Presentation on theme: "Polar Neutron Monitors in the Study of Solar Cosmic Rays"— Presentation transcript:
1 Polar Neutron Monitors in the Study of Solar Cosmic Rays TitlePolar Gateways Arctic Circle Sunrise 2008Barrow, Alaska, January 23-29, 2008Polar Neutron Monitorsin the Study ofSolar Cosmic RaysE.V. Vashenuyk, Yu.V. Balabin, B.B. GvozdevskyPolar Geophysical Institute Apatity, Russia
2 INTRODUCTIONThe neutron monitors (NMs) long since and down to the present time remain the basic means of relativistic solar cosmic rays study. These particles are observed in the Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) events. The rate of GLEs occurrence is ~ 1 per year. For 66 years from the first GLE registered on 28 February, 1942, only 70 events occurred up to now.The worldwide network of neutron monitors can be considered as a multidirectional cosmic ray spectrometer. The key role here is played by polar neutron monitors. Having rather narrow asymptotic cones of acceptance (viewing cones) they allow more precise determination of a direction on a source of particles and a form of pitch-angular distribution. The author’s modeling technique employing the optimization methods and modern magnetosphere models is described. It allows obtaining characteristics of high energy solar cosmic rays: rigidity (energy) spectrum, anisotropy axis and pitch angle distribution in the primary solar proton flux. With GLE modeling 14 events were analyzed and parameters of relativistic solar protons (RSP) as well as their dynamics studied. Two distinct populations of RSP: the prompt and delayed ones probably having different origins on the Sun have been revealed.
3 OUTLINE History of the GLE study with neutron monitors Short information about neutron monitor instrumentation. NM in Barentsburg and Apatity as part of the worldwide neutron monitor network.Neutron monitor response function and GLE modeling techniqueResults of relativistic solar cosmic ray events study with the GLE modeling.Neutron monitors in the study of large-scale interplanetary disturbances
4 NM ApatityNM ClimaxGreatest in history GLEs : and
5 Neutron monitor is an instrument to register cosmic rays At height of 20 kms in the atmosphere the flux of primary cosmic rays, mainly protons, is transformed to secondary particles. The secondary neutrons penetrate up to the ground and are registered by the neutron monitorNeutron monitor constructed inside a marine container (Barentsburg)2
6 Stages of creation of the Neutron Monitor in Barentsburg 2003B.B.Gvozdevsky20052004Y.V.Balabin20063
7 Neutron monitors of the Polar Geophysical Institute PGI NMsNeutron monitors of the Polar Geophysical InstituteApatity (67.55N E)Barentsburg (78.08N 14.12E)Neutron monitors computer and electronics racksSERVERINTERNET4
8 Effect of magnetosphere on cosmic rays Concept of an asymptotic cone 5
9 AnisotropySolar cosmic rays anisotropy effect during the GLE on December 13, 2006Apatity (10 sec data)Barentsburg (1 min)6
10 Crucial role here play the polar neutron monitors Set of NMsThe worldwide network of neutron monitors as a multidirectional cosmic ray spectrometerCrucial role here play the polar neutron monitors7
11 Asymptotic viewing cones of high latitude neutron monitors cover nearly the whole celestial sphere (by Shea and Smart, 1973) in (Duggal, 1979)One of the projects, successfully using lately a network of polar neutron monitors was the Spaceship Earth
12 SPACESHIP EARTH is a network of neutron monitors strategically located to provide precise, real-time, 3-dimensional measurements of the cosmic ray angular distribution:(●) 11 Neutron MonitorStations on 4 continentsMulti-national participation:U.S.A., Russia,Australia, Canada9 stations view equatorialplane at 40-degree intervalsThule and McMurdo providecrucial 3-dimensionalperspectiveThe project is led byProf. J.Bieber, Univ.of Delavare,Bartol Research Institute andsupported by NSF grants
13 Before hit in the neutron monitor a cosmic ray particles (mainly protons) should pass through the magnetosphere and atmosphere of the Earth. In the atmosphere the flux of primary protons is transformed to secondary particles, including neutrons. The count rate of the neutron monitor is connected to the flux of primary cosmic rays through the Specific Yield Function (SYF). The product of the SYF by a spectrum of protons gives the response function. Characteristic response function is shown in the next Figure
