Presentation on theme: "Very Large Power System Operators in the World S.P.Kumar Chief Manager Power System Operation Corporation Ltd. NLDC1."— Presentation transcript:
Very Large Power System Operators in the World S.P.Kumar Chief Manager Power System Operation Corporation Ltd. NLDC1
Indian Power System : Amongst the Largest in the World National Grid (UK) 68GW Capita: 65m MidWest ISO (USA) 159GW Capita: 40m RTE (France) 93GW Capita: 65m PJM (USA) 165GW Capita: 51m Red Electrica (Spain) 93GW Capita: 47m ONS (Brazil) 100GW Capita: 170m SO - UPS (Russia) 146 GW Capita: 144m Tepco (Japan) 64GW Capita: 45m KPX (South Korea) 70GW Capita: 49m Terna (Italy) 57GW Capita: 60m SGCC (China) 900GW Capita: 1000m PGCIL (India) 163GW Capita: 1200m Eskom (South Africa) 43.5GW Capita: 49m Source: VLPGO, 2010
Snapshot Of Indian Power System
Typical Numbers for Indian Power System… Demand:~ 110 GW Generating Units :~ kV & above Trans. Line :~ 700 Transformers:~ 2000 Busses:~ 5000 Control Areas:~ 100 Inter-State Metering Points:~ 3000 Schedule Matrix Elements:~ 96 X 100 X (~10) ~= Open Access transactions typical daily:~ 100 Captives participating in market:~ 125
Peculiarities of Indian Power System High Growth Rate Shortage – both (MW & MU) Federal Structure Decentralized Scheduling & Despatch Diversity Floating Frequency Large Hydro Variation Large Demand Variation
How do we relate Internationally to the Other Grid Operators Worldwide ? Associations Worldwide Very Large Power Grid Operators (VLPGO) TSO-Comparison Group (http://www.tso-comparison.com) CIGRE ( INTERNATIONAL COUNCILON LARGE ELECTRIC SYSTEMS ) - C2 and C5 committees System Operation and Control Electricity Markets and Regulation (Conseil International des Grands Réseaux Electriques). International Interconnections SAARC
Very Large Power Grid Operators (VLPGO)
Formation of the VLPGO A voluntary initiative of the world’s largest Power Grid Operators Representing together more than 60% of the electricity demand in the world. 14 Largest power grid operators of the world Created in 2004 Not-for-profit organization Followed several blackouts across the world To investigate fundamental issues of common interest to its members To develop joint action plans addressing the improvement of power system security. Formalized in 2009 Specific Focus Issues related to Very Large Power Grids Membership Size > 50 GW
VLPGO : Role of Grid Operators Worldwide Work constantly to plan, monitor, supervise and control the energy delivered as a continuous process 24 hours a day Delivering the electricity that powers modern societies Critical role of Grid Operators includes acting on behalf of Consumers, to ensure quality while minimizing costs and recognizing economic and societal dependence on electricity; a technical role in planning, designing, and managing the Power Systems; an interface role with generators, market participants and distributors, which are the most direct users of the transmission grid; a natural role of interlocutors with power exchanges, regulators and governments.
Common Challenges for VLPGO Providing power system reliability and security Smart Grid development Integration of Renewables Integration of Electric Vehicles Capacity development and optimization including system renovation and development, equipment upgrading. Reducing CO2 emissions Improve productivity and energy efficiency Power system visualization Demand Side Management Interconnections Development of new technologies and HVDC Establishment and coordination of new control centers 11
VLPGO Vision and Mission Vision “To be a leader and a catalyst in the transition of the electric power industry to the power grid of the 21st century” Mission Develop an international consensus on strategic issues which are unique to the very large power grid and market operators Develop a common vision with respect to the technologies and best practices required to address those issues Facilitate the implementation of the vision through information exchanges, collaborative projects and cooperation with other international organizations.
