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The Novel Emma: Text, Story, Critical Analysis: Volume 3 Starts Dr. Sarwet Rasul.

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1 The Novel Emma: Text, Story, Critical Analysis: Volume 3 Starts Dr. Sarwet Rasul

2 Review of the Previous Session In the previous session we continued Volume 2 of the novel EMMA. In other words we covered from Chapter 29 to Chapter 36, and finished Volume 2 We followed the same scheme of analysis. 2

3 Today’s Session The Novel Emma: Volume 3 Starts We will start from Chapter 37 and will cover till Chapter 45 We will look at: –Important happenings in these chapters –Points of Discussion –Important parts of text with reference to development of characters –Jane Austen as a writer, her art of characterization etc. –Development of different themes through these chapters –Writing Style of Austen 3

4 Opening Text of Volume 3, Chapter 37 A very little quiet reflection was enough to satisfy Emma as to the nature of her agitation on hearing this news of Frank Churchill. She was soon convinced that it was not for herself she was feeling at all apprehensive or embarrassed; it was for him. Her own attachment had really subsided into a mere nothing; it was not worth thinking of;— but if he, who had undoubtedly been always so much the most in love of the two, were to be returning with the same warmth of sentiment which he had taken away, it would be very distressing. If a separation of two months should not have cooled him, there were dangers and evils before her:—caution for him and for herself would be necessary. She did not mean to have her own affections entangled again, and it would be incumbent on her to avoid any encouragement of his. She wished she might be able to keep him from an absolute declaration. That would be so very painful a conclusion of their present acquaintance! and yet, she could not help rather anticipating something decisive. She felt as if the spring would not pass without bringing a crisis, an event, a something to alter her present composed and tranquil state. It was not very long, though rather longer than Mr. Weston had foreseen, before she had the power of forming some opinion of Frank Churchill's feelings. The Enscombe family were not in town quite so soon as had been imagined, but he was at Highbury very soon afterwards. 4

5 Text cont… He rode down for a couple of hours; he could not yet do more; but as he came from Randalls immediately to Hartfield, she could then exercise all her quick observation, and speedily determine how he was influenced, and how she must act. They met with the utmost friendliness. There could be no doubt of his great pleasure in seeing her. But she had an almost instant doubt of his caring for her as he had done, of his feeling the same tenderness in the same degree. She watched him well. It was a clear thing he was less in love than he had been. Absence, with the conviction probably of her indifference, had produced this very natural and very desirable effect. He was in high spirits; as ready to talk and laugh as ever, and seemed delighted to speak of his former visit, and recur to old stories: and he was not without agitation. It was not in his calmness that she read his comparative difference. He was not calm; his spirits were evidently fluttered; there was restlessness about him. Lively as he was, it seemed a liveliness that did not satisfy himself; but what decided her belief on the subject, was his staying only a quarter of an hour, and hurrying away to make other calls in Highbury. "He had seen a group of old acquaintance in the street as he passed—he had not stopped, he would not stop for more than a word—but he had the vanity to think they would be disappointed if he did not call, and much as he wished to stay longer at Hartfield, he must hurry off." She had no doubt as to his being less in love—but neither his agitated spirits, nor his hurrying away, seemed like a perfect cure; and she was rather inclined to think it implied a dread of her returning power, and a discreet resolution of not trusting himself with her long. 5

6 Volume 3, Chapter 37 We have read the relevant text and have noticed that Emma thinks about her agitation upon hearing of Frank’s impending arrival. Emma's attachment to Frank Churchill has subsided, but she is now concerned that he is in love with her. She feels such apprehension more on his behalf than her own. By this time she is sure that her attachment to him is not very strong. When she sees him again, he is friendly and spirited but his visit is for a very short time that is only for fifteen minutes. The short span of this visit convinces Emma that his feelings towards her have also changed or weakened. When Frank returns, he and his aunt and uncle decide to stay a house nine miles away from Mr. Weston. Thus, Frank is kept away for ten days after this first visit. Mrs. Churchill finally decides that her family must move from London to Richmond, which places Frank closer to Highbury. Mr. Weston is delighted to have his son nearer, and a date is set for the long-postponed ball. He begins preparations for a ball at the Crown Inn. 6

7 Discussion Points: Volume 3, Chapter 37 Theme of Vanity and Self-deception: Emma's concern for Frank Churchill that he must be in love with her, indicates one more thing that is vanity and self- deception on the part of Emma. 7

