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Topic 2 Homeostasis in Organisms It's all about balance.

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1 Topic 2 Homeostasis in Organisms It's all about balance.

2 As a collection of organized biological systems, a living thing must keep all of its biological systems stable. To maintain this internal stability, called _________________, an organism must continually monitor and respond to changes in the environment. HOMEOSTASIS

3 Basic Biochemical Processes Biochemical processes are the CHEMICAL processes that occur within an organism.

4 Since all organisms need both ENERGY and MATERIALS for their biochemical processes to occur, two of the most important processes involve storing energy in matter and retrieving that energy as needed. These processes are called PHOTOSYNTHESIS and RESPIRATION. H O H

5 The process of storing solar energy as chemical bond energy in organic molecules, such as GLUCOSE, is called PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Photosynthetic organisms include: PLANTS ALGAE many SINGLE-CELLED organisms

6 Photosynthesis

7 The energy for life comes primarily from the SUN. However, solar energy can’t be directly used by living things. Photosynthesis converts solar energy into chemical bond energy, which living things can use. +

8 Photosynthesis requires specialized pigment molecules to capture and convert the solar energy. In plants, these green pigment molecules are called CHLOROPHYLL and stored in oval- shaped organelles called CHLOROPLASTS. DRAW and LABEL ME! Thylokoid stack stroma

9 PHOTOSYNTHESIS (A Brief Overview)

10 One of the most common energy-rich organic molecules produced by photosynthesis is the sugar GLUCOSE. It’s made by combining two inorganic compounds, CARBON DIOXIDE (CO 2 ) and WATER (H 2 O). Fortunately for us, photosynthesis also produces a valuable waste product, OXYGEN.

11 In sentence form, the reaction of photosynthesis would read: Six molecules of CARBON DIOXIDE react with 6 molecules of WATER, in the presence of LIGHT, to produce GLUCOSE and 6 molecules of OXYGEN.

12 Written as a chemical equation, photosynthesis is:

13 The simple sugars produced by photosynthesis can be used in two ways: ·as a source of _____________ for the organism, or ·as a building block of other ________________________like ___________ Complex COMPOUNDS STARCH ENERGY

14 Do pg 3 an 4 Photosynthesis review For homework check.

15 The process of breaking down the simple organic molecules made by photosynthesis to release the stored energy is called RESPIRATION ALL organisms carry out this important process.

16 The energy contained in organic molecules is too much for any organelle to safely use. Instead, this energy is used to create smaller molecules called ATP (Adenosine triphosphate). By using ATP like a rechargeable battery, an organelle can get just the right amount of energy it needs to carry out its function.

17 Respiration is basically photosynthesis in reverse. In sentence form,6 molecules of Oxygen react with one molecule of glucose to produce energy (in the form of ATP ), 6 molecules of carbon dioxide and 6 molecules of water. Notice that the solar energy used in photosynthesis to make glucose is released as chemical bond energy in ATP

18 Written as a chemical equation, respiration is:

19 Once complex carbohydrates (like Starch) have been broken down into simpler molecules (like Glucose ) by digestion,the process still isn’t complete. The energy-rich molecules are now small enough to travel to all cells of the body. However, the energy captured in the molecules by photosynthesis is still trapped as chemical bond energy.

20 To get the energy back out, the molecules must pass through a series ofchemical reactions controlled by special proteins (____Enzymes _). The series of chemical reactions is called __Cellular Respiration __.

21 There are two types of cellular respiration: 1) Aerobic Respiration Uses ___ Oxygen __. Releases the most energy (as_ ATP__). Produces __carbon dioxide_ and __water__ as waste.

22 2) Anaerobic Respiration (aka Fermentation) Doesn’t need ____oxygen_____. Releases very little energy. (Only 2 ATP!) Two types: Lactic Acid Fermentation (Animals) Produces ____Lactic Acid___ as waste (builds up in cells and causes muscles to cramp up). Alcoholic Fermentation (Yeast, Bacteria) Produces Alcohol.

23 The energy released through respiration is used to attach a single phosphate group (P) to a molecule of Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP). In this way, the energy released from simple molecules is stored in amounts much smaller and safer for the cell organelles to use. This new molecule that the cells use for their energy is called Adenosine Triphosphate (_ATP__).

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25 In organisms with membrane-bound organelles (like a nucleus, golgi, ER, etc), the _Mitochondria__ is the site where respiration occurs. As you can probably imagine, cells that are very active would require a lot of energy. Any cell that requires a lot of energy would need to have many mitochondria in it. What type of tissue would be made of cells with lots of mitochondria inside? (Hint: It moves a lot.) _____Muscle ___

26 Do respiration activity pg 7

27 Synthesis Another important biochemical process involves making complex organic molecules from simple ones. This is called SYNTHESIS. GLUCOSE is commonly used as a building block for making larger molecules to store excess energy. The molecules can be simply connected to form long chains of simple sugars, or re-arranged for long-term storage.

