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Chapter 2 Chemistry of Life. Chemistry Video

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Chemistry of Life. Chemistry Video"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 Chemistry of Life

2 Chemistry Video

3 Vocabulary List: Atom Nucleus Electron Element Isotope Compound Ionic bond Ion Covalent bond Molecule

4 Q: If you take a stick of chalk and break it in half, are both halves still chalk? YESNO atomos- unable to cut

5 ATOM ProtonsNeutronsElectrons + charge neutral - charge mass mass 1/1840 mass nucleus nucleus space


7 Element = one type of atom Isotope = atoms of the same element that contain different numbers of neutrons (# of electrons and protons remain constant) If the atomic mass is the sum of protons + neutrons atomic number = the # of protons which number changes in an isotope? **Marbles or colored blocks

8 Compound - substance formed by the chemical combination of 2 or more elements in definite proportions


10 Atomic Bombs Nuclear Fission (splitting) of Uranium or Plutonium Uranium (U) or Plutonium (Pu) = large & unstable (radioactive) Rapid decay rate --> Release energy needed to hold atom together Energy release = radiation Little Boy: 4 tons of fuel = 15 kilotons of TNT Nuclear Fission Video:

11 Atomic Bombs continued Steps: 1. Explosion from TNT condenses all Pu atoms to “critical mass” 2. Neutron escapes (energy release) from decaying nuclei and hits another Pu atom 3. Pu atom that was hit subsequently decays (more energy release) 4. All the Pu atoms start decaying within seconds

12 CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS H (gas) + O (gas) H 2 O (liquid) Sodium + Chlorine NaCl (table salt) Molecule – the smallest unit of compounds whose atoms are joined by covalent bonds

13 Chemical bonding- involves the electrons surrounding the nucleus of each atom Ionic Bondvs.Covalent Bond Transferringvs. Sharing To do: 2 circles with 8 chairs apiece Q: How can this problem be resolved? Science question: What kind of bond is being modeled?


15 H20H20

16 Water = 50-60% of your body weight Higher if you have more muscle Function: Transport of nutrients and oxygen via bloodstream Transport white blood cells to fight infection via lymphatics Rid body of waste Normal level of H2O loss = 2.5L 350mL through lungs 100mL through sweating 350mL through skin mL through kidneys

17 Headache Muscle Cramp, Patesthesia (tingling) Visual Snow Decreased Blood Pressure (hypotension) Dizziness/ Fainting upon standing (orthostatic hypotension) Swelling of Tongue Sunken eyes Low urine output Decreased Heart & Respiratory Rate Tired Dry skin Decreased Metabolism

18 H2OH2O An oxygen atom has 8 protons Each hydrogen atom has 1 proton Polar molecules have an uneven distribution of electrons 10 protons = 10 shared electrons But will one part of the compound have a greater pull on those electrons? Yes/No…..why?

19 Slight Negative Charge Slight Positive Charge

20 2 polar ends attract each other A weak bond between the H of one atom and the O of another in water (or any electroneg…) H 2 0 can hydrogen bond with 4 other H 2 0 molecules hydrogen bonding - the attraction between water molecules

21 Properties of Water Universal Solvent- due to its polarity -Salts, sugars, acids, bases -Hydrophobic vs hydrophilic

22 Liquid Water Solid Water (Ice) and-math-integration/ Water Expands When It Freezes Water becomes less dense due to hydrogen bonds forming between the water molecules, which line up molecules less efficiently (in terms of volume) when water is frozen.

23 Structure of Ice

24 Cohesion-attraction to H 2 0 molecules Adhesion-attraction of H 2 0 molecules to other surfaces

25 Cohesion Causes Surface Tension

26 Adhesion

27 Adhesion (Capillary Action)

28 DRILL- need to have read 1) Draw a molecule of water, indicating its polarity. 2) Explain the truth of the statement: Water can be considered the universal solvent due to its polarity WE NEED A BREAK! Outside…

29 Dehydration synthesis- build up by removing water Hydrolysis-break down by adding water

30 Mixture – composed of 2 or more elements/compounds that are mixed physically but not chemically combined 1)Solution – the components are evenly distributed with the solute dissolved in the solvent ex: salt water 2) Suspension – mixture of water and nondissolved material ex: blood is both a suspension (cells) and solution

31 Acids, Bases and pH pH scale – a measure of the H + concentration in solution

32 Lower ph = more H + Higher ph = fewer H + Acid-any compound that forms H + in solution (HCl in the stomach = pH 2.5) Base-any compound that produces OH- in solution (bleach = pH 12.5) ***Pure water is always neutral H 2 O H + + OH - in equal amounts

33 LAB- are foods acidic or basic? FOODpH (A/B)

34 Organic Molecules- study of all compounds that contain bonds between CARBON atoms methane isooctane **C-C bonds allow for long chains…Large and complex structures! **4 valence electrons…binds with many other elements