8 Volume 3, Chapter 38 The day of the ball finally arrives. Emma is invited by Mr. Weston to come early and give her opinion on the arrangements. Emma wants to take this opportunity to have some privacy to her second meeting with Frank, who will be with his father. But Emma is not the only one whom Mr. Weston has asked to come early, so frank is found very busy. Well, he seems excited but restless, constantly moving to see who has arrived. Finally, when Jane and Miss Bates arrive, Frank rushes out to help them with umbrellas. But, while all this is happening we notice that Frank Churchill behaves oddly towards Emma during the whole ball. He does not pay much attention to her. However, other people like him such as Mrs. Elton pronounces Frank a very fine young man. Miss Bates also expresses her happiness, gratitude and pleasure. Frank tells Emma that he dislikes Mrs. Elton and her familiar manner with Jane, and he runs off again to ask his father when the dancing will begin. 8

9 Cont… Mr. and Mrs. Weston as hosts suddenly realize that Mrs. Elton expects to be asked to lead the dance. This implies that they cannot give Emma that honor, as they had already thought of. So, during first dance, Emma and Frank dance second to Mr. Weston and Mrs. Elton, and Mrs. Elton is completely gratified by this. Despite this slight disappointment, Emma enjoys the beginning of the festivities. However, interestingly, she is disturbed that Mr. Knightley will not dance. She admires his attractive personality and how he is prominent amongst others. Mr. Knightley also is aware that he is watching her. The ball is a success overall. However, one incident bothers Emma. During one dance, Harriet is left without a partner, and Mr. Elton, is the only dancer who is disengaged at that moment. Mrs. Weston encourages Mr. Elton to dance with Harriet, he blatantly refuses, much to Harriet’s humiliation. Mr. Knightley comes to rescue and he smoothens the situation by asking Harriet to dance with him. Emma is very pleased with him. Later, she expresses her gratitude, and he asks her why the Eltons are her enemies. She admits that she wanted Mr. Elton to marry Harriet and acknowledges that Knightley was right about his character. After the ball, Mr. Knightley tells Emma that the Eltons' intention was to wound both Emma and Harriet. They cannot forgive her for wanting Harriet to marry Mr. Elton. Knightley also agrees that Harriet has more admirable qualities than he previously thought. Emma and Knightley now dance together which shows their increasing understanding. 9

10 Discussion Points: Volume 3, Chapter 38 Emma’s Developing Clarity on her Emotions: Emma enjoys Frank Churchill's company and his attention during the Crown Inn ball. But, this is the extent of her feelings. She is now sure that she is not in love with him. Though, she regrets that she cannot feel more towards him. Theme of Propriety: The Eltons' actions in this chapter continue to develop the theme of propriety and the difference between overt behavior and subtle signals. Mr. Elton snubs Harriet. The true propriety to be shown according to the needs of the class again becomes significant. As Elton is not the true representative of this class, it is evident through his lack of manners. He does not do anything outwardly rude towards Harriet, but it is clear that he intends to insult her. The question why Harriet is the victim of the snub rather than Emma is important. The simple answer is that she is an easy target as compared to Emma who is more elite and more powerful. They can snub the socially inferior Harriet with few consequences, but a similar snub against Emma could not be tolerated. Again Mr. Knightley exhibits good manners being genuinely a member of the class he is representative of, as he asks Harriet to dance with him. 10

11 Text from Chapter 38 The ball proceeded pleasantly. The anxious cares, the incessant attentions of Mrs. Weston, were not thrown away. Every body seemed happy; and the praise of being a delightful ball, which is seldom bestowed till after a ball has ceased to be, was repeatedly given in the very beginning of the existence of this. Of very important, very recordable events, it was not more productive than such meetings usually are. There was one, however, which Emma thought something of.—The two last dances before supper were begun, and Harriet had no partner;—the only young lady sitting down;—and so equal had been hitherto the number of dancers, that how there could be any one disengaged was the wonder!—But Emma's wonder lessened soon afterwards, on seeing Mr. Elton sauntering about. He would not ask Harriet to dance if it were possible to be avoided: she was sure he would not—and she was expecting him every moment to escape into the card-room. Escape, however, was not his plan. He came to the part of the room where the sitters-by were collected, spoke to some, and walked about in front of them, as if to shew his liberty, and his resolution of maintaining it. He did not omit being sometimes directly before Miss Smith, or speaking to those who were close to her.— Emma saw it. She was not yet dancing; she was working her way up from the bottom, and had therefore leisure to look around, and by only turning her head a little she saw it all. When she was half-way up the set, the whole group were exactly behind her, and she would no longer allow her eyes to watch; but Mr. Elton was so near, that she heard every syllable of a dialogue which just then took place between him and Mrs. Weston; and she perceived that his wife, who was standing immediately above her, was not only listening also, but even encouraging him by significant glances.—The kind-hearted, gentle Mrs. Weston had left her seat to join him and say, "Do not you dance, Mr. Elton?" to which his prompt reply was, "Most readily, Mrs. Weston, if you will dance with me.“ "Me!—oh! no—I would get you a better partner than myself. I am no dancer.“ ……………………………………… 11

