sentences that explain, describe, or support the main idea are called supporting details. 23 The main idea can range from an idea that the author wants the reader to agree with in a newspaper article to a main event that takes place in a story. Each passage you read, whether it is 5 sentences or 500 pages, has a main idea. When you are looking for the main idea, ask yourself:  Why did the author write this passage?  What is the point he/she is trying to make?  What is the passage mostly about?  What idea is conveyed in the passage?

24 24 Once you have found the main idea, check it against the passage. The sentences in the passage should support, describe, or explain this idea. These sentences are supporting details. They are used to make the author's main idea stronger. If the sentences do not support the main idea, then you have the wrong main idea. Look over the sentences again and see what point or idea they are trying to explain. Note: Main idea and topic are not the same thing. A topic is a general category, like the paparazzi or global warming. A main idea is a specific idea about that topic, like "The paparazzi should not be allowed to follow celebrities in their cars," or "Global warming is already impacting the North and South Poles." Think of it like a research paper assignment. Your teacher might want you to write about the 2008 presidential election. That is the topic. If you write about the confusion of the American public over the numerous candidates in the pre-primary election, that is the main idea.

25 25 Example: Once winter is gone and spring officially arrives, it is time to enjoy longer days, warm weather, and new seasonal produce. During the spring, many vegetables and fruits are at their peaks. This includes green beans, corn, sweet onions, peas, greens, and squash. On the fruit front, apples, citrus fruits, and pears have made way for juicy stone fruit, like peaches, nectarines, and plums. Melons and berries are also available in the spring. What is the main idea of this passage? Many seasonal fruits and vegetables hit their peak during the spring. This passage mostly focuses on the variety of produce available in the spring. The rest of the passage details the various vegetables and fruits that one can find during the spring.

26 26 What's in a Name? Pluto was discovered in It was named after the Roman god of the dead. For 76 years, it would be considered the ninth planet in our solar system. As scientists began to learn more about heavenly bodies, they began to refine the definition of "planet." In 2006, Pluto lost its title. Many scientists now refer to Pluto as a "dwarf planet." Pluto was always the odd planet out, which led scientists to question its "planet status" from the beginning. For example, Pluto is a small orb with an icy surface. It follows an elliptical orbit that does not match the other eight planets' paths. Scientists have pointed out these differences for decades, but discoveries in the 1990s made the differences more significant. Scientists discovered other small, icy worlds called Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) located near Pluto. The International Astronomical Union felt that Pluto shared more in common with the KBOs, so it developed the new "dwarf planet" category. However, some scientists do not like the new category and refuse to acknowledge it. What is the passage mainly about? A.Scientists have found KBOs in the solar system. B.Pluto was named for the Roman god of the dead. C.Pluto was changed from “planet” to “dwarf planet”. D.Planets should follow elliptical orbits around the sun. C C

27 27 The art of tattooing is not a new or modern practice. On the contrary, tattoos have been around since the end of the Stone Age, if not earlier. Otzi the Iceman, a man who lived roughly 5300 years ago, was discovered frozen and well-preserved in a glacier. He exhibited approximately 57 tattoos on his body. Other mummies preserved from Ancient Egypt also exhibit tattoos on their bodies. Tattooing has been practiced by many different peoples and cultures around the world. The early inhabitants of Scotland were called "Picts," meaning "tattooed or painted people." Julius Caesar described the Picts' blue-toned tattoos in his account of the Gallic Wars of 58 BC. Meanwhile, in Japan, tattooing is thought to date back to the Paleolithic era, some ten thousand years ago. Today, the popularity of tattoos in the Western world is thought to have originated in the 18th Century. At that time, European sailors returned from Polynesia with tattoos similar to the ones they'd seen there. What is the passage mainly about? A.The art of tattooing has existed for many years in many cultures. B.Julius Caesar was the first to describe the appearance of tattoos. C.European sailors introduced tattooing to the Western world. D.Tattoos were originally black until the advent of colored links. A A

