Presentation on theme: "Very Large Power System Operators in the World"— Presentation transcript:
1 Very Large Power System Operators in the World S.P.KumarChief ManagerPower System Operation Corporation Ltd.NLDC
2 Indian Power System : Amongst the Largest in the World National Grid (UK)68GWCapita: 65mMidWest ISO (USA)159GWCapita: 40mRTE (France)93GWPJM (USA)165GWCapita: 51mRed Electrica (Spain)Capita: 47mONS (Brazil)100GWCapita: 170mSO - UPS (Russia)146 GWCapita: 144mTepco (Japan)64GWCapita: 45mKPX (South Korea)70GWCapita: 49mTerna (Italy)57GWCapita: 60mSGCC (China)900GWCapita: 1000mPGCIL (India)163GWCapita: 1200mEskom(South Africa)43.5GWSource: VLPGO, 2010
3 Snapshot Of Indian Power System April 15, 2017SnapshotOf Indian Power SystemSLIDE-1: ALL INDIA POWER MAP· Sir, this picture shows the extra high voltage transmission network in India· Yellow colour depicts 765 kV lines· Red colour depicts 400 kV lines andPurple colour shows plus-minus 500 kV HVDC linesNRLDC3
4 Typical Numbers for Indian Power System… Demand :~ 110 GWGenerating Units :~ 1600400kV & above Trans. Line :~ 700Transformers :~ 2000Busses :~ 5000Control Areas :~ 100Inter-State Metering Points :~ 3000Schedule Matrix Elements :~ 96 X 100 X (~10)~=100000Open Access transactions typical daily :~ 100Captives participating in market :~ 125
5 Peculiarities of Indian Power System High Growth RateShortage – both (MW & MU)Federal StructureDecentralized Scheduling & DespatchDiversityFloating FrequencyLarge Hydro VariationLarge Demand Variation
6 How do we relate Internationally to the Other Grid Operators Worldwide ? Associations WorldwideVery Large Power Grid Operators (VLPGO)TSO-Comparison Group (http://www.tso-comparison.com)CIGRE (INTERNATIONAL COUNCILON LARGE ELECTRIC SYSTEMS) - C2 and C5 committeesSystem Operation and ControlElectricity Markets and Regulation(Conseil International des Grands Réseaux Electriques).International InterconnectionsSAARC
9 Formation of the VLPGOA voluntary initiative of the world’s largest Power Grid OperatorsRepresenting together more than 60% of the electricity demand in the world.14 Largest power grid operators of the worldCreated in 2004Not-for-profit organizationFollowed several blackouts across the worldTo investigate fundamental issues of common interest to its membersTo develop joint action plans addressing the improvement of power system security.Formalized in 2009Specific FocusIssues related to Very Large Power GridsMembershipSize > 50 GW
10 VLPGO : Role of Grid Operators Worldwide Work constantly to plan, monitor, supervise and control the energy delivered as a continuous process 24 hours a dayDelivering the electricity that powers modern societiesCritical role of Grid Operators includesacting on behalf of Consumers, to ensure quality while minimizing costs and recognizing economic and societal dependence on electricity;a technical role in planning, designing, and managing the Power Systems;an interface role with generators, market participants and distributors, which are the most direct users of the transmission grid;a natural role of interlocutors with power exchanges, regulators and governments.
11 Common Challenges for VLPGO Providing power system reliability and securitySmart Grid developmentIntegration of RenewablesIntegration of Electric VehiclesCapacity development and optimization including system renovation and development, equipment upgrading.Reducing CO2 emissionsImprove productivity and energy efficiencyPower system visualizationDemand Side ManagementInterconnectionsDevelopment of new technologies and HVDCEstablishment and coordination of new control centers11
12 VLPGO Vision and Mission “To be a leader and a catalyst in the transition of the electric power industry to the power grid of the 21st century”MissionDevelop an international consensus on strategic issues which are unique to the very large power grid and market operatorsDevelop a common vision with respect to the technologies and best practices required to address those issuesFacilitate the implementation of the vision through information exchanges, collaborative projects and cooperation with other international organizations.
