Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Preventing Diseases Lesson 1 What Causes Disease?"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 11 Preventing Diseases Lesson 1 What Causes Disease? Click for:>> Main Menu>> Chapter 11 AssessmentTeacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation.Next >>
2Essential Question:Why is it important to remain germ free?Enduring Understanding: Students will understand thatpathogens are spread through direct contact, indirect contact, through impure food or unclean water, and contact with animals or insects.
3Single-celled organisms that have a nucleus protozoa Noncommunicable diseasesDiseases that do not spreadPrimitive single- or many-celled organisms that cannot make their own foodfungiClick to reveal the definitions.
4In this lesson, you will learn to identify the two main types of disease.recognize four common disease-causing organisms.describe how germs spread.
5Analyzing a GraphicCreate a concept map that shows how germs can be spread. Use this diagram as a guide.Germs
6What Is a Disease?The science of fighting disease has come along way in the past hundred years.disease A condition that affects the proper functioning of the body or mind
7The two basic categories of diseases are: Communicable diseases Types of DiseasesThe two basic categories of diseases are:Communicable diseasesNoncommunicable diseaseA cold is an example of a communicable disease.Diabetes and cancer are two noncommunicable diseases.communicable diseases Diseases that can be spreadnoncommunicable diseases Diseases that do not spread
8Germs that Cause Disease Pathogen is the scientific name for germ.pathogen A microscopic organism that causes communicable diseasesFour Classes of PathogensVirusesBacteriaProtozoaFungiCommunicable diseases start with organisms called germs, or pathogens.Within each class of pathogens, there are many different strains, or subtypes.
9Germs that Cause Disease Some viruses are harmless and some cause diseases.viruses Tiny, nonliving particles that invade and take over healthy cellsViruses are so tiny they require a special microscope to be seen.The common cold, the flu, the measles, and AIDS are examples of diseases caused by viruses.
10Germs that Cause Disease Bacteria is everywhere.bacteria Extremely small single-celled organisms with no cell nucleusNot all bacteria are harmful to humans. We could not live without bacteria.Strep throat, Lyme disease, and tooth decay are examples of disease caused by bacteria.
11Germs that Cause Disease Protozoa can be harmless, but some strains can cause serious disease.protozoa Single-celled organisms that have a nucleusSome protozoa, called parasites, attach themselves to healthy cells and rob them of nutrients without killing them.Malaria is an example of a disease caused by protozoa.
12Germs that Cause Disease Fungi survive by breaking down other living organisms and absorbing their nutrients.fungi Primitive single- or many-celled organisms that cannot make their own foodMost fungi, like edible mushrooms, are harmless to humans.Diseases that fungi can cause include athlete's foot and ringworm.Some strains of fungi, such as molds and yeasts cause disease.
13How Germs Are Spread Germ Direct Contact (shaking hands) Eating or Drinking Contaminated Food or WaterGermDirect ContactShaking hands is an example of direct contact.Indirect ContactSneezing, coughing, sharing cups, utensils, or other personal items are examples of indirect contactEating or drinking contaminated food or waterBacteria that cause food poisoning are spread this wayContact with animals or insectsGerms enter your body if you are bitten by a sick animal or disease-carrying insect.Indirect Contact (sneezing)Contact with Animals or Insects
14What I Learned Vocabulary Define pathogen. Use the word in a sentence. Lesson 1 ReviewWhat I LearnedVocabulary Define pathogen. Use the word in asentence.A pathogen is a microscopic organism or virus that causes disease.
15What I Learned Recall Name a disease caused by a fungus. Lesson 1 ReviewWhat I LearnedRecall Name a disease caused by a fungus.Sample answers: athlete's foot, ringworm
16What I Learned Identify Name four common disease-causing organisms. Lesson 1 ReviewWhat I LearnedIdentify Name four common disease-causing organisms.Four common pathogens are bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa.
17Lesson 1 ReviewThinking CriticallyExplain What is the difference between a communicable disease and a noncommunicable disease?Communicable diseases can be spread; noncommunicable diseases cannot be spread.
18Lesson 1 ReviewThinking CriticallyApply Should you take a bite of a friend’s sandwich if you had seen him or her coughing and sneezing earlier in class?Sample answer: No, you should not accept the bite of your friend’s sandwich because the friend might have a cold.
19Chapter 11 Preventing Diseases Lesson 2 Communicable Diseases Click for:>> Main Menu>> Chapter 11 AssessmentTeacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation.Next >>
20Activity: MOVE YOUR BODY. Why is it important to remain germ-free? Provide examples (3) to support your answer.Provide (2) examples for communicable and (2) examples for noncommunicable disease.How germs can be spread?
21Essential Question:How can I protect myself from disease?Enduring Understanding:Communicable diseases can be prevented with good hygiene practices and vaccines.
22Spreading a virus to others by direct or indirect contact contagiousimmune systemStrep throatSpreading a virus to others by direct or indirect contactA group of cells, tissues, and organs that fight diseaseIt is a bacterial throat infection that can make your throat feel sore and scratchy.Click to reveal the definitions.Inflammation of the liver, caused by a virus or a toxin and characterized by jaundice, liver enlargement, and fever.Hepatitis
23In this lesson, you will learn to recognize ways pathogens are spread.identify common communicable diseases.demonstrate healthful behaviors that limit the spread of pathogens.
