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Overview of Météo-France Data Rescue in connection with ACRE and related projects Sylvie Jourdain, Direction de la Climatologie Météo-France.

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Presentation on theme: "Overview of Météo-France Data Rescue in connection with ACRE and related projects Sylvie Jourdain, Direction de la Climatologie Météo-France."— Presentation transcript:

1 Overview of Météo-France Data Rescue in connection with ACRE and related projects Sylvie Jourdain, Direction de la Climatologie Météo-France

2 Data Rescue activities at Météo-France 1.Introduction 2.Secular meteorologial records in France 3.Meteorological archives in France 4.Météo-France Data Rescue Programs 5.DARE activities in connection with ACRE 6.DARE activities in connetion with EU-CIRCE and MEDARE 7.Conclusion

3 Brief french meteorology history France has a very long and wealthy meteorological history. The French began systematic meteorological observations in the late 17th century over France but the documents before the 18th century are very rare. Most of the observations in the 18th century were made by the. astronomical community : Paris and Marseille. medical community Royal Society of Medicine (SRM) 1776-1792, more than 200 doctors sent their daily observations to L.Cotte. L.Cotte published monthly summaries from 1776-1786 in memories Societas Meterologica Palatina published french sub-daily data (Marseille, Dijon, La Rochelle) from 1781 to 1793 Unfortunately the Royal Society of Medicine were destroyed during the french revolution and the meteorological network too. Long and reliable climate series are rare in the early 19th century in France Long climatic series back at least 150 years can be built in several french cities

4 Records Localization The first difficulty of developing records is locating the archival material  Angot (1895) wrote the first catalog of meteorological observations in France until 1850 : period of observations, name of the observer, publication and location of original records (in 1895 !)  Angot (1900, 1906) studied the climate of France and built reliable temperature and pressure long series 1850-1900  Meteorological readings taken in the 18th and 19th century were published in numerous publications (newspapers, annals, statistical reports, memories, yearbooks..  Monthly or annual summaries were published in national publications whereas daily data can be found in departmental or local publications

5 Long surface pressure series in France mainland Paris observatories since the late 17th century -Marseille observatories since 1706 -Toulouse observatories since 1801 + military airport -Lyon observatories since 1818 + airport -Bordeaux 1776-1792 (SRM), 1842- (Sciences university +observatory) -Metz 1779-1786 (SRM), 1841-1886 (military school ) -Rochefort 1840-1898 (military hospital) -Strasbourg since 1802 scientists + observatory + airport - Perpignan since 1846 doctors + observatory+ airport Missing data during the World War 2 : 1940-1945 in the North and 1943-1945 in the South ( recovery in progress ) however no gap for Paris and Marseille

6 Secular meteorological records overseas Meteorological observations started in the early 19th century overseas but were organised 1852 in military hospitals in Cayenne (French Guyana), Point-à Pitre (Guadeloupe), Nouméa (New-Caledonia), Papeete (Tahiti) et Fort-de France (Martinique) : 5 overseas long series back to mid-19th could be built Military Hospital Fort de France

7 Meteorological Archives in France Climate data are hidden in many places in France  Météo-France archives in at least 100 different sites : weather stations, departmental weather centres (96), regional weather centres (7), Météo-France library, overseas weather centres  National archives (mainland : Fontainebleau, overseas: Aix en Provence)  Departmental archives (98 sites)  Municipal archives and libraries in all cities !  University libraries, research laboratories, observatory libraries  scientists association libraries  Ministry of Defense archives (Service historique de la Défense in Vincennes)

8 French meteorological data in numerical libraries More and more libraries and archives scan original records or books to make them available on websites  French digital library Gallica contains Science Academy memories (Paris, Bordeaux, Metz), Annals(Annals de physique Chimie http://gallica.bnf.fr  Sciences Academy archives  Medic : Paris Medicine university numerical library, Royal society of medicine – NOAA library (Annuaires du Bureau Central Météorologique 1878-1920)  Google Books (annals, memories, reports published in the 19th century)

9 Météo-France DARE program 1994-2003 Data Rescue activities at Météo-France are managed by the Climatology department (DClim) in Toulouse The first DARE program started in 1994 In 1994 most series extended back to 1961 and professional stations series extended back to 1949 in the Météo-France National Climatological Database (BDCLIM) Digitisation – Daily and sub-daily data of professional stations back to 1920 –Monthly temperature and monthly rainfall from 1850 to 1960 Material for 19 th century climatic series - Annuaires du Bureau Central Météorologique 1878-1920, - Monthly rainfall in France (Raulin) 1715-1880 - Annuaires de la société météorologique 1849-1899 - Bulletins mensuels météorologiques de l’ASF 1871-1876