13 Objectives: Transition to Grid of 21st Century Innovate ThinkingAn international consensus on strategic issues challenging the very large power grid and market operatorsTechnology AdvancementA common vision with respect to the technologies and best practices required to address those issues in a framework of social and environmental responsibility of each member.Industry LeadershipThrough a common Communication Policy, the dissemination and implementation of a common vision through information exchange, collaborative projects and cooperation with other international organizations.
14 Expectation within VLPGO framework Sharing worldwide experience and knowledge on best practices to improve the power system security and performanceBuilding a common vision on the transition towards a more modern power system (i.e. Smart Grids)Being catalyst towards Manufacturers and Vendors to make available the best technologies to the Power SystemsCreating a industry voice on the transition to a more sustainable energy system and the journey to COP 17 and the enabling environments required to support the electricity supply industry worldwide.Enhancement of transmission security: security must be a permanent concern of VLPGOCommunication Strategy: PGOs must have communication strategies for regular, risk and crisis situations.14
15 VLPGO Delivering Value to its Members Emerging TechnologyIdentify early trendsAssess common impactsDevelop common solution requirementsShared LearningIdentify common key operational risksShare after-the-fact analysis of major eventsCommon Approaches & SolutionsDevelop common specifications across suppliersCreate new market mechanismsProduce guidelines for common reliability issuesBest PracticesShare “best” Ideas and policiesCreate methodologies for evaluation or analysisIndustry InfluenceDevelop common positions for industry stakeholders
16 Structure of VLPGO Activities The VLPGO consists of:Governing Board5 Joint Projects5 Working Groups2 WorkshopsShort-term collaboration on specific project by subset of membersOne of exploration of topic areaTaskTaskTaskTaskTaskThe Governing Board has:Streamlined the working approach between different forumsIs writing guidance for conveyors – to improve performance (2010)Focused on a smaller number of activities to deliver material progress & create a multi-year planA key aspect of the VLPGO mission is to act on issues of common interest to its members. This is accomplished in the following ways:Working Groups addressing specific topics/themes of interest to all the members, as decided at the annual Meeting. Working Groups effort may span over several years, but they act on an annual work plan and set of deliverables.Joint Projects where two or more of the Members decide to coordinate their activities and combine their resources to execute projects of common interest.Workshops, where the majority of the members (typically Governing Board Member representatives) explore together specific themes of interest to all the members' and provide the Steering Board with high level summaries and conclusions/recommendations.
18 VLPGO 2011 Joint Activities Working GroupsWG #1 – Wide Area Monitoring Applications (PJM)WG #2 – Enhanced Security (Terna/ONS)WG 2a – Security vs. Operation Costs (Terna/ONS)WG 2b – Enhanced Network Restoration (Terna/ONS)WG 2c – Equipment Overstressing (ONS)WG 2d –Security of Supply to large metro areas (?)WG #3 – Integration of Renewables (NG)WG #4 – Load Forecasting (REE)WG #5 – HVDC (ONS)WG #6 – Electric Vehicles (PJM)WG #7 – Storage (MISO)Joint ProjectsVisualization (SGCC)WorkshopsWS #1 – KPIs (SO UPS)WS #2 – Smart Grid (KPX)18
19 VLPGO Current Activities - mapped Principle DriversRenewableSmartSecurity and Safety of SupplyWG #3: Integration of Renewable TechnologiesWS #1: Smart GridsWG #2a: Enhanced Security - VulnerabilityJP #3: Plug-in Hybrid Electric VehiclesJP #2: HVDC in Synchronous Power SystemsJP #4: Monitoring and AutomationEnduring DriversNew TechnologyWG #1: SynchroPhasors (Wide Area Monitoring)Efficient OperationWG #2c: Equipment Overstresses#5: VisualizationJP #1: Asset ManagementWS #2 – Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)WG #2b: Enhanced Security - Restoration
