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Illegal and Illicit Drug Use. What Makes a Drug Illegal? Illegal Drugs Schedule I and II drugs Possession of these drugs is a felony offense under federal.

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Presentation on theme: "Illegal and Illicit Drug Use. What Makes a Drug Illegal? Illegal Drugs Schedule I and II drugs Possession of these drugs is a felony offense under federal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Illegal and Illicit Drug Use

2 What Makes a Drug Illegal? Illegal Drugs Schedule I and II drugs Possession of these drugs is a felony offense under federal law Illicit Drugs Drugs that are taken outside their regulated or medically prescribed use Illicit drug use is illegal

3 Categories of Drugs Hallucinogens Stimulants Depressants

4 Hallucinogens LSD Marijuana PCP (also a stimulant) Psilocybin

5 LSD “Acid” How TakenIngested, contact Duration of Effect6-10 hrs Effectschills, anxiety, restlessness, tightness in muscles of face and throat, queasy stomach, tingling in the extremities, drowsiness, dilated pupils, rapid pulse, elevation in temp and blood pressure colors are more vivid, sounds are louder, depth perception is confused, sensory crossover effects are unpredictable WithdrawalNone noted Long-Term Health Problemsprolonged psychotic reactions, worsening of pre-existing psychiatric illness, severe depression, and/or flashbacks

6 Psilocybin “Mushrooms” How TakenSmoked, Injested, Injected Duration of Effect3-6hrs EffectsYawning, restlessness, chills, weakness in the legs, stomach discomfort, nausea Heightened visual imagery, sense of wanting to laugh WithdrawalFatigue Long-Term Health ProblemsPsychotic reactions Exacerbations of pre-existing mental illness

7 PCP “Angel Dust” How TakenIngested, smoked, snorted, injected Duration of Effect8 hrs EffectsLoss of pain sensation, slurred speech, numbness, depression, muscle rigidity, lack of coordination, combative behavior, distorted mental images, hallucinations WithdrawalDepression, anxiety, irritability, excessive sleep, craving for PCP Long-Term Health EffectsAuditory and visual hallucinations, flashbacks, possible spasms in arteries of brain

8 Marijuana How TakenIngested, smoked, inhaled Duration of Effect2-4 hrs Effectseuphoria, relaxed inhibitions, increased appetite, and disorientation, dry mouth, dizziness, heightened visual and auditory awareness, concentration, learning, perception, and fine muscle skills are impaired WithdrawalInsomnia, hyperactivity, decreased appetite, nausea, diarrhea, restlessness, irritability, depression, anxiety, salivation, sweating,tremors Long-Term Health ProblemsLung disease, weakened immune system, impairment of memory, schizophrenia, mental illness

9 Stimulants Amphetamines Cocaine MDMA

10 Amphetamines How TakenInjected, smoked, snorted, injested Duration Effect2-8 hours Physical DangerHigh Addiction PotentialHigh

11 Commonly Abused Amphetamines AmphetamineAdderall, Speed MethamphetamineMeth DextromethamphetamineIce MethylphenidateRitalin

12 Cocaine How Taken: Powder: Crack: Freebase: Ingested, snorted, injected, applied Smoked, injected Smoked Duration of Effect1-2 hours Effectsincreased alertness, excitation, feeling of confidence and well-being, increased pulse rate, increased bp, insomnia, loss of appetite WithdrawalFatigue, depression, apathy, irritability, disorientation, lethargy, muscular aches, abdominal pain, chills, tremors, exhaustion, decreased consciousness Long-Term Health EffectsSevere depression, irritability, chest congestion, paranoia, loss of sexual desire, memory lapses, chronic cough, violent behavior, suicide attempts, seizures, stomach ulcers, damage to intestines, cocaine nose, pulmonary edema, inflammation of the heart, rupture of the aorta, myocardial fibrosis, heart attack, spastic jerks

13 Cocaine 2-3% of women who give birth have used cocaine during their pregnancy Cocaine babies are born prematurely, jittery, cranky, and sensitive to stimuli. Some have strokes before they are born and use can cause separation of the placenta from the uterus, which cuts of the babies blood supply Cocaine paranoia has led people to bleed to death in the attempt to escape an imagined infestation When rats and monkeys are trained to press a lever to deliver an intravenous dose of cocaine, they press it up to 300x to get a single injection. If they are given free access, they take it until they collapse into convulsions.

