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Very Large Power System Operators in the World

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1 Very Large Power System Operators in the World
S.P.Kumar Chief Manager Power System Operation Corporation Ltd. NLDC

2 Indian Power System : Amongst the Largest in the World
National Grid (UK) 68GW Capita: 65m MidWest ISO (USA) 159GW Capita: 40m RTE (France) 93GW PJM (USA) 165GW Capita: 51m Red Electrica (Spain) Capita: 47m ONS (Brazil) 100GW Capita: 170m SO - UPS (Russia) 146 GW Capita: 144m Tepco (Japan) 64GW Capita: 45m KPX (South Korea) 70GW Capita: 49m Terna (Italy) 57GW Capita: 60m SGCC (China) 900GW Capita: 1000m PGCIL (India) 163GW Capita: 1200m Eskom (South Africa) 43.5GW Source: VLPGO, 2010

3 Snapshot Of Indian Power System
April 15, 2017 Snapshot Of Indian Power System SLIDE-1: ALL INDIA POWER MAP ·       Sir, this picture shows the extra high voltage transmission network in India ·       Yellow colour depicts 765 kV lines ·       Red colour depicts 400 kV lines and Purple colour shows plus-minus 500 kV HVDC lines NRLDC 3

4 Typical Numbers for Indian Power System…
Demand :~ 110 GW Generating Units :~ 1600 400kV & above Trans. Line :~ 700 Transformers :~ 2000 Busses :~ 5000 Control Areas :~ 100 Inter-State Metering Points :~ 3000 Schedule Matrix Elements :~ 96 X 100 X (~10) ~=100000 Open Access transactions typical daily :~ 100 Captives participating in market :~ 125

5 Peculiarities of Indian Power System
High Growth Rate Shortage – both (MW & MU) Federal Structure Decentralized Scheduling & Despatch Diversity Floating Frequency Large Hydro Variation Large Demand Variation

6 How do we relate Internationally to the Other Grid Operators Worldwide ?
Associations Worldwide Very Large Power Grid Operators (VLPGO) TSO-Comparison Group ( CIGRE (INTERNATIONAL COUNCILON LARGE ELECTRIC SYSTEMS) - C2 and C5 committees System Operation and Control Electricity Markets and Regulation (Conseil International des Grands Réseaux Electriques). International Interconnections SAARC

7 Very Large Power Grid Operators (VLPGO)


9 Formation of the VLPGO A voluntary initiative of the world’s largest Power Grid Operators Representing together more than 60% of the electricity demand in the world. 14 Largest power grid operators of the world Created in 2004 Not-for-profit organization Followed several blackouts across the world To investigate fundamental issues of common interest to its members To develop joint action plans addressing the improvement of power system security. Formalized in 2009 Specific Focus Issues related to Very Large Power Grids Membership Size > 50 GW

10 VLPGO : Role of Grid Operators Worldwide
Work constantly to plan, monitor, supervise and control the energy delivered as a continuous process 24 hours a day Delivering the electricity that powers modern societies Critical role of Grid Operators includes acting on behalf of Consumers, to ensure quality while minimizing costs and recognizing economic and societal dependence on electricity; a technical role in planning, designing, and managing the Power Systems; an interface role with generators, market participants and distributors, which are the most direct users of the transmission grid; a natural role of interlocutors with power exchanges, regulators and governments.

11 Common Challenges for VLPGO
Providing power system reliability and security Smart Grid development Integration of Renewables Integration of Electric Vehicles Capacity development and optimization including system renovation and development, equipment upgrading. Reducing CO2 emissions Improve productivity and energy efficiency Power system visualization Demand Side Management Interconnections Development of new technologies and HVDC Establishment and coordination of new control centers 11

12 VLPGO Vision and Mission
“To be a leader and a catalyst in the transition of the electric power industry to the power grid of the 21st century” Mission Develop an international consensus on strategic issues which are unique to the very large power grid and market operators Develop a common vision with respect to the technologies and best practices required to address those issues Facilitate the implementation of the vision through information exchanges, collaborative projects and cooperation with other international organizations.