20 VLPGO Accomplishments thus far SynchroPhasors:WAMS ArchitectureRequirements and PMUCertification Test MethodologyPreliminary Report”, 2008Capacity Markets:“Market Mechanisms andincentive Instrument toPromote Generating Capacityand Demand Response”, 2008Self Healing Grid:“Cascading Events and How to PreventThem – Restoration Process PreventionOf Large-Scale Blackouts In The LargeMetropolitan Cities”, ApplicationGuide“Self Healing Techniques to PreventBlack Outs and Cascading Events”,2008EMS Architecture:EMS Architectures for the 21stCentury (transferred this workto CIGRE working groupD2.24)20
22 VLPGO Future Drivers Principle Drivers Connecting low carbon renewable sources of generationBuilding SMARTer electricity networks of the future & the impact of SMART load changesEnsuring the future Security and Safety of Supply of our networksEnduring DriversAdvancing and implementing new technology to the benefits of our customersDeveloping network capacity & operating our electricity networks in the most efficient and economical way we can
23 TSO – Comparison Group The Group of International Comparison of Transmission System Operation Practice
24 MissionTo exchange information on Power System Operators current and future operating practices for the purpose of benchmarking.An annual survey is undertaken to ascertainEquivalent staffing requirementsBest practicesPerformance measuresAreasTransmission system operations including generation scheduling and dispatching,Electricity market operation,Operations planning,Settlements,Information technology, training, etc.TSO is managed by a Steering Committee consisting of 6 elected members and supported by KEMA
25 Most important reasons for being a member Performance Measures Database (> 50 data points)Comparing with other TSOs (Benchmark Model)Identification of peers (Company profiles / Activity Lists)Learning from other TSOs (Best Practice)Informal contacts and TSO Questionnaires (Networking)Counter Benchmark to Regulatory Benchmark (Insurance policy)25
26 Members Members Name Country ESKOM South Africa Red Eléctrica de España* SpainLandsnet IcelandFingrid* FinlandAmprion* GermanyTranspower NZ* New ZealandSaudi Electricity Company Saudi ArabiaTenneT NetherlandsStatnett SF NorwayPJM Interconnection** PA, USANational Grid Electricity Transmission* United KingdomCLP Power* Hong KongESB NG IrelandTranspower GermanySwissgrid SwitzerlandRede Eléctrica Nacional PortugalHydro Québec CanadaSvenska Kraftnät SwedenPSE PolandEWA BahrainChina Southern Power Grid ChinaPower Grid Corporation of India Ltd. India
27 Benchmarking ModelThe TSO Comparison Group is using an advanced multidimensional Benchmark Model for comparing TSOs’ System Operation organization.The Model’s “multidimensional approach” provides insight into the efficiency and effectiveness of each TSO with respect to both its own environment (size, structure, regulation et al) and to other TSO environments.The Model’s output has demonstrated the capability of identifying generic differences (resulting in ad hoc peer-groups) as well as generic similarities.The Model’s output has been utilized for mergers (in defining staff sizing requirements), and tested for self-analysis (in validating actual staff sizes).
28 Features of the benchmarking model The model aids in highlighting the effects of non-traditional changes within peer groups.As non-traditional changes, such as new Market initiatives are developed, the Model will display the areas of change.Although the value of those changes will vary with corporate objectives, the magnitude and the areas impacted by the changes will be highlighted by the Model.The key feature of the Model is that it does not focus on defining the “best” and the “worst” TSOs, but rather focuses on identifying differences between TSOs.Whether differences are good or not will depend on many factors – the Model allows the user to make those value decisions based on the goals of the respective user.