Objectives: Transition to Grid of 21 st Century Innovate Thinking An international consensus on strategic issues challenging the very large power grid and market operators Technology Advancement A common vision with respect to the technologies and best practices required to address those issues in a framework of social and environmental responsibility of each member. Industry Leadership Through a common Communication Policy, the dissemination and implementation of a common vision through information exchange, collaborative projects and cooperation with other international organizations.
Expectation within VLPGO framework Sharing worldwide experience and knowledge on best practices to improve the power system security and performance Building a common vision on the transition towards a more modern power system (i.e. Smart Grids) Being catalyst towards Manufacturers and Vendors to make available the best technologies to the Power Systems Creating a industry voice on the transition to a more sustainable energy system and the journey to COP 17 and the enabling environments required to support the electricity supply industry worldwide. Enhancement of transmission security: security must be a permanent concern of VLPGO Communication Strategy: PGOs must have communication strategies for regular, risk and crisis situations. 14
VLPGO Delivering Value to its Members Emerging Technology Identify early trends Assess common impacts Develop common solution requirements Shared Learning Identify common key operational risks Share after-the-fact analysis of major events Common Approaches & Solutions Develop common specifications across suppliers Create new market mechanisms Produce guidelines for common reliability issues Best Practices Share “best” Ideas and policies Create methodologies for evaluation or analysis Industry Influence Develop common positions for industry stakeholders
16 Structure of VLPGO Activities The VLPGO consists of: The Governing Board has: Streamlined the working approach between different forums Is writing guidance for conveyors – to improve performance (2010) Focused on a smaller number of activities to deliver material progress & create a multi-year plan 5 Joint Projects 5 Working Groups 2 Workshops Governing Board Short-term collaboration on specific project by subset of members One of exploration of topic area Task
18 VLPGO 2011 Joint Activities Working Groups WG #1 – Wide Area Monitoring Applications (PJM) WG #2 – Enhanced Security (Terna/ONS) WG 2a – Security vs. Operation Costs (Terna/ONS) WG 2b – Enhanced Network Restoration (Terna/ONS) WG 2c – Equipment Overstressing (ONS) WG 2d –Security of Supply to large metro areas (?) WG #3 – Integration of Renewables (NG) WG #4 – Load Forecasting (REE) WG #5 – HVDC (ONS) WG #6 – Electric Vehicles (PJM) WG #7 – Storage (MISO) Joint Projects Visualization (SGCC) Workshops WS #1 – KPIs (SO UPS) WS #2 – Smart Grid (KPX)
19 VLPGO Current Activities - mapped Enduring Drivers Principle Drivers Smart WS #1: Smart Grids Renewable WG #3: Integration of Renewable Technologies Security and Safety of Supply WG #2a: Enhanced Security - Vulnerability Efficient Operation New Technology WG #1: SynchroPhasors (Wide Area Monitoring) JP #2: HVDC in Synchronous Power Systems JP #1: Asset Management JP #3: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles JP #4: Monitoring and Automation #5: Visualization WS #2 – Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) WG #2b: Enhanced Security - Restoration WG #2c: Equipment Overstresses
20 VLPGO Accomplishments thus far 20 SynchroPhasors: WAMS Architecture Requirements and PMU Certification Test Methodology Preliminary Report”, 2008 SynchroPhasors: WAMS Architecture Requirements and PMU Certification Test Methodology Preliminary Report”, 2008 Capacity Markets: “Market Mechanisms and incentive Instrument to Promote Generating Capacity and Demand Response”, 2008 Capacity Markets: “Market Mechanisms and incentive Instrument to Promote Generating Capacity and Demand Response”, 2008 Self Healing Grid: “Cascading Events and How to Prevent Them – Restoration Process Prevention Of Large-Scale Blackouts In The Large Metropolitan Cities”, Application Guide “Self Healing Techniques to Prevent Black Outs and Cascading Events”, 2008 Self Healing Grid: “Cascading Events and How to Prevent Them – Restoration Process Prevention Of Large-Scale Blackouts In The Large Metropolitan Cities”, Application Guide “Self Healing Techniques to Prevent Black Outs and Cascading Events”, 2008 EMS Architecture: EMS Architectures for the 21 st Century (transferred this work to CIGRE working group D2.24) EMS Architecture: EMS Architectures for the 21 st Century (transferred this work to CIGRE working group D2.24)