13 Objectives: Transition to Grid of 21st Century
Innovate Thinking An international consensus on strategic issues challenging the very large power grid and market operators Technology Advancement A common vision with respect to the technologies and best practices required to address those issues in a framework of social and environmental responsibility of each member. Industry Leadership Through a common Communication Policy, the dissemination and implementation of a common vision through information exchange, collaborative projects and cooperation with other international organizations.

14 Expectation within VLPGO framework
Sharing worldwide experience and knowledge on best practices to improve the power system security and performance Building a common vision on the transition towards a more modern power system (i.e. Smart Grids) Being catalyst towards Manufacturers and Vendors to make available the best technologies to the Power Systems Creating a industry voice on the transition to a more sustainable energy system and the journey to COP 17 and the enabling environments required to support the electricity supply industry worldwide. Enhancement of transmission security: security must be a permanent concern of VLPGO Communication Strategy: PGOs must have communication strategies for regular, risk and crisis situations. 14

15 VLPGO Delivering Value to its Members
Emerging Technology Identify early trends Assess common impacts Develop common solution requirements Shared Learning Identify common key operational risks Share after-the-fact analysis of major events Common Approaches & Solutions Develop common specifications across suppliers Create new market mechanisms Produce guidelines for common reliability issues Best Practices Share “best” Ideas and policies Create methodologies for evaluation or analysis Industry Influence Develop common positions for industry stakeholders

16 Structure of VLPGO Activities
The VLPGO consists of: Governing Board 5 Joint Projects 5 Working Groups 2 Workshops Short-term collaboration on specific project by subset of members One of exploration of topic area Task Task Task Task Task The Governing Board has: Streamlined the working approach between different forums Is writing guidance for conveyors – to improve performance (2010) Focused on a smaller number of activities to deliver material progress & create a multi-year plan A key aspect of the VLPGO mission is to act on issues of common interest to its members. This is accomplished in the following ways: Working Groups addressing specific topics/themes of interest to all the members, as decided at the annual Meeting. Working Groups effort may span over several years, but they act on an annual work plan and set of deliverables. Joint Projects where two or more of the Members decide to coordinate their activities and combine their resources to execute projects of common interest. Workshops, where the majority of the members (typically Governing Board Member representatives) explore together specific themes of interest to all the members' and provide the Steering Board with high level summaries and conclusions/recommendations.


18 VLPGO 2011 Joint Activities
Working Groups WG #1 – Wide Area Monitoring Applications (PJM) WG #2 – Enhanced Security (Terna/ONS) WG 2a – Security vs. Operation Costs (Terna/ONS) WG 2b – Enhanced Network Restoration (Terna/ONS) WG 2c – Equipment Overstressing (ONS) WG 2d –Security of Supply to large metro areas (?) WG #3 – Integration of Renewables (NG) WG #4 – Load Forecasting (REE) WG #5 – HVDC (ONS) WG #6 – Electric Vehicles (PJM) WG #7 – Storage (MISO) Joint Projects Visualization (SGCC) Workshops WS #1 – KPIs (SO UPS) WS #2 – Smart Grid (KPX) 18

19 VLPGO Current Activities - mapped
Principle Drivers Renewable Smart Security and Safety of Supply WG #3: Integration of Renewable Technologies WS #1: Smart Grids WG #2a: Enhanced Security - Vulnerability JP #3: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles JP #2: HVDC in Synchronous Power Systems JP #4: Monitoring and Automation Enduring Drivers New Technology WG #1: SynchroPhasors (Wide Area Monitoring) Efficient Operation WG #2c: Equipment Overstresses #5: Visualization JP #1: Asset Management WS #2 – Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) WG #2b: Enhanced Security - Restoration