29 Transmission Operation For Benchmark purposes a ‘standard TSO’ with five key System Operation processes has been defined..Market OperationTransmission OperationSystem Operation29
30 ..and a process which takes into account the remaining differences between TSOs Input DataData DefinitionData Collection, Verification, ValidationBench markBenchmark CalculationsEvaluation of Benchmark ResultsResultsDiscussion of DifferencesIdentification of Learning PointsCompany ProfileActivity List30
31 Data Collected annually since 2000, validated by KEMA, verified by group Example of data points:Operations Planning (1 year to 2 weeks before day of operation)Number of Planned Transmission OutagesNumber of Planned Generating-unit OutagesScheduling (2 weeks to 1 day before day of operation):Accuracy of peak load forecastAccuracy of minimum load forecastTransmission congestion: Generation constrained "on".Foreseen transmission concernsScheduled transmission outage requestsScheduled generation outagesReal Time Operation (Day of Operation):Frequency control performanceAverage overall system deviationGeneration and load instructionsPersonnel on shiftRTO transmission outages takenSupportOperator training hours of teachersNumber of SCADA database points (Status points, Analog points, Control points)Overall Performance:Transmitted energy at riskResponse Time of Area Control Error or FrequencyEnergy unsupplied due to 'unsupplied energy incidents'Unsupplied energy incidentsVoltage excursionsReference DataNumber of Staff in Full Time Equivalents, separately for each processCosts, separately for each process and network lossesNetwork date, including e.g. Circuit Ends, Line lengths, Generators, Peak Load, Transmitted Energy, Interconnectors.SupportAll data are available for members31
32 For each process, two benchmark models have been developed… COST Based ModelPERFORMANCE Based ModelTSO ProcessInput (staff, cost)Output (uniform)Environmental Factors (e.g. network size)32
33 ..Here, an example of one of the 10 benchmark models is shown Environmental Factors EF1: Network Size (circuit ends, generators, interconnectors)EF2: Planned Outages (Transmission and Generation)Operations PlanningInput FTEOutput (uniform)Model parameters based on regression of TSO data33
34 Real Time Operation FTE Model At the Interim workshop it was decided to apply a fix constant of 6 for the RTO (FTE) model, which is considered to be to be the minimum staff required for 24 x7 operation in a control centre.EF1= NTW3 + NTW3a *(NTW4 + NTW10a + NTW10b)EF2= RTO5FTE = ß1 EF1 + ß2 EF2 + 6 ± errorNTW3 = Circuit Ends NTW10a = AC InterconnectorsNTW3a = Switched circuit ends NTW10b = DC InterconnectorsNTW4 = Generation Units RTO5 = RTO Transmission outages taken
35 Operation Planning FTE Model EF1= NTW3 + 5*(NTW4 + NTW10a + NTW10b)EF2= OPL1 + OPL2 + SCH3NTW3 = Circuit Ends OPL1 = Planned Transmission outage requestsNTW4 = Generation Units OPL2 = Planned Generation unit outagesNTW10a = AC Interconnectors SCH3 = Foreseen Transmission concernsNTW10b = DC Interconnectors
37 After the Fact FTE Model Cost or FTEEF1= NTW3 + 5*(NTW4 + NTW10a + NTW10b)EF2= OAP4NTW3 = Circuit Ends OAP4 = Unsupplied energy incidentsNTW4 = Generation UnitsNTW10a = AC InterconnectorsNTW10b = DC Interconnectors
38 Support FTE Model EF1= NTW3 + 5*(NTW4 + NTW10a + NTW10b) EF2= SCH5 + SCH6NTW3 = Circuit Ends SCH5 = Scheduled Transmission outagesNTW4 = Generation Units SCH6 = Scheduled Generation outagesNTW10a = AC InterconnectorsNTW10b = DC Interconnectors
39 Which results in an assessment for each process for FTE and Cost Example of Benchmark ResultsDetails are available to members only39
40 Simultaneously differences between TSOs are being investigated… Part of ‘Activity List for Operations Planning process’Share in IT costsDetails are available for members40
41 And summarized in management presentations DataData DefinitionData Collection, Verification, ValidationBench markBenchmark CalculationsEvaluation of Benchmark ResultsResultsDiscussion of DifferencesLearning PointsCompany ProfileActivity ListSum of five benchmark resultsQuality of System Operation (frequency, energy not supplied, Voltage)41