28 28 Which sentence from the passage supports the idea that tattoos crossed culture barriers by way of imitation? A.“Tattooing has been practiced by many different peoples and cultures around the world.” B.“Julius Caesar described the Picts’ blue-tones tattoos in his account of the Gallic Wars or 58 BC.”” C.Other mummies preserved from Ancient Egypt also exhibit tattoos on their bodies.” D.“At that time, European returned from Polynesia with tattoos similar to the ones they’d seen there.” Which would be the best title for this passage? A.Tattoos: Gone But Not Forgotten B.Tattoos: A Misunderstood Art C.Tattoos: Older than You Might Think D.Tattoos: New and Different Colors D D C C

29 Genres—Types of Writing FICTION -based on imagination not on facts Novel -considerable length -plot told through actions, characters, speech and thoughts Short Story -less complex than a novel -usually under 10,000 words

30 Non-Fiction (fact) Biography Journal -an account of someone’s life written -personal accounts of daily events by someone else -more likely to be used every day -more likely to be published Autobiography -piece of writing that a person Diary writes about their own life -personal accounts of daily events -not necessarily written every day Essay -not intended for publication -discusses author’s point of view on a single subject Newspaper Article -current events published daily

31 “Learning something new can be a scary experience. One of the hardest things I've ever had to do was learn how to swim. I was always afraid of the water, but I decided that swimming was an important skill that I should learn. I also thought it would be good exercise and help me to become physically stronger. What I didn't realize was that learning to swim would also make me a more confident person. New situations always make me a bit nervous, and my first swimming lesson was no exception. After I changed into my bathing suit in the locker room, I stood timidly by the side of the pool waiting for the teacher and other students to show up. After a couple of minutes the teacher came over. She smiled and introduced herself, and two more students joined us. Although they were both older than me, they didn't seem to be embarrassed about not knowing how to swim. I began to feel more at ease.” The reader can tell that this passage is an essay because the author A.Persuades the reader to try new things even if scared B.Focuses on one subject and discusses her point of view C.Encourages the reader to join the school swim team D.Compares the fear of making new friends and trying new activities B B

32 Stage Devices Dialogue words spoken by characters in a play Soliloquy narrative spoken by a single actor which his or her thoughts are revealed to the audience. It can be written as if the actor is talking to himself/herself. Usually the actor is alone on stage, or the other performers are temporarily not engaged in the play. Dramatic Monologue Similar to soliloquy, a dramatic monologue is a long speech by an single actor. The actor can be alone on stage or interacting with other performers.

33 Aside speech or a comment made by an actor directly to the audience about the action in the play or another character. The audience is to understand that this comment is not to be heard or noticed by other characters in the play Stage Directions tell the actor how to move and speak. Most stage directions are in parenthesis or in italics. They can also tell you where the play is taking place or give information about how to make the stage look to set the scene. Prop an article or object that appears on the stage during the play. Props in the play Romeo and Juliet include swords used in the fight scene.

34 ACT V Scene II. A bedchamber in the castle. DESDEMONA in bed asleep. A light burning. OTHELLO by William Shakespeare [Enter OTHELLO] It is the cause, it is the cause, my soul; Let me not name it to you, you chaste stars! It is the cause. Yet I'll not shed her blood, Nor scar that whiter skin of hers than snow, And smooth as monumental alabaster. Yet she must die, else she'll betray more men. Put out the light, and then put out the light: If I quench thee, thou flaming minister, I can again thy former light restore, Should I repent me; but once put out thy light, Thou cunning'st pattern of excelling nature, I know not where is that Promethean heat That can thy light relume. When I have pluck'd the rose, I cannot give it vital growth again. It must needs wither: I'll smell it on the tree. Which of these best describes why Othello's dialogue is considered a soliloquy? A.It shows Othello’s feelings about Desdemona, his life, and his moral judgment B.It is spoken by only one character at a time and is written in verse and prose C.It shows Othello’s inner thoughts and is not meant to be heard by Desdemona D.It moves the plot forward, foreshadows the end, and creates a tragic mood. C C