20 VLPGO Accomplishments thus far
SynchroPhasors: WAMS Architecture Requirements and PMU Certification Test Methodology Preliminary Report”, 2008 Capacity Markets: “Market Mechanisms and incentive Instrument to Promote Generating Capacity and Demand Response”, 2008 Self Healing Grid: “Cascading Events and How to Prevent Them – Restoration Process Prevention Of Large-Scale Blackouts In The Large Metropolitan Cities”, Application Guide “Self Healing Techniques to Prevent Black Outs and Cascading Events”, 2008 EMS Architecture: EMS Architectures for the 21st Century (transferred this work to CIGRE working group D2.24) 20

21 VLPGO Workplan … Road Ahead

22 VLPGO Future Drivers Principle Drivers
Connecting low carbon renewable sources of generation Building SMARTer electricity networks of the future & the impact of SMART load changes Ensuring the future Security and Safety of Supply of our networks Enduring Drivers Advancing and implementing new technology to the benefits of our customers Developing network capacity & operating our electricity networks in the most efficient and economical way we can

23 TSO – Comparison Group The Group of International Comparison of Transmission System Operation Practice

24 Mission To exchange information on Power System Operators current and future operating practices for the purpose of benchmarking. An annual survey is undertaken to ascertain Equivalent staffing requirements Best practices Performance measures Areas Transmission system operations including generation scheduling and dispatching, Electricity market operation, Operations planning, Settlements, Information technology, training, etc. TSO is managed by a Steering Committee consisting of 6 elected members and supported by KEMA

25 Most important reasons for being a member
Performance Measures Database (> 50 data points) Comparing with other TSOs (Benchmark Model) Identification of peers (Company profiles / Activity Lists) Learning from other TSOs (Best Practice) Informal contacts and TSO Questionnaires (Networking) Counter Benchmark to Regulatory Benchmark (Insurance policy) 25

26 Members Members Name Country ESKOM South Africa
Red Eléctrica de España* Spain Landsnet Iceland Fingrid* Finland Amprion* Germany Transpower NZ* New Zealand Saudi Electricity Company Saudi Arabia TenneT Netherlands Statnett SF Norway PJM Interconnection** PA, USA National Grid Electricity Transmission* United Kingdom CLP Power* Hong Kong ESB NG Ireland Transpower Germany Swissgrid Switzerland Rede Eléctrica Nacional Portugal Hydro Québec Canada Svenska Kraftnät Sweden PSE Poland EWA Bahrain China Southern Power Grid China Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd. India

27 Benchmarking Model The TSO Comparison Group is using an advanced multidimensional Benchmark Model for comparing TSOs’ System Operation organization. The Model’s “multidimensional approach” provides insight into the efficiency and effectiveness of each TSO with respect to both its own environment (size, structure, regulation et al) and to other TSO environments. The Model’s output has demonstrated the capability of identifying generic differences (resulting in ad hoc peer-groups) as well as generic similarities. The Model’s output has been utilized for mergers (in defining staff sizing requirements), and tested for self-analysis (in validating actual staff sizes).

28 Features of the benchmarking model
The model aids in highlighting the effects of non-traditional changes within peer groups. As non-traditional changes, such as new Market initiatives are developed, the Model will display the areas of change. Although the value of those changes will vary with corporate objectives, the magnitude and the areas impacted by the changes will be highlighted by the Model. The key feature of the Model is that it does not focus on defining the “best” and the “worst” TSOs, but rather focuses on identifying differences between TSOs. Whether differences are good or not will depend on many factors – the Model allows the user to make those value decisions based on the goals of the respective user.