42 Results of Annual Survey An important basis for performance comparison and for improvement of operating practices.Experience of Members of the Group discussed each year in one or two Workshops upon invitation of one of the participating companiesMembership of TSO is presently restricted to up to 30 companies / departments that qualify as an operator of a bulk transmission system
43 Issues to be Considered in International Interconnections
44 Guiding Attributes Spirit of regional cooperation Approach towards long-term planningEnergy policy structure and goalsAdherence to international agreementsEncourage cross border trades
45 International Interconnections - Benefits Improving Reliability and Pooling of ReservesReduced investment in generating capacityImproving load factor and increasing load diversityEconomies of scaleDiversity of generation mix and supply securityEconomic exchangeEnvironmentally benign dispatch and siting of new plantCoordination of maintenance schedules
46 International Interconnections – Various Aspects TechnicalCommercialRegulatory/LegalCoordination
50 International Interconnections NepalBhutanOver 16 links of 132/33/11 KVRadial links with NepalNet import by NepalTala: MWChukha: 336 MWKurichu: 60 MWNet import by IndiaIndia- Bhutan synchronous links400 kV Tala-Binaguri D/C400 kV Tala-Malbase-Binaguri220 kV Chukha-Birpara D/C220 kV Chukha-Malbase-Birpara132 kV Kurichu-BongaigaonBangladesh400 KV AC line between Baharampur(India) and Bheramara(Bangladesh) with MW HVDC sub-station at BheramaraSri – Lanka Madurai(India) and Anuradhapura(Sri-Lanka) through ±500 KV HVDC under sea cableMaps not to scale
51 Survey Questionnaires Questionnaire I – Present Power Supply PositionQuestionnaire IIOrganization of the Electricity Supply IndustryPower System Planning & Planning CriterionLegal / Regulatory IssuesLoad despatch functionTechnical IssuesBalancing Supply – DemandElectricity MarketAncillary ServicesRenewable Energy ResourcesTransmission PricingCongestion ManagementGrid disciplineInvestmentsExisting International InterconnectionsQuestionnaire III – Long term projections
54 CIGRE (INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL ON LARGE ELECTRIC SYSTEMS)
55 AimCIGRE (International Council on Large Electric Systems) is one of the leading worldwide Organizations on Electric Power Systems, covering their technical, economic, environmental, organisational and regulatory aspects.A permanent, non-governmental and non-profit International Association, based in France, CIGRE was founded in 1921 and aims to:Facilitate the exchange of information between engineering personnel and specialists in all countries and develop knowledge in power systems.Add value to the knowledge and information exchanged by synthesizing state-of-the-art world practices.Make managers, decision-makers and regulators aware of the synthesis of CIGRE's work, in the area of electric power.
56 CIGRE: Developing Technical Knowledge CIGRE develops technical knowledge through 3 types of activities: - Organizing Conferences and meetings, where papers are discussed, - Carrying out Permanent studies by 16 Study Committees, each dealing with a specific technical field, publishing reports and organizing Tutorials. - Making its publications available to members of CIGRE and others.
57 Study Committee C2 - System Operation and Control The Study Committee C2 serves within Cigré by forming a working concept for the functionalities, structures and competence needed to operate integrated power systems in a way that is in compliance with the social requirements for security of electricity supply.The performance of power systems in real time depend on technical quality factors built into the systems through various activities and knowledge currently covered by the other Cigré Study Committees. SC C2 therefore needs to use and combine results provided within these committees.An area which is unique for C2 is however the dependency on a good performance of human resources in real-time system operation activities.In these respects SC C2 encircles a wide range of competence areas and interfaces to other disciplines.