35 The Winter's Tale by William Shakespeare Act 5 Scene 3 A chapel in Paulina’s house LEONTES: O, peace, Paulina. Thou shouldst a husband take by my consent, As I by thine a wife: this is a match, And made between's by vows. Thou hast found mine; But how, is to be question'd; for I saw her, As I thought, dead, and have in vain said many A prayer upon her grave. I'll not seek far— For him, I partly know his mind—to find thee An honourable husband. Come, Camillo, And take her by the hand; whose worth and honesty Is richly noted, and here justified By us, a pair of kings. Let's from this place. What! look upon my brother: both your pardons, That e'er I put between your holy looks My ill suspicion. This is your son-in-law, And son unto the king, who heavens directing, Is troth-plight to your daughter. Good Paulina, Lead us from hence, where we may leisurely Each one demand an answer to his part Perform'd in this wide gap of time since first We were dissever'd: hastily lead away. [Exeunt] Leontes’ speech is an Example of: A.An aside B.A soliloquy C.A monologue D.An epilogue C C

36 There's No Telling by A. Gautam CHARACTERS: Man-in-rags Jeb Stage Set: An empty bus. Jeb is asleep on a seat near the backdoor. His hands are holding on to a backpack. A tour guide booklet is slipping away from his fingers. Faint light passes through the bus window in intervals. Man-in-rags climbs on the bus and sits only a few seats away from Jeb. Man-in-rags creeps toward Jeb and tries to reach for the backpack. Jeb: (Twitches involuntarily and wakes up) Whoa! (Grabs his backpack tightly and looks up at Men-in-Rags in anger) Just what do you think you were doing? Man-in-Rags: A hungry man just wants food. Jeb: Oh, no. Where did they all go? (Gets up from his seat and looks around) They didn’t even wait for me. Man-in-Rags: Every man is always looking for something. (Seems to reach inside his bag for something important and finally takes out a flashlight) Jeb: Hey, did you see a group of tourists get off a bus? Man-in-Rags: (Turns off the flashlight and points it to Jeb’s face) You look a lot like the man who stole my everything. Jeb: Ha! (aside) Well, I better get off the bus. The man is scaring me. (Gets up to gather his belongings) There’s no telling to what is coming?

37 Man-in-Rags: Wait! Who taught you to say that? Jeb: Say what? Man-in-Rags: There’s no telling. Jeb: Everybody says that. Man-in-Rags: Not everybody in this part of the world says that. Jeb: Everybody I know says that. Man-in-Rags: (Moves closer to Jeb and examines his face, his fingers shiver as they reach for Jeb’s face) Heavens! Jeb: This is creeping me out! Please back off, Sir. (heads to the exit door) Man-in-Rags: (Retreats, sinks to a chair, and lets out a moan) Linda! Linda Mae Lou. Oh why did I ever leave you? Jeb: (turns around and returns to the back door of the bus) How do you know that name? (Sits on his knees and stares at Man-of-Rags’ face) How do the stage directions contribute to the mood of the drama? A.A. They foreshadow the outcome of the events and help continue the plot. B.They reveal Jeb's feelings of disrespect and distrust for Man-in-rags. C.They explain the characters' suspicious background and appearance. D. They describe the characters' actions and create a mood of suspense. D D

38 Which of these helps define the characters in this play? A.Music B.Prop C.Costume D.Scenery How would the actor speak the line "Well, I better get off the bus. This man is scaring me"? A.He would interrupt the other actors. B.He would direct it to the audience only. C.He would say it after leaving the stage. D.He would speak that part the loudest. C C B B

39 Literary Content Assessed Author’s purpose (4) Author’s technique (2) Author’s argument (2) Author’s defense of a claim (2) Main idea and Supporting Details (2) Genre (fiction vs. non-fiction) (2) Stage devices (2) 39


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