12 Text Cont… ……….."If Mrs. Gilbert wishes to dance," said he, "I shall have great pleasure, I am sure—for, though beginning to feel myself rather an old married man, and that my dancing days are over, it would give me very great pleasure at any time to stand up with an old friend like Mrs. Gilbert.“ "Mrs. Gilbert does not mean to dance, but there is a young lady disengaged whom I should be very glad to see dancing—Miss Smith." "Miss Smith!—oh!—I had not observed.—You are extremely obliging— and if I were not an old married man.—But my dancing days are over, Mrs. Weston. You will excuse me. Any thing else I should be most happy to do, at your command—but my dancing days are over.“ Mrs. Weston said no more; and Emma could imagine with what surprize and mortification she must be returning to her seat. This was Mr. Elton! the amiable, obliging, gentle Mr. Elton.— She looked round for a moment; he had joined Mr. Knightley at a little distance, and was arranging himself for settled conversation, while smiles of high glee passed between him and his wife. She would not look again. Her heart was in a glow, and she feared her face might be as hot……………………………… 12

13 Text Cont… ……………..In another moment a happier sight caught her;—Mr. Knightley leading Harriet to the set!—Never had she been more surprized, seldom more delighted, than at that instant. She was all pleasure and gratitude, both for Harriet and herself, and longed to be thanking him; and though too distant for speech, her countenance said much, as soon as she could catch his eye again. His dancing proved to be just what she had believed it, extremely good; and Harriet would have seemed almost too lucky, if it had not been for the cruel state of things before, and for the very complete enjoyment and very high sense of the distinction which her happy features announced. It was not thrown away on her, she bounded higher than ever, flew farther down the middle, and was in a continual course of smiles. Mr. Elton had retreated into the card-room, looking (Emma trusted) very foolish. She did not think he was quite so hardened as his wife, though growing very like her;—she spoke some of her feelings, by observing audibly to her partner, "Knightley has taken pity on poor little Miss Smith!—Very goodnatured, I declare." 13

14 Volume 3, Chapter 39 Emma looks back on her talk with Mr. Knightley at the ball with pleasure, and she rejoices that the Eltons’ rudeness has cured Harriet of her infatuation with Mr. Elton. (Let us read some text related to this.) 14

15 Opening Text of the Chapter This little explanation with Mr. Knightley gave Emma considerable pleasure. It was one of the agreeable recollections of the ball, which she walked about the lawn the next morning to enjoy.—She was extremely glad that they had come to so good an understanding respecting the Eltons, and that their opinions of both husband and wife were so much alike; and his praise of Harriet, his concession in her favour, was peculiarly gratifying. The impertinence of the Eltons, which for a few minutes had threatened to ruin the rest of her evening, had been the occasion of some of its highest satisfactions; and she looked forward to another happy result—the cure of Harriet's infatuation.— From Harriet's manner of speaking of the circumstance before they quitted the ballroom, she had strong hopes. It seemed as if her eyes were suddenly opened, and she were enabled to see that Mr. Elton was not the superior creature she had believed him. The fever was over, and Emma could harbour little fear of the pulse being quickened again by injurious courtesy. She depended on the evil feelings of the Eltons for supplying all the discipline of pointed neglect that could be farther requisite.—Harriet rational, Frank Churchill not too much in love, and Mr. Knightley not wanting to quarrel with her, how very happy a summer must be before her! 15

16 Further happenings in this chapter Suddenly, Frank appears with Harriet, fainting, on his arm. As Harriet comes back to consciousness, she tells the story of how she was walking with a friend, Miss Bickerton, when a Gypsy child approached to beg from them. Miss Bickerton, frightened, ran away, but Harriet was unable to follow because of a cramp she had gotten at the ball. Just as she started to panic, a group of Gypsies surrounded her and demanded money. Frank happened to be walking along and frightened the Gypsies away. Emma cannot help but wonder whether this romantic circumstance might make Harriet and Frank interested in each other. The episode alarms Mr. Woodhouse and is occasion for gossip. However, luckily the Gypsies left the neighborhood and as such no harm was caused. 16

17 Relevant text She was not to see Frank Churchill this morning. He had told her that he could not allow himself the pleasure of stopping at Hartfield, as he was to be at home by the middle of the day. She did not regret it. Having arranged all these matters, looked them through, and put them all to rights, she was just turning to the house with spirits freshened up for the demands of the two little boys, as well as of their grandpapa, when the great iron sweep-gate opened, and two persons entered whom she had never less expected to see together—Frank Churchill, with Harriet leaning on his arm—actually Harriet!—A moment sufficed to convince her that something extraordinary had happened. Harriet looked white and frightened, and he was trying to cheer her.— The iron gates and the front-door were not twenty yards asunder;—they were all three soon in the hall, and Harriet immediately sinking into a chair fainted away………….. 17