29 Transmission Operation
For Benchmark purposes a ‘standard TSO’ with five key System Operation processes has been defined.. Market Operation Transmission Operation System Operation 29

30 ..and a process which takes into account the remaining differences between TSOs
Input Data Data Definition Data Collection, Verification, Validation Bench mark Benchmark Calculations Evaluation of Benchmark Results Results Discussion of Differences Identification of Learning Points Company Profile Activity List 30

31 Data Collected annually since 2000, validated by KEMA, verified by group
Example of data points: Operations Planning (1 year to 2 weeks before day of operation) Number of Planned Transmission Outages Number of Planned Generating-unit Outages Scheduling (2 weeks to 1 day before day of operation): Accuracy of peak load forecast Accuracy of minimum load forecast Transmission congestion: Generation constrained "on". Foreseen transmission concerns Scheduled transmission outage requests Scheduled generation outages Real Time Operation (Day of Operation): Frequency control performance Average overall system deviation Generation and load instructions Personnel on shift RTO transmission outages taken Support Operator training hours of teachers Number of SCADA database points (Status points, Analog points, Control points) Overall Performance: Transmitted energy at risk Response Time of Area Control Error or Frequency Energy unsupplied due to 'unsupplied energy incidents' Unsupplied energy incidents Voltage excursions Reference Data Number of Staff in Full Time Equivalents, separately for each process Costs, separately for each process and network losses Network date, including e.g. Circuit Ends, Line lengths, Generators, Peak Load, Transmitted Energy, Interconnectors. Support All data are available for members 31

32 For each process, two benchmark models have been developed…
COST Based Model PERFORMANCE Based Model TSO Process Input (staff, cost) Output (uniform) Environmental Factors (e.g. network size) 32

33 ..Here, an example of one of the 10 benchmark models is shown
Environmental Factors EF1: Network Size (circuit ends, generators, interconnectors) EF2: Planned Outages (Transmission and Generation) Operations Planning Input FTE Output (uniform) Model parameters based on regression of TSO data 33

34 Real Time Operation FTE Model
At the Interim workshop it was decided to apply a fix constant of 6 for the RTO (FTE) model, which is considered to be to be the minimum staff required for 24 x7 operation in a control centre. EF1= NTW3 + NTW3a *(NTW4 + NTW10a + NTW10b) EF2= RTO5 FTE = ß1 EF1 + ß2 EF2 + 6 ± error NTW3 = Circuit Ends NTW10a = AC Interconnectors NTW3a = Switched circuit ends NTW10b = DC Interconnectors NTW4 = Generation Units RTO5 = RTO Transmission outages taken

35 Operation Planning FTE Model
EF1= NTW3 + 5*(NTW4 + NTW10a + NTW10b) EF2= OPL1 + OPL2 + SCH3 NTW3 = Circuit Ends OPL1 = Planned Transmission outage requests NTW4 = Generation Units OPL2 = Planned Generation unit outages NTW10a = AC Interconnectors SCH3 = Foreseen Transmission concerns NTW10b = DC Interconnectors

36 Scheduling FTE Model EF1= SCH3 + SCH5 + SCH6
SCH3 = Foreseen Transmission concerns SCH5 = Scheduled Transmission outages SCH6 = Scheduled Generation outages

37 After the Fact FTE Model
Cost or FTE EF1= NTW3 + 5*(NTW4 + NTW10a + NTW10b) EF2= OAP4 NTW3 = Circuit Ends OAP4 = Unsupplied energy incidents NTW4 = Generation Units NTW10a = AC Interconnectors NTW10b = DC Interconnectors

38 Support FTE Model EF1= NTW3 + 5*(NTW4 + NTW10a + NTW10b)
EF2= SCH5 + SCH6 NTW3 = Circuit Ends SCH5 = Scheduled Transmission outages NTW4 = Generation Units SCH6 = Scheduled Generation outages NTW10a = AC Interconnectors NTW10b = DC Interconnectors

39 Which results in an assessment for each process for FTE and Cost
Example of Benchmark Results Details are available to members only 39

40 Simultaneously differences between TSOs are being investigated…
Part of ‘Activity List for Operations Planning process’ Share in IT costs Details are available for members 40

41 And summarized in management presentations
Data Data Definition Data Collection, Verification, Validation Bench mark Benchmark Calculations Evaluation of Benchmark Results Results Discussion of Differences Learning Points Company Profile Activity List Sum of five benchmark results Quality of System Operation (frequency, energy not supplied, Voltage) 41