24Common Communicable Diseases When symptoms of a cold first appear, you are contagious.contagious Spreading a virus to others by direct or indirect contactColds are responsible for more school absences that any other illness.There are more than 200 different viruses that cause colds.To help prevent giving your cold to others, cover your mouth and nose when you sneeze or cough.To help your body recover from a cold, you should rest in bed and drink plenty of fluids.Your parent or guardian may give you over-the-counter (OTC) medicines that will help with the symptoms.If you have a sore throat for several days, you should see a doctor.The cold is the most common communicable disease.
25Common Communicable Diseases Symptoms of influenza, or “the flu,” include high fever and joint and muscle aches.Resting and drinking fluids can help you recover from the flu faster.Some strains of the flu are serious and can require a doctor’s care.
26Common Communicable Diseases SymptomsTreatmentMononucleosisSwollen lymph glands (in neck, underarms, groin), headaches, sore muscles, sore throat, fever, fatiguePain relievers, rest, liquidsHepatitis A, B, and CWeakness, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, fever, yellowing of eyes, abdominal pain, dark urineRest, healthful food choices (medication for Types B and C)Tuberculosis (TB)Cough, fatigue, persistent fever, night sweats, weight lossAntibiotics taken over a long period of timeStrep throatSore throat, fever, chills, body aches, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, swollen tonsils or glandsAntibiotics, soft foods, liquids, gargling with salt water
27Keep it to YourselfWhen you have a cold, take action to prevent spreading your cold to others. Be careful to cover your mouth and nose when you cough or sneeze. Avoid sharing cups, utensils, or other personal items.
28In a typical day, your body is exposed to millions of germs. Your Body’s DefensesIn a typical day, your body is exposed to millions of germs.You aren’t sick all the time because your body is protected by its own defense system.Your body’s defense system is like a well-designed fort and is actively protecting your health around the clock.
29The Body’s Five Major Barriers to Block Pathogens Keeping Pathogens OutThe Body’s Five Major Barriers to Block PathogensTearsSalivaSkinPathogens are everywhere, but your body protects you. Your body can block, trap, or break down most pathogens before they make you sick.Tears:Tears cover and protect the eye from dust and pathogens. Tears carry foreign material away from the eye.Saliva:Saliva contains chemicals that kill pathogens.Skin:Skin provides a protective surface that keeps pathogens from entering the blood. Pathogens can get through this barrier if you have a cut or a scrape.Mucous membranes:Mucous membranes are the soft skin that line the nose, mouth, eyes, and other body openings. They are coated in a fluid called mucus. Mucus traps pathogens.Stomach acid:Stomach acid kills many of the pathogens that make it past the saliva and mucous membranes of your mouth.Mucous MembranesStomach Acid
30Your Body’s First Line of Defense SkinBody FluidsMucous MembranesPyrogenPyrogenA chemical that causes a raise in blood temperature so that germs have a hard time surviving.Fights infection.SkinYour skin is like a wall around your inner organs.Mucous MembranesTissues that line the inside of your mouth, throat, nose and eyes act as barriers.These are sticky fluids that trap and destroy germs.Body FluidsTears and saliva act as a barrier.infection The result of pathogens or germs invading the body, multiplying, and harming some of your body’s cells
31Your immune system is your second line of defense. immune system A group of cells, tissues, and organs that fight disease
32Your Immune SystemSome lymphocytes attack pathogens directly while others produce antibodies.lymphocyte A white blood cell that attacks pathogens or harmful germsantibodies Chemicals produced specifically to fight a particular invading substance
33This is called immunity. Your Immune SystemAntibodies recognize germs that reenter the body and will attack and destroy them.This is called immunity.immunity Resistance to infection
34Preventing Communicable Diseases Steer clear of people who you know are sick.Get in the habit of washing your hands regularly.Get enough rest, eat healthy foods,and exercise.Your hands are constantly picking up germs from objects in your environment.When you put your hands to your mouth or nose, germs can enter your body.Keep a supply of pre-moistened wipes handy for when you need to wash your hands but soap and water are not available.
35Preventing Communicable Diseases A vaccine triggers the immune system to make antibodies to fight the pathogen.vaccine A dead or weakened pathogen introduced into your bodyYou don’t become ill from the vaccine because the pathogen is dead or weakened.
36Preventing Communicable Diseases VaccineThe Disease It Protects AgainstHep BHepatitis BDTaPDiphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough)HibDisease caused by Hemophilus influenza type B (Hib) bacteriaIPVPoliomyelitisPVCDiseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteriaMMRMeasles, mumps, rubellaVaricellaChicken poxHep AHepatitis A
37Lesson 2 ReviewWhat I LearnedDescribe What is the most common communicable disease? Name some other common communicable diseases.The most common communicable disease is the common cold. Other communicable diseases are influenza; mononucleosis; hepatitis A, B, and C; tuberculosis; and strep throat.
38What I Learned Vocabulary Define antibodies, and use it in a sentence. Lesson 2 ReviewWhat I LearnedVocabulary Define antibodies, and use it in a sentence.An antibody is a chemical that fights a specific pathogen.
39Lesson 2 ReviewWhat I LearnedList Name a disease that can be prevented with a vaccine.Students may list any disease noted in Figure 11.3.
40Lesson 2 ReviewThinking CriticallyApply Why should you avoid sharing an ice cream cone with a friend who has a cold?Sharing food is one way that colds are spread.