18 Text Cont… ………. A young lady who faints, must be recovered; questions must be answered, and surprizes be explained. Such events are very interesting, but the suspense of them cannot last long. A few minutes made Emma acquainted with the whole. Miss Smith, and Miss Bickerton, another parlour boarder at Mrs. Goddard's, who had been also at the ball, had walked out together, and taken a road, the Richmond road, which, though apparently public enough for safety, had led them into alarm.— About half a mile beyond Highbury, making a sudden turn, and deeply shaded by elms on each side, it became for a considerable stretch very retired; and when the young ladies had advanced some way into it, they had suddenly perceived at a small distance before them, on a broader patch of greensward by the side, a party of gipsies. A child on the watch, came towards them to beg; and Miss Bickerton, excessively frightened, gave a great scream, and calling on Harriet to follow her, ran up a steep bank, cleared a slight hedge at the top, and made the best of her way by a short cut back to Highbury. But poor Harriet could not follow. She had suffered very much from cramp after dancing, and her first attempt to mount the bank brought on such a return of it as made her absolutely powerless— and in this state, and exceedingly terrified, she had been obliged to remain…………….. 18

19 Text cont… ………..How the trampers might have behaved, had the young ladies been more courageous, must be doubtful; but such an invitation for attack could not be resisted; and Harriet was soon assailed by half a dozen children, headed by a stout woman and a great boy, all clamorous, and impertinent in look, though not absolutely in word.—More and more frightened, she immediately promised them money, and taking out her purse, gave them a shilling, and begged them not to want more, or to use her ill.—She was then able to walk, though but slowly, and was moving away—but her terror and her purse were too tempting, and she was followed, or rather surrounded, by the whole gang, demanding more. In this state Frank Churchill had found her, she trembling and conditioning, they loud and insolent. By a most fortunate chance his leaving Highbury had been delayed so as to bring him to her assistance at this critical moment. The pleasantness of the morning had induced him to walk forward, and leave his horses to meet him by another road, a mile or two beyond Highbury—and happening to have borrowed a pair of scissors the night before of Miss Bates, and to have forgotten to restore them, he had been obliged to stop at her door, and go in for a few minutes: he was therefore later than he had intended; and being on foot, was unseen by the whole party till almost close to them. The terror which the woman and boy had been creating in Harriet was then their own portion. He had left them completely frightened; and Harriet eagerly clinging to him, and hardly able to speak, had just strength enough to reach Hartfield, before her spirits were quite overcome. It was his idea to bring her to Hartfield: he had thought of no other place. 19

20 Discussion Points: Volume 3, Chapter 39 The story that Harriet Smith tells about Frank Churchill there are less reputable elements outside of the genteel estates of Hartfield and Randalls. We may be for the first time are introduced to the world outside this elite world in which Emma and other elite people live. 20

21 Over all Discussion Points: Volume 3, Chapter Development of Emma’s personality: She has more honest opinions now about people and about her own self. Emma’s honest reflections about her lack of substantive feelings for Frank reveal her growing maturity. She does not rely much on assumptions now. Her decision to observe Frank to see how he feels, rather than to begin with an assumption about how he feels, enables her to understand that Frank is not in love with her. Jane Austen as a Writer: Austen as a narrator makes clear that Emma’s vanity is not at issue in this case. We are told that she is relieved, not offended, that Frank’s feelings are cooled. Even during the dance we notice as readers that she seems more interested and more concerned about his odd mood than in courting his attention. Emma has become more concerned with observing others, and less concerned with being observed by others. 21

22 Volume 3, Chapter 40 Harriet visits Emma several days later to make a confession. She has a parcel with items that remind her of Mr. Elton. The parcel has a few things including a small box with a court plaster that was used at the time as a bandage to cover a small cut that Mr. Elton had. He had used what as much part as he needed but discarded the rest, which Harriet then kept. Harriet now asserts that her infatuation with Mr. Elton has passed, and is over. This reminds Emma that it was she who created all this possibility. She felt guilty in recalling that she had lied and said that she did not have any court-plaster, so that Harriet would have the opportunity to be Elton’s healer. Harriet’s second token of love as stored by her is a useless bit of pencil Elton had discarded. She throws both items into the fire, and Emma hopes that Frank might take Elton’s place. Now Harriet vows never to marry. Emma is intelligent enough to understand that there must be somebody behind all this. So, she asks to confirm her suspicion that Harriet does not think that she will marry because she is interested in someone of a higher class. After some hesitation, Harriet says yes for the person she prefers is too great and her superior. Emma gives Harriet some hope that she might be able to marry this man. 22