58 Mission and Scope of CIGRE Study Committee C2 Mission of SC C2: To facilitate and promote the progress of engineering and the international exchange of information and knowledge in the field of system operation and control. To add value to this information and knowledge by means of synthesizing state-of-the-art practices and developing recommendations.The Scope of SC C2: The scope of the SC covers the technical, human resource and institutional aspects and conditions for a secure and economic operation of existing power systems under security requirements against system disintegration, equipment damages and human injuries
59 Driving forces for future work The priorities to important emerging factors that will influence and define new requirements on the System Operation performance.Directions are:Integration of regional and national grids into large open marketsManagement of generation capacity and energy shortagesManagement of capacity shortagesImpact from new sources of dispersed generation and related system requirementsInfluence from customer needs and responseInteraction between open market trading mechanisms and power system operation in congestion and transit flow managementIntegration of information and communication technology
61 Study Committee C5 - Electricity Markets and Regulation The Mission of Study Committee C5 is "to facilitate and promote the progress of engineering and the international exchange of information and knowledge in the field of electricity markets and regulations. To add value to this information and knowledge by means of synthesizing state-of-the-art practices and by developing recommendations."SC C5 Strategic GoalsDevelopment and changes in the Business of System OperationsMarket EntitiesMarket Activities and Market DesignMarket Regulations
62 Working Groups of C5 Committee The six Working Groups and one Joint Working Group approved by Technical Committee are:WG C5-3 Investments & Financing of new Transmission and GenerationAssets in a Deregulated EnvironmentWG C5-7 Market Design – Structure and Development of Electricity MarketsWG C5-8 Renewables and energy efficiency in a deregulated marketWG C5-9 Retail Market Competition – Customer Switching, Metering andLoad profilesWG C5-10 Establishment of Effective and Sustainable Regulatory Incentivesfor Capital Investments in Electricity Networks and GenerationWG C5-11 Market design for large scale integration of renewable energysources and demand side managementJWG C2/C5–5 Development and Changes in the Business of System Operators
68 EUROPEAN & SOUTH AFRICAN MODEL GGGGGT SODDDDDThis model is followed in UK by NGC, in Norway by Statenett, in Sweden by Svenska Kraftnet, in Finland by Fingrid, in Netherland by Tennet, in Denmark by Eltral/Elkrafts and in South Africa by Eskom.
69 G T + SO D RTE EdF FRENCH MODEL This model is followed in France, wherein Transmission and System Operation functions have been delegated to RTE. EdF is responsible for the Generation and the Distribution.
70 MALAYSIAN AND KOREAN MODELS GGGT SO+DThis model is followed in Korea by KEPCO and in Malaysia by TNB. These entities are now in the process of separating the distribution function from Transmission & SO functions.
71 G G G G T T T SO TA D D D D CANADIAN MODEL This model is followed in Alberta of Canada. In this model, since, there are more than one main transmission companies, an independent System Operator and Transmission Administrator exist.
72 G G G G G G RTO SO T T T SO D D D D D D AMERICAN MODELGGGGGGRTOSOTTTSODDDDDDThis model is followed in USA. Based on their California experience, USA is now moving towards TSO model through RTO.
75 Website of System Operators Worldwide S.No.Name of the TSOCountryWeb Presence1ESKOMSouth Africa2Red Eléctrica de España*Spain3LandsnetIceland4Fingrid*Finland5Amprion*Germany6Transpower NZNewzealand7Saudi Electricity CompanySaudi Arabia8TenneTNetherlands9Statnett SFNorway10PJM Interconnection**PA,USA11National Grid Electricity Transmission*UK12CLP PowerHong Kong13ESB NGIreland14Transpower15SwisssgridSwitzerland16Rede Eléctrica NacionalPortugal17Hydro QuébecCanada18Svenska KraftnätSweden19PSEPoland20EWABahrain21China Southern Power GridChina22Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd.India/