41Lesson 2 ReviewThinking CriticallyAnalyze How does handwashing help protect the health of your school and community?By washing away the germs on your hands, you keep them from spreading to others, which protects the health of the community.
42Chapter 11 Preventing Diseases Lesson 4 Noncommunicable and Hereditary DiseasesClick for:>> Main Menu>> Chapter 11 AssessmentTeacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation.Next >>
43Essential Question:How can I protect myself from disease?Enduring Understanding: students will understand thatto avoid diseases like cancer and diabetes, you should avoid tobacco, protect yourself from the sun’s UV rays and maintain an active, healthful lifestyle.
44What different ways can pathogens be spread? DO NOWWhat different ways can pathogens be spread?What is the most common communicable disease?Identify at least three different barriers (line of defense) that your body uses to block pathogens.
45Heart disease chronic Long-lasting cancer allergy A disease caused by abnormal cells that grow out of controlThe body’s sensitivity to certain substancesClick to reveal the definitions.Heart disease is a range of diseases that affect your heart.Heart disease
46In this lesson, you will learn to identify causes of various noncommunicable diseases.develop behaviors to keep your heart healthy.identify ways to help prevent diseases like cancer and diabetes.
47What Causes Noncommunicable Diseases? Poor Health HabitsA Person’s EnvironmentEffects of a Communicable DiseaseHeredityPresent at BirthPoor health habitsPoor eating habits can lead to heart disease and diabetes.A person’s environmentLiving in a city with heavy smog can lead to lung disease.Effects of a communicable diseaseAn infection from measles can spread to the brain and cause brain damage.HeredityAllergies and muscular dystrophy can be passed from a child to a parent.Present at birthExamples are Down syndrome and congenital heart disease.
48Heart DiseaseHeart disease is the number one cause of death in the United States and is an example of a chronic disease.chronic Long-lastingNarrowing or blocking of blood vessels:The heart has a hard time doing its job and becomes weak.The result can be a heart attack or stroke. Stroke is a destruction of brain tissue cause when the heart can’t pump enough blood to the brain.High blood pressure:High blood pressure is a condition in which the heart is forced to work unusually hard. This can be inherited. It can also be caused by stress, kidney problems, or eating too many foods high in fat or cholesterol.Common causes of heart disease include the narrowing or blocking of blood vessels and high blood pressure.
49Healthy Habits for your Heart Stay Physically ActiveMaintain a Healthy WeightEat Foods High in Fiber and Low in Salt, Fat, and CholesterolLearn to Manage StressDon’t Use Tobacco ProductsStay physically activeAerobic activity can strengthen your heart and blood vessels. It can also lower blood pressure.Maintain a healthy weight:Having less body fat reduces the strain on the heart and blood vessels.Learn to manage stress:Reducing or managing stress can help lower blood pressure.Don’t use tobacco products:Staying away from tobacco products will lower your risk of stroke, heart attack, and other diseases.
50Treating Heart Disease There are medications that widen blood vessels, lower blood pressure, and control the heartbeat.For more serious problems, heart disease is treated with surgery.Operations can be done to open blocked arteries or insert devices that regulate the heartbeat. In severe cases, a heart transplant may be considered.
51Cancer starts out as a tumor. cancer A disease caused by abnormal cells that grow out of controltumor A mass of abnormal cellsCancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States.
52Some tumors are noncancerous, or benign. Tumors that are cancerous are call malignant.Benign means the tumor does not spread.Malignant means the cancer cells spread to surrounding tissue.Eventually, cancer cells may spread throughout the body.
53Cancer Causes of Cancer Exposure to Cancer-Causing Substances HeredityExposure to Cancer-Causing SubstancesPoor Health ChoicesSmoking accounts for at least 30% of all cancer deaths.
54Don’t use tobacco or drugs CancerAvoiding CancerEat WellStay ActiveUse SunscreenDon’t use tobacco or drugs
55Treating Cancer C A U Seven Cancer Warning Signs T I O N Changes in bowel or bladder habitsA sore that does not healUnusual bleeding or dischargeThickening or lump in breast or elsewhereIndigestion or difficulty swallowingObvious changes in a wart or moleNagging cough or hoarsenessSeven Cancer Warning SignsPeople who notice any of these warning signs should see a doctor right away.
56Treating Cancer Ways of Treating Cancer Surgery Radiation Chemotherapy Biologic TherapiesSurgery is used to remove tumors.Radiation is used to destroy cancer cells in a specific location.Chemotherapy travels throughout the body to destroy cancer cells wherever they occur.Biologic treatments work with the body’s immune system, stimulating it to fight cancer.Before the cancer has spreadAfter the cancer has spread
57If you sneeze when you are around cats, you may have an allergy. AllergiesIf you sneeze when you are around cats, you may have an allergy.allergy The body’s sensitivity to certain substancesCommon allergens includeDander in animal hair or furDustPollenGrassSome moldsFoods such as peanutsAllergies are caused by an overreaction of the immune system.Simple medical tests can determine if a person has allergies.There is no cure for allergies, but certain medicines can ease the symptoms.A substance that causes an allergic reaction is called an allergen.
58Asthma is a health problem related to allergies. asthma A chronic disease in which the airways become irritated and swollenIf an asthma attack is severe, the person may experience a feeling of suffocation and begin to panic.During an asthma attack, the small airways of the lungs become coated with a thick mucous.