14 Response function of the neutron monitor SYF is Specific Yield FunctionJ(R)= a exp(R/Ro ) solar protonspectrum in exponential form ( )Response= J(R)*SYFDuring the GLE 90% of response was between 1.5 and 3.7 GVfor a sea level neutron monitorFor all polar neutron monitors real cutoff is equal to atmospheric one: 1 GV (~450 MeV)
15 The technique of deriving of the characteristics of relativistic SCR from the ground based neutron monitors data represents a rather complicated task A paper of D.F. Smart, M.A. Shea and P. Tanskanen, (1971) was a pioneer work in the GLE modeling technique. Then this technique was advanced in works: M.A. Shea, D.F. Smart, (1982), Cramp et al., (1997). Worth mentioned are papers of Bieber et al., 2003, Belov et al., 2005.Recently we developed a GLE modeling technique, allowing most precisely, from the nowadays point of view, to derive the characteristics of relativistic solar protons. It uses, in particular, the modern magnetosphere model of Tsyganenko (2002) and allows correctly account the contribution of the oblique particles into the neutron monitor response.
16 GLE modeling technique of deriving the characteristics of relativistic solar protons (RSP) from the neutron monitor network data consists of a few steps:1. Definition of asymptotic viewing cones (taking into account not only vertical but also oblique incident on a detector particles) by the particle trajectory computations in a model magnetosphere (Tsyganenko 2002)2. Calculation of the NM responses at variable primary solar proton flux parameters.3. Application of a least square procedure for determining primary solar proton parameters (namely, energy spectrum, anisotropy axis direction, pitch-angle distribution) outside the magnetosphere by comparison of computed ground based detector responses with observations
17 Asymptotic cones calculations Method: 8 direct.Asymptotic cones calculationsFor definition of a direction of arrival to the magnetosphere border of particles, contributing into the NM response, they calculate a trajectory of a particle with a proton mass, but negatively charged, which will start from border of the atmosphere above the given station. Calculation of a trajectory of a particle we do by integrating an equation of motion with the Rung-Cutta algorithm in a modern magnetosphere model of Tsyganenko 2002.Calculations of asymptotic cone of view for each NM station are proceeded from 1 GV (atmospheric cutoff) to 20 GV (theoretical upper limit of the spectrum of SCR) with the step in rigidity GV.To account the contribution of oblique incident particles we calculate beside a vertical, 8 trajectories of particles launched at zenith angle 20o and 8 azimuths9
18 Neutron monitor directivity for solar cosmic rays Atmospheric attenuation of neutrons, produced by SCRI(θ)l = 100 g/cm2, attenuation lengthP is pressureTotal directivity of a NMdirectivity dependence on zenith angle accounting the solid angle increase with θ
19 Scheme of asymptotic cones calculations: Method: 8 direct.Scheme of asymptotic cones calculations:To account the contribution of oblique incident particles we calculate 8 trajectories of particles launched at zenith angle 20o and 8 azimuthsAsymptotic directions at magnetopause~20°Starting directions at a launching pointCalculated asymptotic directions are then used in the following modeling of a NM response9
20 (dN/N)i is percentage increase effect at a given neutron monitor i FormulaThe response function of a i-th neutron monitor to anisotropic flux of solar protons.(dN/N)i is percentage increase effect at a given neutron monitor iJ(R) = JoR-* is rigidity spectrum of RSP flux with changing slope* = + ·(R-1) where is increase per 1 GV (Cramp et al., 1997)S(R) is specific yield function (Debrunner et al., 1984),θ(R) is pitch angle (angle between the anisotropy axis givenby ; parameters)F(θ(R )) ~ exp(-θ2/C) is pitch-angle distribution in a form of Gaussian (Shea&Smart, 1982)8
21 Thus, 6 parameters of anisotropic solar proton flux outside magnetosphere ; , Jo, , , C are to be determined by a solving of the nonlinear least square problem by comparison of computed responses with observationsAs example of such study we consider the last GLEon December 13, 2006.