14 MDMA “Ecstasy” How TakenIngested, snorted, injected Duration of Effect3-6 hrs Effectsincreases levels of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, elevated mood with a feeling of euphoria, intimacy, closeness to others, loss of appetite, rapid heart rate, teeth grinding, dilated pupils, sweating, sudden death WithdrawalTired, uncaring, miserable, increase in stress, muscular aches, abdominal pain, chills, tremors, deep depression, lack of energy, suicidal feelings Long-Term Health EffectsPanic attacks, paranoid psychotic symptoms, irreversible effect on brain functioning, destroy nerve terminal that releases serotonin

15 Depressants Opiates GHB Flunitrazepam

16 Opiates How TakenIngested, smoked, snorted, injected Duration of Effect2-6 hrs EffectsEuphoria, physical, mental relaxation, drowsiness, respiratory depression, constricted pupils, dull facial appearance, ptosis (drooping of upper eyelid), nausea, vasodilation, slurred speech, impaired attention, impaired memory, nod, mental dullness, impaired judgement, impaired social function, overall confusion, itching, skin rash WithdrawalFlu-like symptoms, watery eyes, runny nose, yawning, sweating, loss of sppetite, tremors, panic, muscle cramp, restless legs, nausea, vomiting diarrhea, fever, chills, extreme insomnia, dysphoria Long-Term Health EffectsImpotence, constipation, risk of potency and purity, risky behaviors of drug addiction

17 Commonly Abused Opiates Opium Heroin Oxycodone (Oxycontin) Fetanyl Morphine

18 GHB “Liquid Ecstasy” How TakenIngested Duration of Effect2-6 hrs EffectsCNS depression, extreme slowing of the heart, and slow, deep respiration, blurred vision, dizziness, stumbling, respiratory failure, coma, and death, Burning of the lips, abnormally low body temperature, nausea and vomiting WithdrawalDizziness, drowsiness, headache, vomiting, incontinence, trouble breathing, temporary amnesia, seizures, uncontrollable shaking Long-Term EffectsNot enough long-term studies

19 Flunitrazepan “Roofies” How TakenIngested, snorted Duration of Effect6-12hrs EffectsDecreased blood pressure, memory impairment, drowsiness, visual disturbances, dizziness, confusion, severe intoxication, sedation, memory loss WithdrawalHeadache, muscle pain, extreme anxiety, tension, restlessness, confusion, irritability, numbness in limbs, feeling of loss of identity, hallucinations, deliriums, seizures, shock, heart failure Long-Term Health EffectsImpaired mental functioning, depression, physical dependence

20 Schedule I vs. Schedule II Substances Schedule I High abuse potential with no accepted medical use. May not be prescribed Ex.: Heroin, marijuana, LSD Schedule II High abuse potential but also an accepted medical use May be prescribed with stringent regulations Ex.: Morphine, cocaine, amphetamines, and barbituates

21 Legal Issues 1 st Offense for manufacturing, selling, distributing, giving or possessing with the intent to manufacture, sell, give or distribute (Va. Code Ann. at 18.2-248 and 18.2-11) Schedule I and II drugs, and transporting into Virginia one or more ounces of cocaine and five or more pounds of marijuana with intent to sell or distribute: not less than five years nor more than 40 years; fine not more than $500,000. Possession of a schedule I or II drug: not less than one year nor more than 10 years; or, in some cases, up to 12 months and fine of $2,500. Class 5 Felony.

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