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INTRODUCTION Successful software projects require – Careful planning – Good use of iterative approaches. – Understanding Risks – Assigning ressources –

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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION Successful software projects require – Careful planning – Good use of iterative approaches. – Understanding Risks – Assigning ressources –"— Presentation transcript:

1 INTRODUCTION Successful software projects require – Careful planning – Good use of iterative approaches. – Understanding Risks – Assigning ressources – Defining work structure – Balancing the budget

2 Project Management - Outline Defining the Project Manager Role –The Project Manager –The Project Artifacts and Milestones –Planning Projects –Managing Iterations –Managing Risks

3 Project Manager Role –Plan and control all the activities – Identify and solves problems early –Decide on the tradeoffs ; –Optimizes the performance of individual activities

4 Plan Specify goal and objectives Strategies Policies Plans (Task assign, schedule. etc) Procedures

5 Control (ensure Evrything OK) Using measurable objectives How far to completion Budget Quality Effect of change Team performance Taking corrective actions Redirecting the team towards original plan Modifying the original plan

6 Plans and Controls Start 1/97 LCO 3/97 B u i l d # 1 B u i l d # 2 5/97 LCS 5/97 IOC 12/97 2/98 4/97 Planning Completed (% of total) Incepti on Elaboration Construction Transition Controlling

7 Managing Expectations Why manage expectations? 1.People are not perfect. 2.People are not logical. 3.People perceive things differently. 4.Software engineers are people too. 5.Things happen. Gause & Weinberg, 1989 A new car!

8 Project management A set of activities based on the iterations Risks are evaluated Project plan is dev (many iterations) Iteration plan is drawn up, updated, revisited before the start of the next iteration

9 Project Management Discipline Software Development Plan Measurement Plan Project Planning Review Reviewer Work Order Project Manager Develop Measurement Plan Plan Phases and Iterations Risk List

10 Software Development Plan Project Manager Software Development Plan MeasurementPlanProjectPlan Risk List UPEDU GUIDELINE: Project Plan UPEDU GUIDELINE: Risk list Responsible for putting together, monitoring and updating the software dev plan. (content likely change drasttically throughout the project )

11 Each iteration : requirement, analysis and Design, implementation, testing, project management Software configuration Change management Manager must define milestones (end of each iteration, end of each phase) to steer the progress of the project activities( enable to decide wheather OK, abortion or change should be done.

12 Major Milestones : progress ! InceptionElaborationConstructionTransition Commit resources for the elaboration phase Lifecycle Objective Milestone Commit resources for construction Lifecycle Architecture Milestone Product sufficiently mature for customers Initial Operational End product Milestone Customer acceptance or end of life Product Release To the customer time

13 Project Management - Outline Defining the Project Manager Role Planning Projects –Project Organization –The Planning strategies –The Project Plan Artifact Managing Iterations Managing Risks

14 Project organization is influenced by many factors: The Size of the Software Development Effort –Formality, Standards, Process Rigidity. The Degree of Novelty –First of its Kind, Evolution Cycle, Maintenance Type of Application –Mission-critical, Performance, Memory constraints, The Current Development Process –Process Maturity, Experience of the Developers and Managers Organizational Factors –Team attitudes toward changes, Team enthusiasm toward the project Technical and Managerial Complexity –Size of the team vs size of the project

15 Planning strategies - Top-Down Begins understanding general req and constraints. Then derives a macro-level budget and schedule and decompose this into lower-level budgets and intermidiate milestones Bottom-up Analysis of the micro-level budgets and schedules Add all the elements – high level budget and intermediate milestones.