42 Results of Annual Survey
An important basis for performance comparison and for improvement of operating practices. Experience of Members of the Group discussed each year in one or two Workshops upon invitation of one of the participating companies Membership of TSO is presently restricted to up to 30 companies / departments that qualify as an operator of a bulk transmission system

43 Issues to be Considered in International Interconnections

44 Guiding Attributes Spirit of regional cooperation
Approach towards long-term planning Energy policy structure and goals Adherence to international agreements Encourage cross border trades

45 International Interconnections - Benefits
Improving Reliability and Pooling of Reserves Reduced investment in generating capacity Improving load factor and increasing load diversity Economies of scale Diversity of generation mix and supply security Economic exchange Environmentally benign dispatch and siting of new plant Coordination of maintenance schedules

46 International Interconnections – Various Aspects
Technical Commercial Regulatory/Legal Coordination

47 Technical Objectives Economy Security Reliability Efficiency
Minimal environmental impact Quality

48 Coordination Working level coordination committee Technical Operation
Commercial Protection

49 Weblink: http://www. un

50 International Interconnections
Nepal Bhutan Over 16 links of 132/33/11 KV Radial links with Nepal Net import by Nepal Tala: MW Chukha: 336 MW Kurichu: 60 MW Net import by India India- Bhutan synchronous links 400 kV Tala-Binaguri D/C 400 kV Tala-Malbase-Binaguri 220 kV Chukha-Birpara D/C 220 kV Chukha-Malbase-Birpara 132 kV Kurichu-Bongaigaon Bangladesh 400 KV AC line between Baharampur(India) and Bheramara(Bangladesh) with MW HVDC sub-station at Bheramara Sri – Lanka Madurai(India) and  Anuradhapura(Sri-Lanka) through ±500 KV HVDC under sea cable Maps not to scale

51 Survey Questionnaires
Questionnaire I – Present Power Supply Position Questionnaire II Organization of the Electricity Supply Industry Power System Planning & Planning Criterion Legal / Regulatory Issues Load despatch function Technical Issues Balancing Supply – Demand Electricity Market Ancillary Services Renewable Energy Resources Transmission Pricing Congestion Management Grid discipline Investments Existing International Interconnections Questionnaire III – Long term projections

52 Draft Template – Contents

53 Draft Template – Tables and Figures


55 Aim CIGRE (International Council on Large Electric Systems) is one of the leading worldwide Organizations on Electric Power Systems, covering their technical, economic, environmental, organisational and regulatory aspects. A permanent, non-governmental and non-profit International Association, based in France, CIGRE was founded in 1921 and aims to: Facilitate the exchange of information between engineering personnel and specialists in all countries and develop knowledge in power systems. Add value to the knowledge and information exchanged by synthesizing state-of-the-art world practices. Make managers, decision-makers and regulators aware of the synthesis of CIGRE's work, in the area of electric power.

56 CIGRE: Developing Technical Knowledge
CIGRE develops technical knowledge through 3 types of activities: - Organizing Conferences and meetings, where papers are discussed, - Carrying out Permanent studies by 16 Study Committees, each dealing with a specific technical field,  publishing reports and organizing Tutorials.   - Making its publications available to members of CIGRE and others. 

57 Study Committee C2 - System Operation and Control
The Study Committee C2 serves within Cigré by forming a working concept for the functionalities, structures and competence needed to operate integrated power systems in a way that is in compliance with the social requirements for security of electricity supply. The performance of power systems in real time depend on technical quality factors built into the systems through various activities and knowledge currently covered by the other Cigré Study Committees. SC C2 therefore needs to use and combine results provided within these committees. An area which is unique for C2 is however the dependency on a good performance of human resources in real-time system operation activities. In these respects SC C2 encircles a wide range of competence areas and interfaces to other disciplines.