59Cigarette Smoke and Other Sources of Air Pollution AsthmaAsthma TriggersAllergensPhysical ActivityCold or Damp AirCigarette Smoke and Other Sources of Air PollutionTreatment for minor asthma attacks includes inhaling medication to relax the airways.Severe attacks may require a hospital visit.Most asthmatics take medication that helps prevent attacks.Avoiding known triggers can also prevent attacks.Untreated, this disease can lead to permanent lung damages and, in some cases, death.
60Diabetes is caused when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin. diabetes A disease that prevents the body from using the sugars and starches in food for energyThe pancreas normally moves sugars into cells.insulin A hormone produced by the pancreas
61Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes Types of Diabetes The body does not produce insulin at all.The body makes insulin but isunable to use it efficiently.Types of DiabetesSymptoms of DiabetesIncreased thirstFrequent urine productionLack of energyBlurred vision
62DiabetesPercentage of Obese Children and Teens Over a 40-year Time Period
63Diabetes in Young People The increase in obesity is related to the increase in type 2 diabetes in young people.Type 2 diabetes used to occur mainly in adults.Today, half of all new cases of type 2 diabetes involve young people.
64Treatments for diabetes include: Monitoring blood sugar levels Treatment of DiabetesTreatments for diabetes include:Monitoring blood sugar levelsTaking insulinExercising regularlyWatching weightDeveloping a good meal planIt is important to eat foods that keep an level level of sugar in the blood.Physical exercise lowers blood sugar and pressure, improves the body’s ability to use insulin, and helps prevent complications like heart disease.Meal plans that help manage blood sugar include:The Diabetes Food PyramidRate Your PlateExchange ListsCarbohydrate CountingA person with diabetes should speak to his or her doctor or dietician for help in choosing the best meal plan.
65What I Learned Vocabulary What is chronic disease? Lesson 4 Review A chronic disease is one that continues for a long time.
66Lesson 4 ReviewWhat I LearnedIdentify Name a noncommunicable disease triggered by an allergen.Allergies and asthma are diseases triggered by allergens.
67What I Learned Describe What are some ways of preventing cancer? Lesson 4 ReviewWhat I LearnedDescribe What are some ways of preventing cancer?Avoiding tobacco, the sun's UV rays, and cancer-causing substances are ways to reduce the risk of cancer.
68Lesson 4 ReviewThinking CriticallySynthesize Name some ways to keep your heart healthy and lessen the risks of heart disease.Answers include getting regular physical activity; maintaining a healthy weight; eating foods high in fiber and low in salt, fat, and cholesterol; learning to manage stress; and avoiding tobacco products.
69Lesson 4 ReviewThinking CriticallyCompare How are allergies and asthma similar? How are they different?Allergies and asthma have some of the same triggers. They have different symptoms.
70Safety and the Environment Chapter 12Safety and the EnvironmentLesson 1Personal Safety HabitsClick for:>> Main Menu>> Chapter 12 AssessmentTeacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation.Next >>
71Unexpected events that result in damage or harm accidentsaccidental injuriesaccident chainUnexpected events that result in damage or harmInjuries caused by unexpected eventsA sequence of events that often leads to an accidental injuryClick to reveal the definitions.
72In this lesson, you will learn to identify the parts of the accident chain.describe ways of preventing accidental injuries.practice healthful behaviors to develop good safety habits.
731. 2. 3. Identifying Cause-and-Effect List three events that can result in accidental injury.1.2.3.
74Staying SafeLearning about safety can help prevent accidents and accidental injuries.accidents Unexpected events that result in damage or harmMany accidents happen at or near home.Many accidents involve ordinary, everyday activities such as riding a bike.accidental injuries Injuries caused by unexpected events
75Accidents often occur because of an accident chain. The Accident ChainAccidents often occur because of an accident chain.accident chain A sequence of events that often leads to an accidental injuryThe SituationThe Unsafe HabitThe Unsafe ActHere is an example of the accident chain:The situation:Greg and Larry are throwing a football in their driveway. The ball lands on the roof.The unsafe habit:Larry suggests getting a ladder. Greg says he will save time by climbing the tree next to the garage.The unsafe act:To reach the ball, Greg must lean out on a high, narrow branch. The branch snaps under Greg’s weight and Greg falls.
76How to Prevent Accidental Injuries By removing or changing any one link in the accident chain, you can top an accident from happening.
77What I Learned Vocabulary What are accidental injuries? Lesson 1 ReviewWhat I LearnedVocabulary What are accidental injuries?Accidental injuries are injuries caused by unexpected events.
78Lesson 1 ReviewWhat I LearnedList What three elements must be present for an accident to occur?the situation, the unsafe habit, the unsafe act
79What I Learned Recall How can many accidents be prevented? Lesson 1 ReviewWhat I LearnedRecall How can many accidents be prevented?Many accidents can be prevented by simply breaking the accident chain.
80Lesson 1 ReviewThinking CriticallyApply Grant’s friend dared him to walk across a narrow 12-foot high fence. What should Grant do, and why?Answers should include advising Grant to resist because accepting the dare could lead to personal injury.
81Lesson 1 ReviewThinking CriticallyEvaluate Why is it important to know your limitations?Sample answer: Knowing your limits helps you avoid taking risks or trying activities beyond your skill level.
82Safety and the Environment Chapter 12Safety and the EnvironmentLesson 2Safety at Home and AwayClick for:>> Main Menu>> Chapter 12 AssessmentTeacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation.Next >>
83Essential Question:Are most injuries and accidents preventable?Enduring Understanding: Students will understand thatthere are many safety hazards in the home.