22 The Sun on December 13, 2006 White light 30 nm emission ActiveregionAR10930Ground level effect of a solar flare Х3.4/2В S06 W UT
23 GLE 70Increase profiles at some NM stations: Oulu, Apatity, Moscow, Barentsburg, Fort SmithGLE 70The asymptotic cones (1-20 GV), for the above NM stations and Th-Thule, McM-McMurdo, SA-SANAE, Ma-Mawson, No-Norilsk, Ti-Tixie, CS-Cape Shmidt, In-Inuvik, Pe-Pewanuk.The derived anisotropy axis and pitch angle grid lines for solar proton flux at UT are shown. The cross is the IMF direction (ACE data).9
24 Observed and modeled responses at a number neutron monitor stations FittingObserved and modeled responses at a number neutron monitor stations─── increase profiles at neutron monitors●●● modeling responses
25 Dynamics of pitch angle distributions (PAD) derived from neutron monitors data 5to Sun1331 2Numbers mark the moments of time4PAD demonstrates an initial highly collimated beam of particles (prompt component) followed by a delayed quasi-isotropic population (delayed component)56
26 ■ GOES-11 TOM intensities ● balloons, 10 UT Dynamics of energetic spectra of relativistic solar protonsDirect solar proton data■ GOES-11 TOM intensities● balloons, 10 UTSpectra derived from NM data03:0503:3004:00
27 Prompt and delayed components of relativistic solar protons (RSP) The modeling analysis of 14 large GLEs occurred in the period on the data of the worldwide neutron monitors carried out by us revealed two distinct RSP populations (components):Prompt Component (PC): the early collimated impulse-like intensity increase with exponential energy spectrum,Delayed component (DC): the late quasi-isotropic gradual increase with a softer energy spectrum of the power law form.The exponential spectrum may be an evidence of the acceleration by electric fields arising in the reconnecting current sheets in the corona. The possible source of delayed component particles can be stochastic acceleration at the MHD turbulence in expanding flare plasma.E.V. Vashenyuk, Yu.V. Balabin, L.I. Miroshnichenko J. Perez-Peraza , A. Gallegos-Cruz, ASR, V.38 (3), 411; (2006); 30 icrc, Merida, Mexico, paper 0658 (2007)
28 Two components of relativistic SCR were revealed also in the Greatest in history GLEs: andOn a general background of "ordinary" GLE, differing in amplitude from ~1 to 600 %, two giant superevents: February 23, 1956 (GLE 05), and January 20, 2006 (GLE 69) are allocated. The amplitude of increase on neutron monitors in these events reached ~5000 %. As our modeling analysis revealed, two mentioned above particle populations (components), prompt (PC) with high anisotropy and exponential energy spectrum and delayed one (DC) with moderate anisotropy and power-law spectrum, exist in both cases. The prompt component was a cause of a giant pulse-like increase at a limited number of NM stations, and the DC caused a gradual increase with moderate amplitude at the most NM stations over the globe.
29 The GLE 20.01.2005 Flare X7.1 N14 W61 (GOES-12) Greatest Increase effects were observed at South Pole (5000%) and McMurdo (3000 %). Numbers mark time intervals when the prompt (1) and delayed (2) components dominated
30 Prompt and delayed RSP components given rise to the exponential and power law spectra in the GLESYF- specific yield functionDebrunner et al., 1984cabdIncrease profiles at the McMurdo and Mawson neutron monitors (a), rigidity spectra derived at the moments 07:00 (1) and 08:00 (2) UT (b), SYF and spectra 1 and 2 (c); differential responses (d) of the McMurdo neutron monitor to the exponential spectrum at the moment 1 (blue shading) and to the power-law spectrum at the moment 2 (red shading).