23 Opening Text of the Chapter: Harriet’s Confession A very few days had passed after this adventure, when Harriet came one morning to Emma with a small parcel in her hand, and after sitting down and hesitating, thus began: "Miss Woodhouse—if you are at leisure—I have something that I should like to tell you—a sort of confession to make— and then, you know, it will be over.“ Emma was a good deal surprized; but begged her to speak. There was a seriousness in Harriet's manner which prepared her, quite as much as her words, for something more than ordinary. "It is my duty, and I am sure it is my wish," she continued, "to have no reserves with you on this subject. As I am happily quite an altered creature in one respect, it is very fit that you should have the satisfaction of knowing it. I do not want to say more than is necessary—I am too much ashamed of having given way as I have done, and I dare say you understand me.“ "Yes," said Emma, "I hope I do.“ ……………………… 23

24 Cont… Opening Text of the Chapter: Harriet’s Confession …………"How I could so long a time be fancying myself!..." cried Harriet, warmly. "It seems like madness! I can see nothing at all extraordinary in him now.—I do not care whether I meet him or not—except that of the two I had rather not see him—and indeed I would go any distance round to avoid him—but I do not envy his wife in the least; I neither admire her nor envy her, as I have done: she is very charming, I dare say, and all that, but I think her very ill-tempered and disagreeable—I shall never forget her look the other night!—However, I assure you, Miss Woodhouse, I wish her no evil.—No, let them be ever so happy together, it will not give me another moment's pang: and to convince you that I have been speaking truth, I am now going to destroy—what I ought to have destroyed long ago—what I ought never to have kept— I know that very well (blushing as she spoke).—However, now I will destroy it all—and it is my particular wish to do it in your presence, that you may see how rational I am grown. Cannot you guess what this parcel holds?" said she, with a conscious look. "Not the least in the world.—Did he ever give you any thing?“ "No—I cannot call them gifts; but they are things that I have valued very much.“ She held the parcel towards her, and Emma read the words Most precious treasures on the top. Her curiosity was greatly excited. Harriet unfolded the parcel, and she looked on with impatience. Within abundance of silver paper was a pretty little Tunbridge-ware box, which Harriet opened: it was well lined with the softest cotton; but, excepting the cotton, Emma saw only a small piece of court-plaister. "Now," said Harriet, "you must recollect.“ "No, indeed I do not.“ ……………………………………………….. 24

25 Cont… Opening Text of the Chapter: Harriet’s Confession ……………………"Dear me! I should not have thought it possible you could forget what passed in this very room about court-plaister, one of the very last times we ever met in it!—It was but a very few days before I had my sore throat—just before Mr. and Mrs. John Knightley came— I think the very evening.—Do not you remember his cutting his finger with your new penknife, and your ecommending court-plaister?— But, as you had none about you, and knew I had, you desired me to supply him; and so I took mine out and cut him a piece; but it was a great deal too large, and he cut it smaller, and kept playing some time with what was left, before he gave it back to me. And so then, in my nonsense, I could not help making a treasure of it—so I put it by never to be used, and looked at it now and then as a great treat.“ "My dearest Harriet!" cried Emma, putting her hand before her face, and jumping up, "you make me more ashamed of myself than I can bear. Remember it? Aye, I remember it all now; all, except your saving this relic—I knew nothing of that till this moment—but the cutting the finger, and my recommending court-plaister, and saying I had none about me!—Oh! my sins, my sins!—And I had plenty all the while in my pocket!—One of my senseless tricks!—I deserve to be under a continual blush all the rest of my life.—Well—(sitting down again)—go on—what else?“ "And had you really some at hand yourself? I am sure I never suspected it, you did it so naturally.“ "And so you actually put this piece of court- plaister by for his sake!" said Emma, recovering from her state of shame and feeling divided between wonder and amusement. And secretly she added to herself, "Lord bless me! when should I ever have thought of putting by in cotton a piece of court-plaister that Frank Churchill had been pulling about! I never was equal to this.“ "Here," resumed Harriet, turning to her box again, "here is something still more valuable, I mean that has been more valuable, because this is what did really once belong to him, which the court-plaister never did." 25