84Possible sources of harm hazardsmoke alarmPossible sources of harmA device that makes a warning noise when it senses smokeClick to reveal the definitions.
85In this lesson, you will learn to explain how to prevent accidental injuries in you home.practice the skill of advocacy to help family members develop a fire escape plan.identify safety tips and rules of the road.describe how to be safe in your school and community.
86Following safety rules will reduce the risks of home hazards. Safety at HomeFollowing safety rules will reduce the risks of home hazards.hazards Possible sources of harmExamples of hazards include:Stairways, which can lead to fallsAppliances, which can cause shocks
87Safety at Home Kitchen Safety Learn to handle knives correctly Don’t leave food cooking unattendedTurn pot handles inwardKeep children away fromthe stoveWipe up spills right awayMore accidents happen in the kitchen than any other room in the house.
88Safety at Home Preventing Falls Keep stairways well lighted and free of clutterRugs should be fastened down firmlyPreventing FallsNever run on wet or waxed floorsUse a sturdy ladder or step stoolNever stand on a chair
89Safety at Home Electrical Safety Pull plugs out by the plug, not the cordDon’t use an appliance with a frayed cordElectrical SafetyNever use appliances when your hands are wetUnused outlets should becovered when children arepresentWater and electricity together can be dangerous. Never use an appliance in the bathtub.Keep appliances away from water
90Safety at Home Gun Safety Guns should be stored in locked cabinets Store ammunition away from gunsGun SafetyNever handle a gun without an adult presentNever point a gun at a live target
91Safety at Home Fire Safety Make sure matches are out before disposing of themNever leave candles burning unattendedsmoke alarm A device that makes a warning noise when it senses smokeFire Safetyfireextinguisher A device that releases chemicals that smother flamesKeep a fire extinguisher in the houseUse a smoke alarmAdditional tips include:Each level of your house should have a smoke alarm.Check smoke alarm batteries twice a year.Never throw water on a grease fire.In the event of a major fire, leave the building immediately.Never try to put a major fire out yourself.Make sure your family has an escape route.If your clothes catch fire, remember stop, drop, and roll.Keep lighters away from children
92Safety and Personal Responsibility Pick up an object you see lying on the floor where someone might trip over it. This can prevent someone you care about from being injured.
93Safety on the road applies to drivers, passengers, and pedestrians. pedestrians People traveling on foot
94Safety on the Road Rules of the Road Obey traffic rules. Ride your bike with the traffic flow, and obey traffic signals.Never weave in and out of traffic.When riding with a friend, ride in single file.When riding, check for cars before entering traffic. Watch for pedestrians.Be visible to others. Wear bright clothes and use a light after dark.Eighty-three percent of all traffic accidents occur within 20 miles of home.
95Tips for Personal Safety Safety on the RoadTips for Personal SafetyUse your safety belt when riding in a motor vehicle.Use safety equipment when riding a bike, skating, or riding a scooter.Don’t skate or ride a scooter after dark.Avoid riding or skating on wet, dirty, or uneven surfaces.Wear flat-soles shoes for riding a scooter. Wear pants that won’t catch in a bicycle chain.Keep your speed under control.
96Safety at SchoolNever carry a weapon and alert school officials if you know, or suspect, someone has a weapon.
97Safety in the Community Many communities have formed Neighborhood Watch Programs.Neighborhood Watch Programs Programs in which residents are trained to identify and report suspicious activityMany communities try to protect teens by setting curfews, declaring drug-free zones, and launching after-school programs.
98Safety in the Community You can protect yourself by:Walking with purpose to and from your homeTraveling with another person or in a groupAvoiding talking to strangersAvoiding shortcuts through unfamiliar or unsafe areas
99What I Learned Recall Where should smoke alarms be placed in the home? Lesson 2 ReviewWhat I LearnedRecall Where should smoke alarms be placed in the home?There should be one smoke detector on every level of the home.
100Lesson 2 ReviewWhat I LearnedDescribe What are two ways of making yourself safe when riding your bike?Answers include any two of the following: wearing a helmet; avoiding wet, dirty, or uneven surfaces; wearing pants that will not catch in the chain; and keeping your speed under control.
101What I Learned Vocabulary What is a Neighborhood Watch Program? Lesson 2 ReviewWhat I LearnedVocabulary What is a Neighborhood Watch Program?Resident volunteers undergo training to identify and report suspicious activity.
102Thinking Critically Explain In what ways is a cluttered room a hazard? Lesson 2 ReviewThinking CriticallyExplain In what ways is a cluttered room a hazard?Sample answer: It could cause falls and injuries.
103Lesson 2 ReviewThinking CriticallyAnalyze Why do you think there is debate on whether metal detectors should be in school?Answers will vary, but should mention school safety vs. personal rights and freedoms.
104Safety and the Environment End ofChapter 12Safety and the EnvironmentLesson 2Safety at Home and AwayClick for:>> Main Menu>> Chapter 12 Assessment
105Safety and the Environment Chapter 12Safety and the EnvironmentLesson 3Safety OutdoorsClick for:>> Main Menu>> Chapter 12 AssessmentTeacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation.Next >>
106A sudden and dangerous drop in body temperature hypothermiaA sudden and dangerous drop in body temperatureClick to reveal the definition.
107In this lesson, you will learn to describe what you need to know for water safety.explain safety when hiking or camping.practice decision-making skills to make safe choices.