VLPGO Workplan … Road Ahead NLDC21
22 VLPGO Future Drivers Principle Drivers Enduring Drivers Connecting low carbon renewable sources of generation Building SMARTer electricity networks of the future & the impact of SMART load changes Ensuring the future Security and Safety of Supply of our networks Advancing and implementing new technology to the benefits of our customers Developing network capacity & operating our electricity networks in the most efficient and economical way we can
TSO – Comparison Group The Group of International Comparison of Transmission System Operation Practice
Mission To exchange information on Power System Operators current and future operating practices for the purpose of benchmarking. An annual survey is undertaken to ascertain Equivalent staffing requirements Best practices Performance measures Areas Transmission system operations including generation scheduling and dispatching, Electricity market operation, Operations planning, Settlements, Information technology, training, etc. TSO is managed by a Steering Committee consisting of 6 elected members and supported by KEMAKEMA
Most important reasons for being a member Performance Measures Database (> 50 data points) Comparing with other TSOs (Benchmark Model) Identification of peers (Company profiles / Activity Lists) Learning from other TSOs (Best Practice) Informal contacts and TSO Questionnaires (Networking) Counter Benchmark to Regulatory Benchmark (Insurance policy)
Members Members Name Country ESKOM South Africa Red Eléctrica de España* Spain Landsnet Iceland Fingrid* Finland Amprion* Germany Transpower NZ* New Zealand Saudi Electricity Company Saudi Arabia TenneT Netherlands Statnett SF Norway PJM Interconnection** PA, USA National Grid Electricity Transmission* United Kingdom CLP Power* Hong Kong ESB NG Ireland Transpower Germany Swissgrid Switzerland Rede Eléctrica Nacional Portugal Hydro Québec Canada Svenska Kraftnät Sweden PSE Poland EWA Bahrain China Southern Power Grid China Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd. India
Benchmarking Model The TSO Comparison Group is using an advanced multidimensional Benchmark Model for comparing TSOs’ System Operation organization. The Model’s “multidimensional approach” provides insight into the efficiency and effectiveness of each TSO with respect to both its own environment (size, structure, regulation et al) and to other TSO environments. The Model’s output has demonstrated the capability of identifying generic differences (resulting in ad hoc peer-groups) as well as generic similarities. The Model’s output has been utilized for mergers (in defining staff sizing requirements), and tested for self-analysis (in validating actual staff sizes).
Features of the benchmarking model The model aids in highlighting the effects of non-traditional changes within peer groups. As non-traditional changes, such as new Market initiatives are developed, the Model will display the areas of change. Although the value of those changes will vary with corporate objectives, the magnitude and the areas impacted by the changes will be highlighted by the Model. The key feature of the Model is that it does not focus on defining the “best” and the “worst” TSOs, but rather focuses on identifying differences between TSOs. Whether differences are good or not will depend on many factors – the Model allows the user to make those value decisions based on the goals of the respective user.
For Benchmark purposes a ‘standard TSO’ with five key System Operation processes has been defined..