28 STARCH- Long chains of simple sugars LIPIDS (FATS)- Food reserve (long-term) Do organic compound chart pg. 9

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30 A Catalyst is any substance that can affect the rate of a chemical reaction without ever getting used up. Enzymes are protein catalysts.

31 Enzymes A Catalyst is any substance that can affect the rate of a chemical reaction without ever getting used up. Enzymes are protein catalysts. Examples of Biochemical Reactions Requiring Enzymes  Digestion  Synthesis  Cellular Respiration  Photosynthesis

32 Enzyme activity is critically dependent on shape. Just like a lock must have a certain- shaped key to work properly, an enzyme’s shape must match the compound they’re meant to work on. Any enzyme whose shape is altered will no longer work.

33 Factors That can Alter an Enzyme’s Ability to Work) 1) Shape--Enzymes can lose their shape when exposed to high temperatures or acids and bases. 2) Temperature High temperatures cause more collisions between molecules 3) pH (Acidic or Basic) Enzymes which work in different places will be adapted to work best at the pH normally found in that place. An enzyme which works well in the acidic environment of the stomach wouldn’t work as well in the basic environment of the small intestine. 4) Concentration The rate of reaction is dependent on the concentration of both the substrate, and the enzyme

34 Hydrolysis

35 Homeostasis Using __________________ as an example, you can see why maintaining a ___________ internal environment is so important for living things. If things are too far out of whack (so to speak), bad things start happening. Warm weather can help you to do things, but a high fever can cause an __________________ to lose its shape (denature) and stop working. enzymes stable enzyme

36 Since your internal and ___________ environment are continually changing, your body has to monitor these changes continually and make adjustments as needed. Maintaining a stable ____________ environment is called __________________ and the way living things monitor the changes and respond is called _____________________. external internal homeostasis feedback.

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38 Try as we may, it’s nearly impossible to maintain a perfectly stable internal condition. Things are always changing. For this reason, the best we can hope to achieve is a “______ ________ _____________________ ”. When something changes, our bodies take corrective action to reverse the change. When the change becomes too great, we reverse the action. In the form of a graph, this process would look something like these examples: “dynamic equilibrium”

39 Body Temperature and Dynamic Equilibrium

40 Blood Glucose Level and Dynamic Equilibrium

41 Feedback Mechanisms The way an organism’s systems detect, and respond to, changes to restore homeostasis is called a feedback mechanism. These mechanisms can either increase the change (________________ feedback) or squash the change (_______________________ feedback). positive negative

42 Positive Feedback When a pregnant woman feels a “need” to push during childbirth, this is a result of a positive feedback system. As the baby pushes against the base of the uterus, the mother’s body feels a greater need to contract the muscles around the uterus. The baby gets squeezed harder against the base, the contractions get stronger, etc, until the baby is born.

43 Negative Feedback This is the most common type of feedback mechanism, designed to ____________things from getting out of control. Below are a couple of examples in humans and one from your house! HOMEHUMAN Stop

44 Disruptions of Homeostasis (Disease) Make sure you know these!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

45 Pathogens Disease-causing organisms (See below) Common Pathogens: Make sure you know these

46 Cancer Some cells may lose the ability to control how quickly they grow or how they develop. The result is often a mass of defective cells called a ________________. Fortunately, most cancerous cells are recognized as “foreign” because of abnormal proteins in their cell membranes. The body’s immune system then attempts to destroy them. Most of the time it works. Sometimes it doesn’t. tumor

47 The Immune System When our other defenses don’t work and we become invaded by pathogens or our cells stop working correctly, our immune system swings into action. Pathogens, foreign substances, or cancer cells can be identified by proteins embedded in their surfaces or cell membranes called __________________. When foreign (“not self”) antigens are detected, the immune system creates ______________ to engulf and destroy the attacker and/or antibodies to attack or flag them for attack by more white blood cells. Kind of like “popping smoke” over an enemy’s position, showing attack planes where to attack. antigens White blood cells

48 Make sure you know all parts of this diagram Nice thing, your immune system “learns”. Once an effective antibody’s been made, some of the white blood cells that made it stick around. Just waiting for the day when the pathogen may return. That way, they can start making the right kind of antibody again, right away this time.

49 Vaccinations Remember that your immune system can “learn”? Well, it can also be “taught”. Antigens on the surface of live pathogens can also be found on __________ or ____________________ ones, as well. Doctors have found that they can teach the immune system how to prepare for future attack by injecting dead or weak versions of pathogens into the body. The immune system swings into action. White blood cells start making _____________________ until they make them with the right shape. Sometimes, these white blood cells remain for good. Other times, the body requires a “booster” as a reminder. deadweakened antibodies

50 Damage to the Immune System Factors which can weaken the immune system: _______________ age Stress Fatigue HIV/AIDS

51 Unwanted Immune Responses ___________________ Rapid, excessive immune response Production of histamines to produce: -mucus -sneezing -itching -rash -swelling Inability to recognize “_________” cells Attacks on __________________ organs transplanted self Allergies

52 Make sure you understand this chart!!!!!!!!!!!

53 Now complete the questions on page Your answers will be graded tomorrow. There should be NO TALKING while you complete these.


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