58 Mission and Scope of CIGRE Study Committee C2
Mission of SC C2: To facilitate and promote the progress of engineering and the international exchange of information and knowledge in the field of system operation and control. To add value to this information and knowledge by means of synthesizing state-of-the-art practices and developing recommendations. The Scope of SC C2: The scope of the SC covers the technical, human resource and institutional aspects and conditions for a secure and economic operation of existing power systems under security requirements against system disintegration, equipment damages and human injuries

59 Driving forces for future work
The priorities to important emerging factors that will influence and define new requirements on the System Operation performance. Directions are: Integration of regional and national grids into large open markets Management of generation capacity and energy shortages Management of capacity shortages Impact from new sources of dispersed generation and related system requirements Influence from customer needs and response Interaction between open market trading mechanisms and power system operation in congestion and transit flow management Integration of information and communication technology

60 Sub – Committees of C2

61 Study Committee C5 - Electricity Markets and Regulation
The Mission of Study Committee C5 is "to facilitate and promote the progress of engineering and the international exchange of information and knowledge in the field of electricity markets and regulations. To add value to this information and knowledge by means of synthesizing state-of-the-art practices and by developing recommendations." SC C5 Strategic Goals Development and changes in the Business of System Operations Market Entities Market Activities and Market Design Market Regulations

62 Working Groups of C5 Committee
The six Working Groups and one Joint Working Group approved by Technical Committee are: WG C5-3 Investments & Financing of new Transmission and Generation Assets in a Deregulated Environment WG C5-7 Market Design – Structure and Development of Electricity Markets WG C5-8 Renewables and energy efficiency in a deregulated market WG C5-9 Retail Market Competition – Customer Switching, Metering and Load profiles WG C5-10 Establishment of Effective and Sustainable Regulatory Incentives for Capital Investments in Electricity Networks and Generation WG C5-11 Market design for large scale integration of renewable energy sources and demand side management JWG C2/C5–5 Development and Changes in the Business of System Operators

63 CIGRE WG/Task Force/Study Committees

64 CIGRE WG/Task Force/Study Committees

65 System Operation Models

66 Possible Models for Regulatory & Commercial Relationships
ISO: Independent System Operator AO: Asset Owner

67 Scope of System Operation Activities

G G G G G T SO D D D D D This model is followed in UK by NGC, in Norway by Statenett, in Sweden by Svenska Kraftnet, in Finland by Fingrid, in Netherland by Tennet, in Denmark by Eltral/Elkrafts and in South Africa by Eskom.

This model is followed in France, wherein Transmission and System Operation functions have been delegated to RTE. EdF is responsible for the Generation and the Distribution.

G G G T SO + D This model is followed in Korea by KEPCO and in Malaysia by TNB. These entities are now in the process of separating the distribution function from Transmission & SO functions.

This model is followed in Alberta of Canada. In this model, since, there are more than one main transmission companies, an independent System Operator and Transmission Administrator exist.

AMERICAN MODEL G G G G G G RTO SO T T T SO D D D D D D This model is followed in USA. Based on their California experience, USA is now moving towards TSO model through RTO.

CTU FUNCTIONS Inter-state Transmission Services NON-CTU FUNCTIONS Telecom, Consultancy, Distribution Ring Fenced System Operation Through NLDC / RLDCs LICENSEES

74 ISO Models: Balancing, Operational & Deep ISOs

75 Website of System Operators Worldwide
S.No. Name of the TSO Country Web Presence 1 ESKOM South Africa 2 Red Eléctrica de España* Spain 3 Landsnet Iceland 4 Fingrid* Finland 5 Amprion* Germany 6 Transpower NZ Newzealand 7 Saudi Electricity Company Saudi Arabia 8 TenneT Netherlands 9 Statnett SF Norway 10 PJM Interconnection** PA,USA 11 National Grid Electricity Transmission* UK 12 CLP Power Hong Kong 13 ESB NG Ireland 14 Transpower 15 Swisssgrid Switzerland 16 Rede Eléctrica Nacional Portugal 17 Hydro Québec Canada 18 Svenska Kraftnät Sweden 19 PSE Poland 20 EWA Bahrain 21 China Southern Power Grid China 22 Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd. India /





80 Thank You !!

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