31 Two relativistic solar proton components in the GLE 23 February, 1956 (a) Increase profiles at the Leeds and Ottawa neutron monitors;(b) energy spectra derived at the moments 04:00 (1) and 06:00 UT (2),(c) SYF and spectra (1 and 2) and differential responses of the Leeds neutron monitor to the exponential spectrum (1,blue) and to the power-law spectrum (2,red).By numbers are marked, respectively, the moments when the prompt component (1) or delayed one (2) were dominating. One can see comparable responses of both neutron monitors to the power-law spectrum at moment (2).
32 Results of modeling analysis of 14 major GLEs showing existence of 2 RSP components Spectrum of prompt component: J=J0exp(E/E0), E (GeV); J0, J1 (m2 s st GeV) -1Spectrum of delayed component J=J1E- γE.V. Vashenyuk, Yu.V. Balabin, L.I. Miroshnichenko J. Perez-Peraza , A. Gallegos-Cruz3, 30 icrc, paper 0588
33 Polar neutron monitors in the study of large-scale structure of IMF Sun flarePolar neutron monitors in the study of large-scale structure of IMFCoronal Mass Ejection on October 26, 200312
34 The scheme of Forbush-effect A series of Forbush decreases in the events of October-November, 2003GLE effectThe scheme of Forbush-effectCME13
35 Bi-directional fluxGLEThe large scale IMF structure in a form of giant loop constructed with the help of ground based neutron monitor data. It explains, how high-energy protons (HEP) from eastern solar flare could come to the Earth from antisunward directionMiroshnichenko L.I., Klein K.-L., Trottet G., Lantos P., Vashenyuk E.V., Balabin Yu.V., Gvozdevsky B.B., J. Geophys. Res Vol A09S08
36 N-S asymmetryDuring the GLEs occurred in the steady effect of South-North anisotropy of solar cosmic ray was observed.The scheme of North-South asymmetry of SCR as observed by a pair of antipodal stations Barentsburg and McMurdoSCR anisotropy15
37 N/S anisotropy of solar cosmic rays North-South anisotropy of relativistic solar cosmic rays sometimes registered by polar neutron monitors may be an indicator of large scale north-south asymmetry in the IMF that cannot be discovered by the spacecraft magnetometer measuring the IMF in one point of space. It should be noted that because of very large gyro-radius of relativistic protons in IMF (≥ 106 km) the noted effect could not be related with some reconnection process of the IMF field lines with geomagnetic ones.Steady South-North relativistic SCR anisotropy was observed during GLEs in October-November, The similar effect was observed also in the SCR of moderate energies (units, tens and hundreds MeV) as measured on a spacecraft CORONAS-F (Veselovsky et al., 2004), and in the GLE 70, 20 January, In the recent GLE 70, the N/S anisotropy was absent
38 ResultsPolar neutron monitor network is an effective tool for the relativistic solar cosmic ray study.The modeling technique employing the optimization methods and modern magnetosphere models allows obtaining characteristics of high energy solar cosmic rays: rigidity (energy) spectrum, anisotropy axis and pitch angle distribution of the primary solar proton flux. There is good agreement of these characteristics with direct measurements in adjacent energy intervals on balloons and spacecrafts.The presence of the prompt and delayed components (PC and DC) of relativistic solar protons in all studied GLEs (14) as well as in superevents and has been shown.Moreover, the huge increases in both superevents on a limited number NM stations were caused by the prompt component having an exponential energetic spectrum.The polar neutron monitors are effective tool in revealing the large scale structure of interplanetary magnetic field during disturbed periods
39 AknowledgmentsWe express our gratitude to the organizers of this conference given to us opportunity to communicate through huge distances over the globe.We are grateful to all colleagues presented the data of ground based NM observations used in this work. Our special sympathy is to the Bartol neutron monitor research team maintaining neutron monitor network under ( NSF Grant No ATM )