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Your Body Systems Chapter 5. BELLRINGER: How many body systems can you name?

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Presentation on theme: "Your Body Systems Chapter 5. BELLRINGER: How many body systems can you name?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Your Body Systems Chapter 5

2 BELLRINGER: How many body systems can you name?

3 Body Organization Human Body – Complex Machine City ( Buildings, transportation systems, Electrical energy) Working together – Each part has role to play – Contributes to the function of the other parts of the body – ** What happens to the body when a part is not functioning properly?

4 Cells Simplest and most basic units of life Human Body vs. Bacteria Nucleus – “brain” of cell – Largest organelle of the cell – Contains the DNA


6 Tissues A group of cells that are similar & work together to perform a specific function 4 Types of Main Body Tissue : – Epithelial ( Boundary) Protects body from moisture loss, bacteria, internal injury – Muscle ( movement) – Connective Tissue ( Support & Structure) – Nervous Tissue ( Messaging System)

7 Body Tissue

8 Organ Two or more tissues that work together to perform a specific function

9 Organs How many organs are in the human body? – 78 Which organ is the largest? – Skin What is the major organ of the body? – Brain Other organs of the body –

10 Body System A group of organs that work together for one purpose Your Body Systems: – Nervous System – Endocrine System – Skeletal System – Muscular System – Digestive System – Urinary System – Circulatory System – Respiratory System

11 Body SystemFunction Nervous SystemControls & coordinates activities of the body systems Endocrine SystemHelps nervous system control and coordinate activities of the body; helps regulate growth Skeletal SystemProvides a framework to support and protect the body Muscular SystemWorks with the skeletal system to cause movement Digestive SystemBreaks down foods into simpler substances; transfers nutrients into the blood; eliminates solid waste products so they can be eliminated from the body; protects the body from disease Circulatory SystemTransports and distributes gases, nutrients, and hormones throughout the body; collects and transports waste products so they can be eliminated from the body; protects body from disease Respiratory SystemExchanges oxygen from the environment and carbon dioxide from the body Urinary SystemFilters liquid waste products from the blood and eliminates them from the body

12 Body Systems Work Together Each system has a different function – Work together and help on another Body systems depend on one another – Perform their functions properly When working properly – The body stays alive and is healthy



15 Nervous System Body system that gathers and interprets information about the body’s internal & external environments and responds to that information

16 Nervous System Components Brain Spinal Cord Nerves Sensory Organs ( eyes, ears, taste buds)

17 Nervous System Controls voluntary & involuntary activities – Walking – Talking – Heart beat Also allows … – Seeing – Hearing – Smelling – Tasting – Detect pain & pressure

18 Nervous System controls Conducts electrical messages to & from various parts of your body – NERVE IMPULSES Carry information that help the organs and body systems carry out their functions correctly

19 The Brain Major organ Mass of nervous tissue that is located inside your skull

20 Brain Impulses Sends impulses to different parts of the body Impulses contain information about your body and about the world around you – Constantly receiving impulses Your brain uses this information to – Tell your body how to react to the environment – Sending impulses to different body parts

21 Structure of Brain Cerebrum Cerebellum Brainstem

22 Cerebrum Largest part of the brain Most complex Coordinates many activities of the brain Controls – Senses, emotions, voluntary muscle movements, consciousness, learning, & memory


24 Cerebellum Second largest part of the brain Controls – Muscle coordination, balance, and posture


26 Brainstem Connects to the spinal cord Controls – Heart rate – Blood pressure – Breathing



29 Central Nervous System (CNS) Includes brain & spinal cord Spinal Cord – Bundle of nervous tissue that is about a foot and a half long and is surrounded by your back bone Spinal cord Function – Relay impulses between the brain and different parts of the body Interpreting impulse – Brain – spinal cord – body part – Body part – spinal cord – brain


31 Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Composed of nerves that connect all parts of your body to the CNS Uses nerves to control the actions of different parts of the body


33 Nerves A bundle of cells that conducts electrical signals through the body Like an electrical cable – Many small wires ** ONLY IN THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ***

34 Nerves Means of communication in the CNS CNS & skeletal system – When & how to move CNS & Skin – Heat – Pressure – Pain – Other sensations from the environment

35 Common Problems of the Nervous System Meningitis Rabies Concussions Stroke Paralysis Epilepsy Cerebral Palsy

36 Meningitis Infection, inflammation of the protective covering of the brain & spinal cord – Bacterial & viral Bacterial ( antibiotics ) Vaccine No vaccine to treat / prevent viral form

37 Rabies A viral infection of the brain that causes irritation of the brain and spinal cord Passed by saliva of an infected animal Avoid wild / unfamiliar animals Medical treatment needed

38 Concussion Blow to the head May cause brief memory loss; unconsciousness Preventative measure – Wear protective headgear

39 Stroke Death of brain tissue – Lack of blood going to brain Medical attention & hospitalization

40 Paralysis Partial / total loss of the ability to use muscles – Caused by damage to brain or spinal cord May be permanent

41 Epilepsy Disorder of the nerves and brain that are characterized by uncontrollable muscle activity Form of seizure Treated with medication

42 Cerebral Palsy Very poor muscle control – Caused by damage of the brain No cure or prevention – Physical therapy

43 Endocrine System Network of tissues and organs that release chemicals that control certain body functions

44 Hormones Chemicals that travel in the blood and cause changes in different body parts Tells body how to grow or develop Stressful Situations – Fight or Flight – Epinephrine Rush