26 Cont… Opening Text of the Chapter: Harriet’s Confession Emma was quite eager to see this superior treasure. It was the end of an old pencil,—the part without any lead. "This was really his," said Harriet.—"Do not you remember one morning?—no, I dare say you do not. But one morning—I forget exactly the day—but perhaps it was the Tuesday or Wednesday before that evening, he wanted to make a memorandum in his pocket-book; it was about spruce-beer. Mr. Knightley had been telling him something about brewing spruce-beer, and he wanted to put it down; but when he took out his pencil, there was so little lead that he soon cut it all away, and it would not do, so you lent him another, and this was left upon the table as good for nothing. But I kept my eye on it; and, as soon as I dared, caught it up, and never parted with it again from that moment.“ "I do remember it," cried Emma; "I perfectly remember it.— Talking about spruce-beer.—Oh! yes—Mr. Knightley and I both saying we liked it, and Mr. Elton's seeming resolved to learn to like it too. I perfectly remember it.—Stop; Mr. Knightley was standing just here, was not he? I have an idea he was standing just here." "Ah! I do not know. I cannot recollect.—It is very odd, but I cannot recollect.—Mr. Elton was sitting here, I remember, much about where I am now."— "Well, go on.“ "Oh! that's all. I have nothing more to shew you, or to say—except that I am now going to throw them both behind the fire, and I wish you to see me do it.“ ………………………………………………………….. 26

27 Cont… Opening Text of the Chapter: Harriet’s Confession "My poor dear Harriet! and have you actually found happiness in treasuring up these things?" Yes, simpleton as I was!—but I am quite ashamed of it now, and wish I could forget as easily as I can burn them. It was very wrong of me, you know, to keep any remembrances, after he was married. I knew it was—but had not resolution enough to part with them." "But, Harriet, is it necessary to burn the court-plaister?—I have not a word to say for the bit of old pencil, but the court-plaister might be useful." "I shall be happier to burn it," replied Harriet. "It has a disagreeable look to me. I must get rid of every thing.— There it goes, and there is an end, thank Heaven! of Mr. Elton.“ "And when," thought Emma, "will there be a beginning of Mr. Churchill?" 27

28 Discussion Points: Volume 3, Chapter 40 Character of Harriet Smith: We come to know more about Harriet Smith. We come to know the following: Her immaturity Her absurdness Her childish obsession Her foolishness Her lack of judgment and appraisal Harriet and Emma are deliberately ambiguous about the object of Harriet's affection. The two only establish that the man saved her the night of the Crown Inn ball and is someone of high rank, so much so that it is unlikely that the match would ever be successfully made. Emma assumes that Harriet is referring to Frank Churchill, who rescued her from the gypsies, but both of these characteristics also apply to another respectable man of Highbury who showed kindness to Harriet Smith. 28

29 Volume 3, Chapter 41 Mr. Knightley now suspects that there is some secret understanding between Frank and Jane. Mr. Knightley only grows to dislike Frank Churchill more, as he suspects double- dealing in Frank’s pursuit of Emma. It is quite obvious to him and everybody that Emma was the object of his affections, but Mr. Knightley suspects that he had an interest in Jane Fairfax the whole time. During a walk with Emma, Harriet, Mr. and Mrs. Weston, Frank, Jane, and Miss Bates, Mr. Knightley notices a strange exchange taking place between Frank and Mrs. Weston. Frank asks Mrs. Weston if anything has come of Mr. Perry’s plan to buy a carriage. She has no idea what he is talking about, and he swears that she wrote of it in a letter to him some months ago. She denies it, and Frank decides he must have dreamed it. Miss Bates remembers that there was talk of the Perrys getting a carriage at her house (with Jane present) but that it was a secret. Mr. Knightley observes Frank trying to catch Jane’s eye after this. The party reaches Hartfield, and Emma persuades everyone to come in for tea. Over tea at Hartfield, Emma, Frank, Harriet and Jane play word games in which they are supposed to guess words. Frank constructs the word “blunder” using alphabet tiles, which he shows to Jane. The next word that Frank gives Jane to guess is "Dixon," which greatly annoys Jane, who promptly quits the game. When the party ends up, Mr. Knightley stays behind to speak to Emma. He wants to warn her against Frank. Knightley also asks Emma about the “Dixon” joke, and though apparently she refuses that she does not know anything, actually she is very much embarrassed. Mr. Knightley tells Emma about his suspicions about an affair Frank and Jane, but she thinks that there is no romance between them Mr. Knightley is irritated by all this. 29

30 Discussion Points: Volume 3, Chapter 41 Frank Churchill’s Behaviour: Frank Churchill’s behavior is still inappropriately deceptive. He has a manipulative nature. He does not direct his manipulation towards Emma. During the game, Frank teases and taunts Jane Fairfax. What is the purpose of teasing her? May be to make her lose her temper and reveal her true emotions. This scene parallels the earlier incident in which Mr. Elton uses the riddle to declare his feelings to Emma via Harriet Smith. Mr. Knightley’s opinion: The possibilities He thinks that Frank and Jane are having an affair. We as readers know that Mr. Knightley has been consistently correct in judging others’ actions. In this context his suspicion regarding Frank and Jane Fairfax gathers significance. His other suspicion is that frank wants to harm t Emma. Times will show how far he is right or wrong. Theme of Jealousy: Emma is sure that she does not love Frank, but Mr. Knightley still feels threatened by him. This continues to build the possibility that Mr. Knightley is interested in Emma. His greatest care in this situation is that Emma does not get hurt which shows his some kind of involvement in Emma. 30

