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Untangling microphysical impacts on deep convection using microphysical piggybacking Wojciech W. Grabowski NCAR, MMM Laboratory

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Morrison et al. JAS 2015 deep convection (squall line) microphysics alone or microphysics plus dynamics?

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Microphysical piggybacking…

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Grabowski, W. W., 2014: Extracting microphysical impacts in large-eddy simulations of shallow convection. J. Atmos. Sci. 71, 4493-4499. Grabowski W. W., 2015: Untangling microphysical impacts on deep convection applying a novel modeling methodology J. Atmos. Sci. (available on EOR, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-14- 0307.1) Grabowski W. W., and D. Jarecka, 2015: Modeling condensation in shallow nonprecipitating convection. (J. Atmos. Sci., submitted).

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3D babyEULAG: a simple anelastic toy model targeting moist convection (shallow – LES; deep – CSRM; etc): - no topography; - no subgrid-scale model (i.e., ILES) - stretched vertical grid; - periodic (horizontal), rigid lid (top and bottom boundaries) - explicit microphysics; - single-thread Fortran 77 code, ~3k lines, ~300 lines in main program To be run on a laptop or a desktop PC My experience (Mac): 100 3 grid-point LES/CSRM runs not much slower than real time…

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The traditional approach: two (many?) simulations… dynamics u 1,v 1,w 1,p 1,… thermodynamics Θ 1,q 1 v,q 1 c,q 1 r,… dynamics u 2,v 2,w 2,p 2,… thermodynamics Θ 2,q 2 v,q 2 c,q 2 r,… scheme 1scheme 2

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The new methodology; 1 st step: dynamics u,v,w,p,… thermodynamics Θ D,q D v,q D c,q D r,… thermodynamics Θ P,q P v,q P c,q P r,… “D” for driving the dynamics “P” for piggybacking the simulated flow scheme 1scheme 2

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The new methodology; 2 nd step: dynamics u,v,w,p,… thermodynamics Θ D,q D v,q D c,q D r,… thermodynamics Θ P,q P v,q P c,q P r,… “D” for driving the dynamics “P” for piggybacking the simulated flow scheme 1scheme 2

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Rosenfeld et al. Science, 2008 “Flood or Drought: How Do Aerosols Affect Precipitation?” clean polluted dynamics versus microphysics…

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Cloud buoyancy: the potential density temperature …but condensate loading reduces the buoyancy latent heating increases the temperature…

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Cloud buoyancy: the potential density temperature …but condensate loading reduces the buoyancy latent heating increases the temperature… The two almost perfectly balance each other…

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sensibl e latent

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Current simulations: Extended to 12 hrs 50 x 50 km 2 horizontal domain, 400 m gridlength 24 km deep domain, 81 levels, stretched grid 1. Contrasting simulations applying different microphysical schemes: separating dynamical and microphysical effects. 2. Contrasting simulations assuming clean and polluted conditions (with droplet concentration of 100/1,000 per cc for pristine/polluted): exploring dynamical basis of deep convection invigoration in polluted environments.

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Two microphysics schemes: Grabowski 1998 (G98) – simple ice: SIM Grabowski 1999 (G99) – more complex ice: IAB ✔ both are single-moment schemes… ✔ the same for warm-rain, significantly different for ice…

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Two microphysics schemes: Grabowski 1998 (G98) – simple ice: SIM Grabowski 1999 (G99) – more complex ice: IAB Two collections of simulations: C1: 12 piggybacking simulations with SIM and IAB: 3 pristine ensemble members for D-SIM/P-IAB and 3 for D-IAB/P-SIM 3 polluted ensemble members for D-SIM/P-IAB and 3 for D-IAB/P-SIM C2: 12 piggybacking simulations with polluted and pristine: 3 SIM ensemble members for D100/P1000 and 3 for D1000/P100 3 IAB ensemble members for D100/P1000 and 3 for D1000/P100

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Example of model results: maps of the total water path (liquid plus ice); a single simulations from IAB ensemble 10 hr 6 hr 2 hr 12 hr 8 hr 4 hr contour interval: 0.1 x maximum

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Example of model results: cloud fraction profiles from IAB ensemble pristine polluted Droplet concentration seems to have a small effect…

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Piggybacking with different schemes: D-IAB/P-SIM versus D-SIM/P- IAB P-SIM D-SIM D-IAB P-IAB Differences between left and right panel suggest modified dynamics between SIM and IAB driving…

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SIM IAB pristinepolluted Standard deviation between 3-members of the ensemble

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SIM IAB

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SIM IAB

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SIMIAB Pristine simulations still produce more rain… Differences (D-P and P-D) are similar (except for the sign)… D100 P1000 D1000 P100 P1000 D100 D1000

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IAB ?

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!

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Comparing cloud updraft buoyancies in IAB D/P simulation: 7 km; -12 degC 3 km; 9 degC D1000/P100D100/P1000 condensate loading offset by freezing effect of condensate loading

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Conclusions: 1. The piggybacking methodology allows confident assessment of impacts of cloud microphysical parameterizations. It decouples their effect from the impact on cloud dynamics. 2. Contrasting D/P and P/D simulations allows investigating the impact on the dynamics. The fact that the D-P differences are similar (except for the sign) between D/P and P/D implies small impact on the cloud dynamics as in the collection C2. Large differences imply significant impact as in the collection C1. 3. For deep convection, the methodology calls into question the dynamic basis of convective invigoration in polluted environments.

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