..and a process which takes into account the remaining differences between TSOs Input Data Data Definition Data Collection, Verification, Validation Bench mark Benchmark Calculations Evaluation of Benchmark Results Results Discussion of Differences Identification of Learning Points Company Profile Activity List
Data Collected annually since 2000, validated by KEMA, verified by group Operations Planning (1 year to 2 weeks before day of operation) Number of Planned Transmission Outages Number of Planned Generating-unit Outages Scheduling (2 weeks to 1 day before day of operation): Accuracy of peak load forecast Accuracy of minimum load forecast Transmission congestion: Generation constrained "on". Foreseen transmission concerns Scheduled transmission outage requests Scheduled generation outages Real Time Operation (Day of Operation): Frequency control performance Average overall system deviation Generation and load instructions Personnel on shift RTO transmission outages taken Support Operator training hours of teachers Number of SCADA database points (Status points, Analog points, Control points) Overall Performance: Transmitted energy at risk Response Time of Area Control Error or Frequency Energy unsupplied due to 'unsupplied energy incidents' Unsupplied energy incidents Voltage excursions Reference Data Number of Staff in Full Time Equivalents, separately for each process Costs, separately for each process and network losses Network date, including e.g. Circuit Ends, Line lengths, Generators, Peak Load, Transmitted Energy, Interconnectors. All data are available for members Example of data points:
For each process, two benchmark models have been developed… TSO Process Input (staff, cost) Output (uniform) Environmental Factors (e.g. network size) COST Based Model PERFORMANCE Based Model
..Here, an example of one of the 10 benchmark models is shown Operations Planning Input FTE Output (uniform) Environmental Factors EF 1 : Network Size (circuit ends, generators, interconnectors) EF 2 : Planned Outages (Transmission and Generation) Model parameters based on regression of TSO data
Real Time Operation FTE Model EF 1 = NTW3 + NTW3a + 5*(NTW4 + NTW10a + NTW10b) EF 2 = RTO5 NTW3 = Circuit EndsNTW10a = AC Interconnectors NTW3a = Switched circuit endsNTW10b = DC Interconnectors NTW4 = Generation Units RTO5 = RTO Transmission outages taken FTE = ß1 EF1 + ß2 EF2 + 6 ± error At the Interim workshop it was decided to apply a fix constant of 6 for the RTO (FTE) model, which is considered to be to be the minimum staff required for 24 x7 operation in a control centre.
Operation Planning FTE Model EF 1 = NTW3 + 5*(NTW4 + NTW10a + NTW10b) EF 2 = OPL1 + OPL2 + SCH3 NTW3 = Circuit EndsOPL1 = Planned Transmission outage requests NTW4 = Generation UnitsOPL2 = Planned Generation unit outages NTW10a = AC InterconnectorsSCH3 = Foreseen Transmission concerns NTW10b = DC Interconnectors
After the Fact FTE Model EF 1 = NTW3 + 5*(NTW4 + NTW10a + NTW10b) EF 2 = OAP4 NTW3 = Circuit EndsOAP4 = Unsupplied energy incidents NTW4 = Generation Units NTW10a = AC Interconnectors NTW10b = DC Interconnectors Cost or FTE
Support FTE Model EF 1 = NTW3 + 5*(NTW4 + NTW10a + NTW10b) EF 2 = SCH5 + SCH6 NTW3 = Circuit EndsSCH5 = Scheduled Transmission outages NTW4 = Generation UnitsSCH6 = Scheduled Generation outages NTW10a = AC Interconnectors NTW10b = DC Interconnectors
Which results in an assessment for each process for FTE and Cost Example of Benchmark Results Details are available to members only
Simultaneously differences between TSOs are being investigated… Details are available for members Part of ‘Activity List for Operations Planning process’ Share in IT costs
And summarized in management presentations Sum of five benchmark results Quality of System Operation (frequency, energy not supplied, Voltage)
Results of Annual Survey An important basis for performance comparison and for improvement of operating practices. Experience of Members of the Group discussed each year in one or two Workshops upon invitation of one of the participating companies Membership of TSO is presently restricted to up to 30 companies / departments that qualify as an operator of a bulk transmission system