31 Discussion Points: Volume 3, Chapter 41 Although the narrator typically describes all events from Emma’s point of view, this chapter is unique in that it is narrated entirely from Mr. Knightley’s point of view. The whole chapter presents what he can see of the word games etc. By shifting to Mr. Knightley’s point of view, the writer has given a new perspective to the reader on the mixture of knowledge and confusion that each character experiences. This new emphasis on Mr. Knightley’s character and point of view also foreshadows subtly that he is becoming a central character. 31

32 Volume 3, Chapter 42 An outing to Box Hill is planned, but it has to be postponed because of a lame horse. Mr. Knightley half-jokingly suggests that the party come to his estate instead. Mrs. Elton immediately gets ready for it and starts seriously planning it. Mr. Knightley has to be firm to prevent her from planning all the details. Meanwhile, the lame horse heals, and it is decided that the Box Hill party will follow the one at Donwell Abbey, Knightley’s estate. At Donwell Abbey, Emma enjoys examining Knightley’s house and grounds. Her ears catch some conversation between Jane Fairfax and Mrs. Elton. She notices Jane resisting a governess “situation” that Mrs. Elton has found for her. Walking through the garden, Emma finds Harriet and Knightley looking out over the Martin family home and thinks the two an odd grouping, but is nevertheless convinced that Harriet is in good hands. Mrs. Weston is worried by the fact that Frank is late coming from Richmond. At the house, Emma encounters an agitated Jane, who asks her to tell everyone else that she has walked home. Frank then turns up out of humor and in the course of conversation says that he would like to go abroad. Emma teases him out of his mood, and he promises to join the Box Hill trip. 32

33 Discussion Points: Volume 3, Chapter 42 Mr. Knightley says that only the future Mrs. Knightley may invite whomever she chooses to his estate, he gives the first indication that he is interested in marriage. The automatic assumption before this point was that Mr. Knightley had decided to remain a bachelor. Clues are dropped that may be Jane Fairfax will suffer the indignation of becoming a governess, and even worse, she may owe her position to Mrs. Elton's interference. We as readers also develop suspicions about Frank Churchill and Jane Fairfax that they are involved, considering the strange circumstances of his late arrival and her early departure ­ both are unhappy during their separate visits to the picnic at Donwell Abbey. Also, Harriet spending time with Mr. Knightley is a notable change in events. This is a reminder of Harriet's earlier claim that she was in love with a man of great status. Harriet has shown no interest in Frank Churchill, so it must be assumed that Emma was mistaken and Harriet has developed feelings for Mr. Knightley. 33

34 Volume 3, Chapter 43 The next day, the party goes to Box Hill for a picnic. We find the Frank is still in a bad mood The Box Hill trip is not a success. People are divided into groups and intergroup tension is quite visible. Mr. and Mrs. Elton keep to themselves. On the other hand Mr. Knightley, Miss Bates, and Jane form a second exclusive party. However, during the party Emma stays with Harriet and Frank. Emma is disappointed by the dullness and lack of mutual interest by Harriet and Frank. But later Frank becomes extremely lively towards Emma. She is confident that there is nothing behind his flirtations, but she is aware that others may get wrong clues form all this. The party sits about listlessly, and Frank says that Emma demands to know what they are thinking of. Mrs. Elton is offended by Frank’s deference to Emma, and Knightley asks dryly if she would really like to know what he is thinking. Then, Frank in his effort to amuse Emma, proposes a little game: everyone must say one thing very clever to Emma, or else two things moderately clever, or three things dull. 34

35 Cont… Volume 3, Chapter 43 Again Miss bates begins to chatter on incessantly. She comments that she will have no trouble meeting the last requirement that is saying three dull things. Emma becomes critical and harsh, and very rudely says: “ Ah! ma’am, but there may be a difficulty. Pardon me, but you will be limited as to number—only three at once.” As Emma puts her down harshly, the mood of the party is further disturbed. Now a discussion on marriage begins. Frank comments that sometimes matches made in public places become regrettable on further acquaintance. He further comments that Mr. and Mrs. Elton are lucky that they are compatible. Finally we find that the Eltons leave in disgust for a walk At this point Jane Fairfax leaves for a walk with her aunt and Mr. Knightley. Emma, goes with Frank for a walk but soon gets sick and tired of his flattery. Later, Mr. Knightley takes Emma aside and criticizes her for her harsh behaviour towards Miss Bates. He tries to remind Emma that Miss Bates has had an unfortunate life and deserves compassion. Emma has never felt “so agitated, so mortified, [so] grieved” in her life; she cries almost all the way home. 35