35 MACRO molecules- giant molecules polymerization polymers monomers- may be identical/repeating or different

36 RECALL……… Dehydration Synthesis vs Hydrolysis

37 Dehydration synthesis- build up by removing water Hydrolysis-break down by adding water

38 Nucleotides Nucleic acid Triglyceride Fat/Wax/Steroids Amino acid Polypeptide Monosaccharide Polysaccharide CarbsProtein Nucleic Acid Lipid 4 ORGANIC MOLECULES

39 CARBOHYDRATES Ends in –ose General formula C 1 :H 2 :O 1 Carbohydrate – “carbon hydrate” when CO 2 reacts with water to form glucose major source of ENERGY for all living organisms source of structural support (plants) Monosaccharide ex. glucose, fructose and galactose Disaccharide ex. Lactose, sucrose Polysaccharide ex. Gycogen, starch and cellulose

40 Simple vs. Complex Carbohydrates

41 A.Starch 1. stored energy for the plant 2. starch in potatoes, refined wheat and white products are quickly converted into glucose in the body B.Cellulose 1. major component of plant cell walls 2. does NOT provide energy nor is it digested by our bodies 3. called fiber in our diets & is critical for a healthy digestive system C.Glycogen 1. animal starch 2. stored form of glucose in our bodies 3. stored in liver to remove glucose from the blood And your resident dietician says…………why?

42 LIPIDS Not a polymer- all lipids are grouped together because hydrophobic- “scared of water”/ little or no affinitiy for water ex. You will see oil separate from vinegar in salad dressing

43 A.Fats 1. Greasy, oily or waxy to the touch 2. Can be solid or liquid at room temperature 3. If excess calories are consumed, excess stored as fat 4. Stores vitamins and other chemicals 5. Form of insulation for the organism B. Phospholipids -membranes in & around the cells C. Waxes 1. Keep oganism or parts or organisms waterproof & protected 2. Ear was, wax on duck feather D. Steroids 1. Cholesterol a. important component of cell membranes b. harmful if too much in the diet or bloodstream 2. Hormones a. estrogen, progesterone and testosterone control reproductive function b. Anabolic steroids – illegally used to build up muscles - cause serious damage to hear, liver and kidneys

44 And your resident dietician says………… EXTRA CREDIT: Describe these terms in detail & provide examples: saturated fat unsaturated fat Due: next class

45 PROTEINS Amino acid – monomer Made up different combinations of 20 amino acids a. 12 nonessential amino acids b. 8 essential amino acids Complete proteins-contain all 8 essential amino acids ex. Meat, eggs, dairy products, fish and tofu Vegetables have some but not all a. must be eaten in combination b. complementary foods (rice and beans) – together provide a complete protein Cells recombine aa to build the proteins necessary for function

46 Protein Function Movement Growth and Repair NOT for energy Structure Biochemical Control Defense Protein = “first or primary”

47 -some are acidic/basic -polar/nonpolar


49 BOGGLE When the timer begins, try to construct as many words as possible using the given letters. You may go in any direction, but not diagonally. Think & write quickly!!!

50 NUCLEIC ACIDS Nucleotide - monomer; - phosphate group, 5 carbon sugar and nitrogenous base Nucleotides covalently bind to form a nucleic acid Nucleic acids store and transmit genetic information 4 Types of nucleotides (A-T/U-C-G) = endless # of different molecules 2 Types of Nucleic Acids = DNA and RNA


52 What do baking soda, vinegar and water have to do with Biology? Beaker 1 5 mL baking soda 120 mL water Beaker 2 5 mL vinegar 120 mL water Beaker 3 5 mL baking soda 5 mL vinegar Chemical reaction – a process that changes or transforms one set of chemicals into another

53 ReactantProducts Activation Energy – the necessary energy input to jumpstart a reaction but…..the formation of carbonic acid is slow and the CO 2 would build up too quickly in the bloodstream…… CO 2 + H 2 OH 2 CO 3 (carbonic acid)

54 DRILL 1)Define activation energy? 2)How is an enzyme a catalyst i.e. how does it relate to activation energy? 3)What are the substances that are transformed in a chemical reaction called? HW: Read Section 2-4 in your textbook and answer questions 9, 10, 22-25, 27, 28 and 33 on pages (end of chapter assessment)

55 Enzymes – catalysts or “biological wedges”

56 Energy of Reactions Energy-Absorbing Reaction Energy-Releasing Reaction Products Activation energy Activation energy Reactants EndothermicExothermic

57 Activity Break Keys Shapes Puzzles

58 ENZYMES Usually ends in –ase (with 1 st derived from the reaction it catalyzes) Works as a 1 enzyme:1 reaction-VERY specific (shape?) Enzymes provide a site where reactants can be brought together Substrates - reactants in an enyzme-catalyzed reaction Active site- site of substrate binding on the enzyme -complementary in “lock & key” style

59 How Enzymes Work 1.Reactants, called substrates, bind to specific enzymes; the site where enzymes bind is called the active site 2.Once the substrate binds to the active site, it changes shape and forms the enzyme- substrate complex 3.The substrates react to form new products; the enzyme-substrate complex helps to break and form bonds


61 Enzymes: -Regulate chemical pathways -Make materials that cells need -Release energy

62 Example of Enzyme Reaction

63 Enzyme Video e=related e=related

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