108Finding the Main IdeaFor each main heading in this lesson, write one sentence that states the main idea.Main Headings in this Lesson:Staying Safe OutdoorsWater SafetySafety on the Trail
109Staying Safe OutdoorsTake these steps before planning any outing.Check the weather forecast.Make sure you have the proper safety gear.Be aware of your skills and abilities.Wear sunscreenWear bug protection.
110Follow the safety rules. Never swim alone. Use the “buddy system.” Water SafetyKnow how to swim well.Follow the safety rules.Never swim alone.Use the “buddy system.”Go to beaches or pools that have lifeguards.Know the water depth.The buddy system is always knowing your buddy’s whereabouts.
111When boating or waterskiing, wear a life jacket at all times. Water SafetyWhen boating or waterskiing, wear a life jacket at all times.If you ever feel in danger of drowning, stay calm and call for helpWear a wetsuit to prevent hypothermia.hypothermia A sudden and dangerous drop in body temperature
118For hiking, wear sturdy, well-cushioned shoes. Safety on the TrailFor hiking, wear sturdy, well-cushioned shoes.Wearing two pairs of socks will prevent blisters.Bring enough food and water.Bring clothing that is appropriate for the season.Make sure someone knows where your are going.Bring items such as flashlights, batteries, and walkie talkies.Other tips include:If your shoes are new, break them in for a few days before wearing them on a hike.Bring food that won’t spoil.Bring a compassBring a first-aid kit.
119What I Learned Recall What is the buddy system? Why is it important? Lesson 3 ReviewWhat I LearnedRecall What is the buddy system? Why is it important?The buddy system is an agreement that two swimmers will keep track of each other and help if one of the swimmers starts to have problems.
120What I Learned Vocabulary What is hypothermia? Lesson 3 Review Hypothermia is a dangerous drop in body temperature.
121Lesson 3 ReviewWhat I LearnedList Name two ways of staying safe during water activities.Sample answers: learn to swim, use the buddy system, and never dive in shallow water
122Lesson 3 ReviewThinking CriticallyApply Larissa is going for a short hike by herself. What safety precautions should she take before she leaves?Larissa should tell someone her plans and bring the following: water, food, a cell phone or walkie-talkie, a compass, a flashlight, and a first-aid kit.
123Lesson 3 ReviewThinking CriticallyAnalyze Suppose you are swimming in the ocean when you realize you have gone farther that you should. You don’t feel you have enough energy left to swim back.What should you do?Stay calm, try to get the attention of someone on shore, go into drowning prevention mode
124Safety and the Environment End ofChapter 12Safety and the EnvironmentLesson 3Safety OutdoorsClick for:>> Main Menu>> Chapter 12 Assessment
125Safety and the Environment Chapter 12Safety and the EnvironmentLesson 4Safety in Severe WeatherClick for:>> Main Menu>> Chapter 12 AssessmentTeacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation.Next >>
126A strong tropical windstorm with driving rain natural disastershurricanefrostbiteEvents caused by nature that result in widespread damage destruction, and lossA strong tropical windstorm with driving rainFreezing of the skinClick to reveal the definitions.
127The shaking of the ground as rock below the surface moves tornadoearthquakeA whirling, funnel-shaped windstorm that drops from the sky to the groundThe shaking of the ground as rock below the surface movesClick to reveal the definitions.
128In this lesson, you will learn to identify types of weather emergencies and natural disasters.recognize how to prepare for weather emergencies and natural disasters.
129Compare and ContrastAs you read, keep notes on the differences between weather emergencies and natural disasters.
130Weather Emergencies and Natural Disasters Having an emergency kit is part of preparing for natural disasters.natural disasters Events caused by nature that result in widespread damage, destruction, and lossWeather emergencies include:ThunderstormsFlooding from rainsHurricanesTornadosEarthquakesIf you ever have to leave your home in a weather emergency, you should take supplies with you such as:MoneyPrescription medicines family members may need
131Lightning is the most dangerous part of a thunderstorm. ThunderstormsLightning is the most dangerous part of a thunderstorm.Lightning is caused by clouds releasing stored-up electrical energy.Thunderstorms can happen in any season, but they are most common during warm weather.
132Thunderstorms Thunderstorm Tips Seek shelter. Do not use the telephone.If you are in a large field with no shelter, lie down.Avoid all metal objects.Stay away from trees, electric wires, canopies.Stay away from water.
133A hurricane can cause high waves, which in turn can produce flooding. HurricanesA hurricane can cause high waves, which in turn can produce flooding.hurricane A strong tropical windstorm with driving rainHurricane-force winds can turn over cars and knock down buildings.Wind speeds during a hurricane can reach or exceed 100 miles per hour.
134Hurricanes Hurricane Tips Board windows. Bring in outdoor objects. Monitor TV and radio reports closely.Obey orders to leave the area if instructed.
135TornadoesA tornado is most likely to occur in the flat central regions of the country.tornado A whirling, funnel-shaped windstorm that drops from the sky to the ground
136The most common natural disasters are floods. Flooding is especially serious in regions near large bodies of water.Hurricanes and heavy rainfall can cause floods.Sometimes there is little or no warning before a flood. This is called a flash flood.
137Floods Flood Tips Never walk or ride in a car through floodwater. Watch out for downed power lines.Only drink bottled water.Clean and disinfect everything that touched floodwater.Throw out all contaminated food.Make sure the water supply is safe before drinking.