36 Discussion Points: Volume 3, Chapter43 Emma’s Conduct and Knightley’s Comments: Although Miss Bates previously acted only as comic relief in the novle, she serves a greater purpose in this chapter. Well she is absurd, chattering or silly but she deserves to be treated with kindness for what she has suffered. Mr. Knightley is a voice of conscience when he reminds Emma that she made a great mistake when she put down Miss Bates. As one of the highest members of Highbury society, Emma has a duty to treat those of lesser rank with kindness and to take pity on those such as Miss Bates. We also notice that this is the first time that Emma is impolite towards somebody. What about her manners and propriety? 36

37 Volume 3, Chapter 44 The more Emma thinks the more she finds that the Box Hill party was a disaster. She feels horrible about her treatment of Miss Bates. She decides to visit the Bates family next morning to make up for what she has done. As she goes their to apologize for her behavior at Box Hill, she comes to know that Miss Bates is not home. Emma waits for her with Mrs. Bates. Miss Bates treats her with great humility and kindness. This further makes Emma conscious of her bad behaviour towards her. During Emma’s visit, Jane remains in the bedroom with a headache. Miss Bates tells Emma that Jane was crying and writing letters to Colonel Campbell and Mrs. Dixon. She will be going to be the governess for Mrs. Smallridge of Maple Grove. This governess position is recommended by Mrs. Elton. Jane will be paid well, according to Miss Bates. In the heart of her heart she is ashamed of her own comments about Jane’s relationship with Mr. Dixon. Emma expresses surprise and genuine concern for the unhappiness Jane’s departure must cause everyone. Jane will leave within two weeks. Emma is surprised to learn that Frank departed the previous evening for Richmond. 37

38 Discussion Points: Volume 3, Chapter 44 Development of Emma’s Character: Emma is appropriately ashamed of her behavior towards miss Bates. She wants to remedy it. Her these feelings are sincere and commendable. She is slowly but gradually improving and learning that is the ultimate theme of the novel. Then, the author switches to the news of Jane Fairfax. Theme of Social Class status and Profession: It is confirmed that Jane must enter a profession as a governess, a job that she earlier compared to the slave trade. We need to compare it with the status of other female characters in the novel. Connection between Frank and Jane Fairfax: There is now some explanation for Frank Churchill's recent bad mood. Mrs. Churchill yet again demands that Frank Churchill return home. There is more evidence that the fates of Jane Fairfax and Frank Churchill are connected. Both suffer depression almost simultaneously, and both are set to leave Highbury around the same time. 38

39 Volume 3, Chapter 45 When Emma returns home, she finds that Mr. Knightley and Harriet have arrived. Knightley is about to depart for London to visit John and Isabella. He is in a hurry which surprises Emma. Mr. Woodhouse inquires about Emma’s visit with the Bates’ family. Emma blushes as she is conscious of all the episode anf Mr. Knightley’s comments on that. However, she believes that he understands her feelings and forgives her. He seems to be happy with her visit. The next day, unexpected news arrives as Mrs. Churchill has died. Emma now realizes that there is no obstacle between Frank and Harriet. Meanwhile, she tries to help Jane. She invites her to Hartfield. As Jane is unwell, she sends her healthful foods, and attempts to cheer her up. 39

40 Discussion Points: Volume 3, Chapter 45 Again the character of Emma shows development. She tries her best to set right her previous ill- will toward s Jane Fairfax. Emma’s modesty, her concern and her efforts to makeup for what she did to Miss Bates and Jan Fairfax, all this shows her positive change. She strenuously attempts to visit her and wish her better health. Not only does she think well of Jane, she now wishes to do something about it. Emma acts with a newfound modesty. She is even embarrassed when her devoted but delusional father compliments her for kindness toward Miss Bates. Mr. Knightley's romantic attentions toward Emma become more overt in this chapter. 40

41 Materials used Norman Sherry (1969) JANE AUSTEN. Arco: New York. Vivien Jones (1997) HOW TO STUDY A JANE AUSTEN NOVEL (2 nd ed.) Macmillan: Houndmills

42 Today’s Session We started Volume 3 of the novel We started from Chapter 37 and have covered till Chapter 45 We looked at: –Important happenings in these chapters –Points of Discussion –Important parts of text with reference to development of characters –Jane Austen as a writer, her art of characterization etc. –Development of different themes through these chapters –Writing Style of Austen 42

43 Thank you very much! 43


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