16 Top-down and Bottom-up- Project Plan Current Iteration Plan Phases and major milestones What and when Project Plan Iterations for each phase Number of iterations Objectives Duration Staffing profile Fine-Grained Plans Intra iteration Coarse-Grained Plan Inter iteration Next Tasks Allocation to individuals/teams Major builds

17 Project Plan Iteration Plan 4/02 Start 1/02 Proposal 3/02 5/02 LCA 7/02 IOC 12/02 2/03 4/02 IT1 IT2 Architecture Review Project Planning ß1 ß2 Product Release IT3 IT4 IT5 Design Review Build #1 Build #2

18 Bar / Gantt Chart Sample Planned Progress Actual Progress Ahead of Schedule Behind Schedule Time Now Completed Task

19 Typical project contains info about Work Structure : (WBS) project breaks to manageable tasks Schedule: the act of assessing the level of effort and ressources required Budget : allocate a certain cost to each activity in the WBS Resource Paul Mary Joe Sylvia Stefan Role Designer Use-Case Specifier System Analyst Implementer Architect Activities Define Operations Detail a Use Case Find Actors and Use Cases Perform Unit Tests Identify Design Mechanisms $$$

20 Project Management - Outline Defining the Project Manager Role Planning Projects Managing Iterations –The Definition of an Iteration –Scope on an Iteration –Iteration assessment Managing Risks

21 Managing iterations Best way of structuring software dev project is through an evolutionary dev plan (iterations ) Project manager must divide and organize the sequence of iterations according to specific objectives. Each iteration will have its share of requirements(objectives), activities and risks. After completing an iteration, manager may find that previously identified risks are no more risks or new ones crop up. Should mitigate as many risks as possible

22 Project Management Engineering Workflow Implementation Test Analysis & Design Process Disciplines Supporting Workflows Config. & Change Mgmt Requirements ElaborationTransition Inception Construction Iterations An iteration

23 Scope of an Iteration depends on Factors How many iterations should be included in the project plan? How long should each iteration take to plan ? –Depends on a number of factors: Size of the system being built: The larger the system, the longer the duration. Number of people: The larger the number of people, the longer the duration.(overhead for planning the work) Low Typical61221 High91332 TotalIECT UPEDU Concept: ITERATION

24 Progress Stability Modularity Quality Maturity Expenditures Objective evaluation-Metrics Size and complexity Rate of change in the project’s complexity or size Scope of change Number of errors Frequency of errors Project expenditures against plan Metric Meaning Iteration assessment – using metrics Difficult to assess the whole project. One approach is to assess a project at each iteration. Manager must continuously ( meatings ) assess progress and risks to prevent any difficulties Successful iteration : risks reduced as planned, all functionalities implemented, quality objective met

25 Project Management - Outline Defining the Project Manager Role Planning Projects Managing Iterations Managing Risks –Risk Definition –Risk Strategies –Risk Assessments

26 Managing risks Manager must : – have a knowledge of the risks to be present – have a knowledge of the info that could be missing. – Have clear strategi to mitigate them – Deal with problems (unavailabe ressources, funding of the project, scheduling)

27 Concepts Associated with Defining Risk Risk: –Information missing on a given subject Indirect risk : –Project has little or no control (client may lack financing, member may be sick) Direct risk –Project has a large degree of control (inacurate scheduling, budget shortage) Risk attributes : –Probability of occurrence Risk magnitude indicator : –High, Significant, Moderate, Minor, Low UPEDU Concept: RISK

28 Risk Strategies-managing risks Risk acceptance live with it Risk avoidance reorganize the project to eliminate the risk () ( remove non critical minor functionality ) Risk mitigation ( ) Risk mitigation ( through tests and prototypes) reduce the probability or impact reduce the probability or impact Risk contingency ( ) Risk contingency (as result of a failure to mitigate) plan “Plan B” (ex : new iteration) plan “Plan B” (ex : new iteration) Risk transfer sub-contract the risk Risk Strategies are needed to be deployed once risks are identified and classified

29 Risks assesments Monitoring through objective measurements should be done throughout the software dev life cycle. For every risk identified, its probability of occurence as well as its impact on the project must be established Mitigating and contingency strategies must be devised Keep up to date the risk list throughout the project


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