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F. Hosseinpanah.MD Sources of Evidence. Agenda Information mastery Systems Summaries Synopsis Synthesis Studies Alerting services.

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Presentation on theme: "F. Hosseinpanah.MD Sources of Evidence. Agenda Information mastery Systems Summaries Synopsis Synthesis Studies Alerting services."— Presentation transcript:

1 F. Hosseinpanah.MD Sources of Evidence

2 Agenda Information mastery Systems Summaries Synopsis Synthesis Studies Alerting services

3 Five steps of EBM Practice 1.Translation to an answerable question 2. Track down with maximum efficiency the best evidence with which to answer them [Finding the evidence ; Using electronic health information resources in evidence-based practice]Finding the evidence ; Using electronic health information resources in evidence-based practice 3.Critical appraisal of the evidence for its validity and clinical applicability 4.Integration of that critical appraisal with clinical expertise and the patient’s unique biology and beliefs 5.Evaluation of one’s performance.

4 Information mastery Usefulness of medical information = Relevance × Validity Work

5 How to hit the target? All biomedical papers Clinical studies Relevant clinical studies Relevant and valid clinical studies Relevant, valid, new clinical studies

6 EBM Resources Journals Database Textbooks  Evidence based medicine  ACP journal club  Bandolier  Cochrane  EBMR (ovid)  Trip database  Inforetriever  Up to date  Clinical evidence

7 Haynes’5S Model Systems Summaries Synopsis (selected individual studies or systematic reviews) Synthesis Studies Haynes RB. ACP J Club. 2006;145:A8.

8 Systems “A perfect evidence-based clinical information system would integrate and concisely summarize all relevant and important research evidence about a clinical problem and would automatically link, through an electronic medical record, a specific patient's circumstances to the relevant information." (Haynes, 2001)


10 Summaries

11 Some information resources provide regularly updated clinical evidence, sometimes integrated with other types of health care information, and provide guidance or recommendations for patient management. Summaries

12 Value added books UpToDate Clinical evidence

13 UpToDate UpToDate is a well-referenced online textbook that is carefully updated every 4 months. It exists in digital format because it is too large to print. Although UpToDate, unlike Best Evidence and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, does not have a set of explicit methodologic quality criteria that included articles must meet, it does reference many high-quality studies chosen by its section authors

14 UpToDate



17 Search strategy? Appraisal strategy? Not multidisciplinary authorities, Select facts instead of opinion Appraise yourselves

18 Clinical Evidence Clinical Evidence, published by the BMJ Publishing Group and American College of Physicians/American Society of Internal Medicine, is similar to UpToDate Although less oriented to provide bottom-line clinical advice from experts. (

19 Clinical Evidence

20 Synopses

21 "When no evidence-based information system exists for a clinical problem, then synopses of individual studies and reviews are the next best source....The perfect synopsis would provide exactly enough information to support a clinical action." (Haynes, 2001)


23 Synopsis (Reappraised Resources) ACP Journal Club ( Info-POEMs (

24 ACP journal club The editors of ACP Journal Club screen the top clinical journals on a regular basis and identify studies that are both methodologically sound and clinically relevant. They write an enhanced abstract of the chosen articles and provide a commentary on the value of the article for clinical practice.

25 ACP journal club






31 Info-POEMs Similar to ACP Journal Club in that it provides alerting to well-done and important clinical advances and a searching service of its collected articles. Its main focus is family medicine Clinical staff read more than 100 journals for articles of direct application to common and uncommon diseases and conditions seen by family physicians (

32 Synthesis

33 Syntheses "If more detail is needed or no synopsis is at hand, then databases of systematic reviews (syntheses) are available..." (Haynes, 2001)


35 Systematic Reviews Clear statement of purpose and scope Comprehensive search and retrieval of the relevant research Explicit selection criteria Critical appraisal of the primary studies Reproducible decisions regarding relevance, selection, and methodologic rigor of the primary research When quantitative methodology applied meta-analysis

36 Cochrane Library 1.Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) 2.Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE) 3.Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry (CCTR)

37 Cochrane Library

38 DARE DARE is a Full Text database containing critical assessments of systematic reviews from a variety of medical journals. DARE is produced by the expert reviewers and information staff of the National Health Services' Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (NHS CRD) at the University of York, England consists of structured abstracts of systematic reviews from all over the world. DARE records cover topics such as diagnosis, prevention, rehabilitation, screening, and treatment.


40 National Guidelines Clearinghouse The National Guideline Clearinghouse™ (NGC) is a comprehensive database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and related documents produced by the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR), in partnership with the American Medical Association (AMA) and the American Association of Health Plans (AAHP). Key components of NGC include: –Structured abstracts (summaries) about the guideline and its development. –Syntheses of guidelines covering similar topic, highlighting similarity and difference. –Links to full-text guidelines.



43 Studies


45 "If every other S fails (i.e., no system, synopses, or syntheses), then it's time to look for original studies” (Haynes, 2001) Medline, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register Bibliographic Databases (Medline,Embase)

46 MEDLINE ( National Library of Medicine USA Numbers of Journals: 3600 (>4000) Bias: English Language, Strong American Bias Thesaurus: Uses Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Subject Coverage: All Specialties of Medicine Materials Indexed: Letters, Editorials, Research Articles from 1966 onwards 60% of References contain Abstracts Update: Updated Monthly but can be 3 or more months behind Type of Database: Bibliographic

47 Medline (clinical query)


49 T urning R esearch I nto P ractice

50 TRIP Database The TRIP Database is produced by TRIP Database Ltd. The aims of the TRIP Database :allowing health professionals to easily find the highest-quality material available on the web. It is not a true database but looks like a mainstream search engine (such as Google or Yahoo) The content of the site is reviewed monthly and new material from the publications covered is added to the site. Typically 300-400 new articles are added monthly.

51 TRIP database

52 Alerting or Updating Services

53 Evidence updates

54 Evidence updates

55 ACP Journal Club PlUS

56 ACP Journal Club PlUS

57 InfoPOEM InfoPOEMs(

58 Which textbook? 1· it should be revised frequently (at least once a year) 2· it should be heavily referenced, at least for declarations about diagnosis and management (so readers can get to original sources for details and can also easily determine the date of a given claim) 3. the evidence in support of a statement should be selected according to explicit principles of evidence-based medicine.

59 Authority/Expert opinion Need relevant knowledge Need relevant expertise Mastery of reasoning Mastery of information No conflict of interest No conflict with others (authorities/fact) Logic and critical thinking in medicine 2005

60 Search strategy 1.Search an appraise 2weeks 2.Search only 2w—6months 3.Replicate 6months

61 Search Cascade

62 Recommendations (necessary but not sufficient) Low turnover information (Background Q,.), rare diseases, no time –Textbooks –Expert opinion –…–… Rare cases (especially to write case reports) –Pubmed and other bibliographic databases, Google, ask experts sites,… Specific clinical questions (during round, MR, journal club…) –TRIP –CDSR for therapy Q, (Listen to audio summaries of selected reviews) –Up-to-date –PubMed: Clinical Queries International presentations –CDSR for therapy Q –PubMed: Clinical Queries Register BMJ update Updating general knowledge/common topics/broad questions –Narrative reviews

63 Thank you

64 Further Reading Ann Mckibbone,Peter Wyer, Roman Jaeschke and Dereck Hunt User ̓ s guide to medical literature, second edition,Mac Graw Hill, chapter3, Finding the evidence. Straus SE, Richardson WS, Glasziou P, Haynes RB. Evidence- Based Medicine: How to practice and teach EBM, Third edition. New York: Churchill Livingstone, chapter 2, How to find current best evidence.

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