10 Data Rescue program since 2004 New objectives Daily Temperature, Rainfall, Sunshine Duration and sub-daily Pressure for France mainland and overseas with focus on the 20th century records New means National Action undertaken by national regional and depatmental services : Inventories of original written manuscript records archived at Météo-France weather stations and at departmental archives Great effort dedicated to locate relevant data sources by Météo- France agents in departmental weather centres Primary component of the national archive : National Climatological Database (BDCLIM)  New tool for digitisation available in each departmental weather cenres (Climsol)

11 Daily data availability in the Météo-France Climatological Database Daily Temperature Daily rainfall 7 stations in 1855 17 stations in 1855 22 stations in 1875 388 stations in 1875 40 stations in 1900 670 stations in1900 260 stations in 1950 2000 stations in 1950 2350 stations in 2005 4090 stations in 2005

12 19th century sub-daily surface Pressure in the Météo-France database Paris observatory 1816-1829 (1859-1873 digitisation of 4 obs/day in process) Rochefort 1841-1848 + 1880-1898 (gaps digitisation in process) Metz 1841-1886 Versailles 1846 – 1881 Beauficel 1860-1873 Goersdorf 1849-1859 Vendôme 1851-1859 Dijon 1845-1854 Rouen 1845-1857 Paris observatory January 1816 Digitisation of « Annuaires météorologiques » have provided subdaily pressure from 1845 to 1878 for 31 stations but 25 stations with short pressure series less than 5 years

13 DARE activities in connection with ACRE Long-term goal : Complete and lengthen the observatories series with great potential Great potential : observatory records were taken with meticulous care by early scientits Paris-observatoire 1816-1880 : digitization of Pstat and T 1816-1880 (4 obs/day) Paris-Montsouris 1872-1958 : digitization of all parameters (8 obs/day) Marseille 1780-1880 : Collaboration with M. Barriendos (Barcelona university) and M. Pichard (Aix en Provence) -original paper forms 1744-1790 located and stored in the departmental archives, microfilms bought from the departmental archives but 1835-1865 unreadable -Digitization in process by Météo-France : 1841-1865 sub-daily pressure (4 obs/day) from « Répertoire de statistique de Marseille » given by M. Pichard

14 DARE activities in connection with ACRE Bordeaux 1880-1924  observatory records located : P and T 4obs/jour digitisation in process  Bordeaux sciences university : 1842-1856 (mémoires académie des sciences de Bordeaux, annuaires SMF), partly digitized, the rest has to be located  Lyon 1880- 1920 : « memories climatologie lyonnaise » recently scanned, digitilization of sub-daily P and T 1880-1920 digitisation action planned  Strasbourg 1802- 1870, 1941-1945 : observatory annals and German records during the World War recently rescued : digitization of several parameters 1941-1945, Recovery action launched to locate the series 1802-1841 Herrenschneider and 1845-1870 in the military school

15 DARE activities in connection with ACRE Le Verrier (director of the Paris observatory) set up the french meteorological network consisted of 24 stations covering the whole national territory in 1856. 13 stations could transmit the observations made at office opening hours by telegraph every day. The records were published every day in the publicaton « bulletin international de l’observatoire impérial de Paris », documents are stored in the Météo-France librarypr The documents contain French and foreigner countries surface pressure data observed at 7h DARE action  Daily documents have been imaged for the period 1857-1877  1857-1861 Digitisation in process : French surface pressure observed at 8h in 13 stations 1857-1861  Metadata recovery action in process because no metadata in the publication, just the name of the city ! Curent action before archiving to find the coordinates of the telegraph offices

16 DARE for North-Africa ( EU-CIRCE and MEDARE projects) Daily climatological reports from old French Colonies in Africa are archived at the Climatology department in Toulouse on microfiches and microfilms DARE action : detailed inventories available (MEDARE) Collaboration with the Morocco NMS Data available on microfiches for 30 stations 1924-1936 + 1945-1962 Annals and daily reports stored at the M é t é o-France library can complete the series Morocco data after 1961 are in the Morocco NMS database DARE initiative : to construct daily series for 5 stations back to 1924 with the concatenation of the recent data from the Morocco NMS : Casablanca, Fez, Rabat, Meknes, Kasbah Tadla, M é t é o-France manages the imaging of books and microfiches and the digitization of daily data Fundings : EU-CIRCE

17 Conclusion France has a very long and wealthy meteorological history going back to late 18th century. Great efforts have been dedicated to locate relevant data sources because the instrumental records are dispersed. A huge amount of climatic data are still to be rescued in France for the last 200 years to extend the climatic daily and sub-daily series. The construction of reliable instrumental long series is a long way : location of the records, data and metadata recovery, imaging, digitisation, qualiy control and finally archiving. Météo-France data rescue is focusing on the 20th century (mainland and overseas) and on completing the surface pressure long series of the astronomic observatories useful for reanalyses projects (ACRE) Météo-France aims at improving the climatological heritage in reliable and usable series in France (mainland and overseas) and helps the climate data rescue in the old french colonies (EU-CIRCE, MEDARE).

18 Thank you for your attention

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