138BlizzardsA blizzard can shut down roads and make it hard for food and other daily needs to reach consumers.A whiteout is a state where snow falls so rapidly, visibility is significantly reduced.
139Health risks from being in a blizzard include: Hypothermia Frostbite BlizzardsHealth risks from being in a blizzard include:HypothermiaFrostbitefrostbite Freezing of the skinFrostbite can cause severe injury to the skin and sometimes to deeper tissue.
140TornadoesA tornado is most likely to occur in the flat central regions of the country.tornado A whirling, funnel-shaped windstorm that drops from the sky to the ground
141Tornadoes Tornado Tips Go to a storm cellar. If you don’t have a storm cellar, go to a hallway, bathroom, or other room with no windows.Don’t stay in a car or mobile home.If you are outdoors, look for a ditch and lie down.
142If you are inside when an earthquake hits, stay there. EarthquakesIf you are inside when an earthquake hits, stay there.earthquake A The shaking of the ground as rock below the surface moves
143Earthquakes Earthquake Tips Brace yourself in a doorway. If possible, crawl under a large piece of furniture.Move away from objects that could fall.If you are outside, stand in the open and stay away from trees, buildings, and power lines.After an earthquake, report any odor of gas.
144Lesson 4 ReviewWhat I LearnedCompare What is the difference between a weather emergency and natural disaster?Natural disasters tend to cause greater damage and destruction than weather emergencies. Some natural disasters, such as earthquakes, are not weather-related.
145Lesson 4 ReviewWhat I LearnedVocabulary What is a hurricane? Where do hurricanes occur?A hurricane is a strong tropical windstorm with driving rain and high wind that occurs in coastal regions.
146Lesson 4 ReviewWhat I LearnedIdentify Which type of weather emergency can lead to whiteout conditions?Blizzards can lead to whiteouts.
147Lesson 4 ReviewThinking CriticallyEvaluate How does the media influence community health during a natural disaster or weather emergency?Answers should include the items listed in Figure 12.4.
148Lesson 4 ReviewThinking CriticallyAnalyze Suppose you are swimming when the sky turns dark. You hear a distant rumble. What should you do to take responsibility for your personal health?You should get out of the water and seek shelter.
149Safety and the Environment End ofChapter 12Safety and the EnvironmentLesson 4Safety in Severe WeatherClick for:>> Main Menu>> Chapter 12 Assessment
150Safety and the Environment Chapter 12Safety and the EnvironmentLesson 5First Aid for EmergenciesClick for:>> Main Menu>> Chapter 12 AssessmentTeacher’s notes are available in the notes section of this presentation.Next >>
151cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR Dislocation: displacement of one or more bones at a jointFracture: it is the breaking or cracking of a bone or the tearing of a cartilage.The care first given to an injured or ill person until regular medical care can be suppliedfirst aidrescue breathingcardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPRabdominal thrustA substitute for normal breathing in which someone forces air into the victim’s lungsA rescue measure that attempts to restore heartbeat and breathingClick to reveal the definitions.Quick upward pulls into the diaphragm to force out the object blocking the airwayCramp: A sudden, involuntary, spasmodic muscular contraction causing severe pain, often occurring in the leg or shoulder as the result of strain or chill.Pulled muscle: when a muscle becomes overstretched and tears.
152A community agency that helps people deal with poisoning emergencies poison control centerfirst-degree burnsecond-degree burnthird-degree burnA burn in which only the outer part of the skin in burned and turns redA burn in which the damaged area blisters or peelsClick to reveal the definitions.A very serious burn in which deeper layers of skin and nerve endings are damaged
153In this lesson, you will learn to name strategies for responding to emergencies.describe how you can help someone who is bleeding.identify the universal sign for choking.explain how to help a burn victim.
154SequencingChoose two of the emergencies described in the lesson. For each, make a flow chart showing the steps in treating the emergency.
155Giving first-aid can mean the difference between life and death. first aid The care first given to an injured or ill person until regular medical care can be supplied
156Check Call Care Giving First Aid The American Red Cross Suggests the following strategy: CHECK-CALL-CARE.CheckMake sure the area is safe for you and the victim.Move the victim if he or she is in danger.CallCall 911 or the local EMSCare for the person until help arrivesUse the first aid techniques discussed in this lesson to treat the victim’s injuries until help arrives.
157Life Threatening Emergencies A victim’s life is in danger if the person:has stopped breathinghas no heartbeatis bleeding severelyPeople in these situations need help immediately. Call for help and then begin to treat the victim.is chokinghas swallowed poisonhas been severely burned
158Rescue Breathing and CPR If the victim is not breathing, perform rescue breathing.rescue breathing A substitute for normal breathing in which someone forces air into the victims lungsPut your ear and cheek close to the victim’s nose and mouth. Listen and feel for air exhaled. Look to see if the chest is rising and falling.
159Rescue Breathing and CPR Point the victim’s chin upward by gently lifting it up with your fingers and tilting the head back. The airway will now be open.Pinch the victim’s nostrils shut. Cover the victim’s mouth with your own, forming a tight seal. Give two slow breaths each about two seconds long. Make sure the victim’s chest rises during each breath.Watch for the victim’s chest to fall and listen for air flowing from the lungs. If the victims begins breathing normally, stop. Otherwise, give on rescue breath every five seconds until help arrives.