Issues to be Considered in International Interconnections
Guiding Attributes Spirit of regional cooperation Approach towards long-term planning Energy policy structure and goals Adherence to international agreements Encourage cross border trades
International Interconnections - Benefits Improving Reliability and Pooling of Reserves Reduced investment in generating capacity Improving load factor and increasing load diversity Economies of scale Diversity of generation mix and supply security Economic exchange Environmentally benign dispatch and siting of new plant Coordination of maintenance schedules
International Interconnections – Various Aspects Technical Commercial Regulatory/Legal Coordination
International Interconnections Maps not to scale Bhutan Nepal Tala: 1020 MW Chukha: 336 MW Kurichu: 60 MW Net import by India India- Bhutan synchronous links 400 kV Tala-Binaguri D/C 400 kV Tala-Malbase-Binaguri 220 kV Chukha-Birpara D/C 220 kV Chukha-Malbase-Birpara 132 kV Kurichu-Bongaigaon Over 16 links of 132/33/11 KV Radial links with Nepal Net import by Nepal Bangladesh 400 KV AC line between Baharampur(India) and Bheramara(Bangladesh) with 500 MW HVDC sub-station at Bheramara Sri – Lanka Madurai(India) and Anuradhapura(Sri-Lanka) through ±500 KV HVDC under sea cable Madurai Anuradhapura
51 Survey Questionnaires Questionnaire I – Present Power Supply Position Questionnaire II Organization of the Electricity Supply Industry Power System Planning & Planning Criterion Legal / Regulatory Issues Load despatch function Technical Issues Balancing Supply – Demand Electricity Market Ancillary Services Renewable Energy Resources Transmission Pricing Congestion Management Grid discipline Investments Existing International Interconnections Questionnaire III – Long term projections
52 Draft Template – Contents
53 Draft Template – Tables and Figures
CIGRE (INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL ON LARGE ELECTRIC SYSTEMS)
Aim CIGRE (International Council on Large Electric Systems) is one of the leading worldwide Organizations on Electric Power Systems, covering their technical, economic, environmental, organisational and regulatory aspects. A permanent, non-governmental and non-profit International Association, based in France, CIGRE was founded in 1921 and aims to: Facilitate the exchange of information between engineering personnel and specialists in all countries and develop knowledge in power systems. Add value to the knowledge and information exchanged by synthesizing state-of-the-art world practices. Make managers, decision-makers and regulators aware of the synthesis of CIGRE's work, in the area of electric power.
CIGRE: Developing Technical Knowledge CIGRE develops technical knowledge through 3 types of activities: - Organizing Conferences and meetings, where papers are discussed, - Carrying out Permanent studies by 16 Study Committees, each dealing with a specific technical field, publishing reports and organizing Tutorials. Conferences and meetingsPermanent studiestechnical field - Making its publications available to members of CIGRE and others. its publications
Study Committee C2 - System Operation and Control The Study Committee C2 serves within Cigré by forming a working concept for the functionalities, structures and competence needed to operate integrated power systems in a way that is in compliance with the social requirements for security of electricity supply. The performance of power systems in real time depend on technical quality factors built into the systems through various activities and knowledge currently covered by the other Cigré Study Committees. SC C2 therefore needs to use and combine results provided within these committees. An area which is unique for C2 is however the dependency on a good performance of human resources in real-time system operation activities. In these respects SC C2 encircles a wide range of competence areas and interfaces to other disciplines.