160Rescue Breathing and CPR A life-saving technique for victims whose hearts have stopped beating is cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) A rescue measure that attempts to restore heartbeat and breathingOnly people who have been trained should perform CPR.
161First Aid for Severe Bleeding When treating a victim with severe bleeding, take precautions to limit touching another person’s blood.Wear gloves if possible and always wash your hands afterward.
162First Aid for Severe Bleeding Tips for treating a victim with sever bleeding include:Lie the person down.Elevate the wounded body part above the victim’s heart if there are no broken bones.Apply direct, steady pressure to the wound with a clean cloth. Do not press too hard.Once the bleeding has stopped, cover the wound with a clean cloth.Get medical help immediately.
163First Aid for ChokingChoking is a condition that occurs when a person’s airway becomes blocked.A chocking victim can die in minutes because air cannot get to the lungs.The universal sign for choking is grabbing the throat between the thumb and forefinger.A person who is choking may:Gasp for breathBe unable to speakTurn red, then bluish in the face
164If you know someone is choking, begin using abdominal thrusts. First Aid for ChokingIf you know someone is choking, begin using abdominal thrusts.abdominal thrusts Quick upward pulls into the diaphragm to force out the object blocking the airwayThe steps for performing abdominal thrusts if an infant is choking are:Position the infant on his or her abdomen along your forearm.Brace your arm against your thigh.Support the infant’s head with your hand and point the head down.Using the heel of your hand, give the infant up to five blows between the shoulder blades.If the object is still stuck, turn the victim on his or her back:Support the shoulders and neck with one hand.With the other hand, place two fingers in the middle of the child’s breastbone.Press quickly up to five times.Alternate five back blows and five chest thrusts until the object comes out.If the child becomes unconscious, call 911.If you are choking and nobody is around to help you:Make a fist and thrust it quickly into your upper abdomen or try pushing your abdomen against the back or arm of a chair.
165First Aid for Poisoning If you think someone has swallowed poison, call 911, EMS, or your local poison control center.poison control center A community agency that helps people deal with poisoning emergenciesThe inside cover of your phone book should list the phone number of the poison control center.
166First Aid for Poisoning Take these steps while waiting for help to arrive.Keep the person warm and breathing.Remove extra traces of poison from the person’s mouth with a damp, clean cloth.Some cases of poisoning are caused by contact with a poisonous plant such as poison ivy, poison oak, and sumac.Contact with these plants can cause redness, itching, and swelling.Most of these injuries can be easily treated at home using soap and water, rubbing alcohol, and over the counter creams.Seek the treatment of a doctor for severe cases.Save the container of the poison to show the ambulance team.Prepare to tell the emergency team all you know about what happened.
167Treatment for a first-degree burn includes: First Aid for BurnsTreatment for a first-degree burn includes:Cooling the burned area with cold water (not ice) for at least 15 minutesWrapping the burned area loosely in a clean, dry dressingfirst-degree burn A burn in which only the outer partof the skin is burned and turns red
168Treatment for a second-degree burn includes: First Aid for BurnsTreatment for a second-degree burn includes:Cooling the burned area with cold water (not ice)Elevating the burned areaWrapping the burned area loosely in a clean, dry dressingDo not pop blisters, or peel loose skin.Seeing a doctorsecond-degree burn A serious type of burn in which the damaged area blisters or peels
169Treatment for a third-degree burn includes: First Aid for BurnsTreatment for a third-degree burn includes:Cooling the burn with cold water or by applying a wet clothNot applying ice or ointmentsRemoving clothing that may stick to the burned area while applying cold waterDo not pop blisters, or peel loose skin.Wrapping the burned area loosely with a clean, dry dressing and call 911third-degree burn A very serious burn in which deeper layers of skin and nerve endings are damaged
170First Aid for Breaks and Sprains Take these steps when helping someone who fractured a bone.Ask if the person heard a snap or if touching the injured area hurts.If unsure, treat the person as if they have a broken bone and call 911.If there is bleeding, apply pressure with a clean cloth.Do not attempt to straighten out the injured part.Avoid moving the person.
171First Aid for Breaks and Sprains A sprain occurs when a joint is stretched or twisted or has torn ligaments.Sprains are often sports-related.To treat a sprain, use the PRICE formula outlined in Chapter 5.
172What I Learned Recall What is the universal sign for choking? Lesson 5 ReviewWhat I LearnedRecall What is the universal sign for choking?The universal sign for choking is grabbing the throat between the thumb and forefinger.
173Lesson 5 ReviewWhat I LearnedList Briefly give the steps in controlling severe bleeding.lay the victim down, elevate the legs, raise the wounded part above the heart if there are no broken bones
174Lesson 5 ReviewWhat I LearnedVocabulary What’s the difference between a first- and second-degree burn?A first-degree burn appears as redness, a second-degree burn blisters or peels.
175Lesson 5 ReviewThinking CriticallyEvaluate What steps can be taken to reduce poisoningrisks in homes with small children?Sample answers: moving items out of reach; using cabinet locks.
176Lesson 5 ReviewThinking CriticallyApply Ken and Phil see and older student collapse to the ground. Using the CHECK-CALL-CARE strategy, show how Ken and Phil should respond to this emergency.Ken and Phil should CHECK for danger, CALL for help, and give the victim CARE while they wait for help to arrive.
177Safety and the Environment End ofChapter 12Safety and the EnvironmentLesson 5First Aid for EmergenciesClick for:>> Main Menu>> Chapter 12 Assessment