Mission and Scope of CIGRE Study Committee C2 Mission of SC C2: To facilitate and promote the progress of engineering and the international exchange of information and knowledge in the field of system operation and control. To add value to this information and knowledge by means of synthesizing state-of-the-art practices and developing recommendations. The Scope of SC C2: The scope of the SC covers the technical, human resource and institutional aspects and conditions for a secure and economic operation of existing power systems under security requirements against system disintegration, equipment damages and human injuries
Driving forces for future work The priorities to important emerging factors that will influence and define new requirements on the System Operation performance. Directions are: Integration of regional and national grids into large open markets Management of generation capacity and energy shortages Management of capacity shortages Impact from new sources of dispersed generation and related system requirements Influence from customer needs and response Interaction between open market trading mechanisms and power system operation in congestion and transit flow management Integration of information and communication technology
Sub – Committees of C2
Study Committee C5 - Electricity Markets and Regulation The Mission of Study Committee C5 is "to facilitate and promote the progress of engineering and the international exchange of information and knowledge in the field of electricity markets and regulations. To add value to this information and knowledge by means of synthesizing state-of-the-art practices and by developing recommendations." SC C5 Strategic Goals Development and changes in the Business of System Operations Market Entities Market Activities and Market Design Market Regulations
Working Groups of C5 Committee The six Working Groups and one Joint Working Group approved by Technical Committee are: WG C5-3Investments & Financing of new Transmission and Generation Assets in a Deregulated Environment WG C5-7Market Design – Structure and Development of Electricity Markets WG C5-8Renewables and energy efficiency in a deregulated market WG C5-9Retail Market Competition – Customer Switching, Metering and Load profiles WG C5-10Establishment of Effective and Sustainable Regulatory Incentives for Capital Investments in Electricity Networks and Generation WG C5-11Market design for large scale integration of renewable energy sources and demand side management JWG C2/C5–5 Development and Changes in the Business of System Operators
NLDC63 CIGRE WG/Task Force/Study Committees
System Operation Models
ISO: Independent System Operator AO: Asset Owner Possible Models for Regulatory & Commercial Relationships
Scope of System Operation Activities
EUROPEAN & SOUTH AFRICAN MODEL GGG DDD T + SO G D G D This model is followed in UK by NGC, in Norway by Statenett, in Sweden by Svenska Kraftnet, in Finland by Fingrid, in Netherland by Tennet, in Denmark by Eltral/Elkrafts and in South Africa by Eskom.
FRENCH MODEL T + SO G D EdF RTE This model is followed in France, wherein Transmission and System Operation functions have been delegated to RTE. EdF is responsible for the Generation and the Distribution.
MALAYSIAN AND KOREAN MODELS GGG This model is followed in Korea by KEPCO and in Malaysia by TNB. These entities are now in the process of separating the distribution function from Transmission & SO functions. T + SO D +
CANADIAN MODEL GGG DDD G D TTTTASO This model is followed in Alberta of Canada. In this model, since, there are more than one main transmission companies, an independent System Operator and Transmission Administrator exist.
AMERICAN MODEL GGG DDD TT G D G D G D TSO RTORTO This model is followed in USA. Based on their California experience, USA is now moving towards TSO model through RTO.
ORGANISATIONAL SET-UP OF POWERGRID Ring Fenced System Operation Through NLDC / RLDCs CTU FUNCTIONS Inter-state Transmission Services P O W E R G R I D LICENSEES NON-CTU FUNCTIONS Telecom, Consultancy, Distribution
ISO Models: Balancing, Operational & Deep ISOs
Website of System Operators Worldwide 75 S.No.Name of the TSOCountryWeb Presence 1ESKOMSouth Africawww.eskom.co.za 2Red Eléctrica de España*Spainwww.ree.es 3LandsnetIcelandwww.landsnet.is 4Fingrid*Finlandwww.fingrid.com 5Amprion*Germanywww.amprion.net 6Transpower NZNewzealandwww.transpower.co.nz 7Saudi Electricity CompanySaudi Arabiawww.se.com.sa 8TenneTNetherlandswww.tennet.org 9Statnett SFNorwaywww.statnett.no 10PJM Interconnection**PA,USAwww.pjm.com 11National Grid Electricity Transmission*UKwww.nationalgrid.com 12CLP PowerHong Kongwww.clpgroup.com.hk 13ESB NGIrelandwww.eirgrid.com 14TranspowerGermanywww.transpower.de 15SwisssgridSwitzerlandwww.swissgrid.ch 16Rede Eléctrica NacionalPortugalwww.ren.pt 17Hydro QuébecCanadawww.hydroquebec.com 18Svenska KraftnätSwedenwww.svk.se 19PSEPolandwww.pse-operator.pl 20EWABahrainwww.mew.gov.bh 21China Southern Power GridChinawww.eng.csg.cn 22Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd.Indiawww.powergridindia.com /