45 Hormone Facts Makes & releases between different hormones Every hormone has an important function for the body Most glands make & release different hormones Each function of the body is controlled by more than one hormone Hormones work together to cause changes in the body

46 Gland A tissue or group of tissues that makes and releases chemicals Endocrine Glands make hormones* Specific Endocrine Glands Hormones released into blood Control certain body functions

47 Types of Glands Thyroid Gland Adrenal Gland Pancreas Ovaries Testes Thymus Gland Parathyroid Glands Pituitary Gland

48 Thyroid Gland Controls the rate at which your body uses energy Located in the neck area

49 Adrenal Glands Helps the body respond to stress or danger Located above kidneys

50 Pancreas Regulates blood sugar levels Located on the bend of stomach

51 Ovaries Females Only Produce hormones involved in reproductions – Estrogen & progesterone

52 Testes Males Only Produce hormones in reproduction – Testosterone

53 Thymus Gland Regulates the immune system, which helps body fight disease Located between Lungs

54 Parathyroid Gland Regulates the calcium level in the blood Located behind thyroid

55 Pituitary Gland Secretes hormones that affect other glands & organs Located in the Brain

56 Types of Hormones Thyroxine Testosterone Estrogen Progesterone Insulin Human Growth Hormone Epinephrine & Norephinephrine

57 Thyroxine Thyroid Stimulates body metabolism Regulates body growth & development

58 Testosterone Testes Stimulates secondary sex characteristics in males Stimulates sperm production

59 Estrogen Ovary Stimulates secondary sex characteristics in females

60 Progesterone Ovary Allows the uterus to prepare for pregnancy Regulates menstrual cycle

61 Insulin Pancreas Regulates the amount of sugar in blood

62 Human Growth Hormone Pituitary Gland Stimulates body growth

63 Epinephrine & Norepinephrine Adrenal Stimulate the body systems and metabolism in emergencies & during stress


65 Common Problems of the Endocrine System Too much / Too little of a hormone Interfere with – Normal Structure – Function of the Body Endocrine System Problems – Type II Diabetes – Gigantism – Hyperthyroidism – Hypothyroidism

66 Type II Diabetes High level of sugar in the blood Body does not produce enough insulin Body’s cells do not Treatment – Diet & Exercise – Insulin Injection – Pills

67 Gigantism Individual has a very large body size Excess production of human growth hormone by pituitary gland Treatment – Medication

68 Hyperthyroidism Produces too much of the thyroid hormone Body Systems become too active Lead to rapid & unhealthy weight loss and other problems Treatment – Medications – Radiation – Surgery

69 Hypothyroidism Produces too little of the thyroid hormone Body system slow down Can lead to rapid and unhealthy weight gain Treatment: – Medication that replace missing hormones


71 Skeletal System Bone – Is a living organ made of bone cells, connective tissues, and minerals Bone, Cartilage, & special structures make up the system

72 Skeleton Body’s framework Support the Body Protect organs Store Minerals Work with your muscles to move


74 2 Types of Bone Tissue Compact Bone – Is dense bone tissue found outside of all bones Spongy Bone – Many air spaces – Lighter & less dense than compact bone and found inside most bones

75 Compact & Spongy Bone

76 Cartilage & Marrow Cartilage – Ends of many bones which are covered by a soft, flexible tissue Marrow – Soft tissue inside bones 2 Types – Red Marrow – makes red & white blood cells – Yellow Marrow – stores fat


78 Joints Place in the body where 2 or more bones connect Allow movement – When muscles attached to the bone contract Classified by how bones move Fixed Joints – Joints allow little or no movement Ligaments – Flexible bands of connective tissue



81 Skeletal / Joint Problems Break Dislocate Stretch or torn Aging / poor diet – Osteoporosis – Fracture – Osteomyelitis – Arthritis – Osteoarthritis – Rickets – Scoliosis – Sprain

82 Osteoporosis Density of bone decreases Bones are weak More likely to break Treatment – Exercise – Calcium / Vitamin D – Medications

83 Fracture Break in a bone Caused by accident or injury Treatment – Cast – Surgery

84 Osteomyelitis Bacterial infection of the bone and marrow Treatment: – Antibiotics – Surgery Prevention: – Clean deep wounds / cuts

85 Arthritis Joint inflammations Treatment : – Physical Therapy – Medications

86 Osteoarthritis Caused by aging Joints are stiff & painful Treatment: – Anti-inflammatory Drugs – Physical Therapy – Surgery

87 Rickets Children Causes the body to have difficulty absorbing calcium Bones soften Caused by lack of vitamin D Treatment: – Medication with vitamin D

88 Scoliosis Curvature of the spine Uneven growth of the body Treatment: – Exercise – Brace – Surgery

89 Sprain Injury to ligaments at a joint Treatment: – Rest – Ice – Cast

90 Types of Muscle Muscle – Any tissue that is made up of cells or fibers that contract & expand to cause movement Types of Muscle – Smooth Muscle – Cardiac Muscle – Skeletal Muscle

91 Smooth Muscle Move materials such as food through internal organs Makes up internal organs – Stomach – Intestines

92 Cardiac Muscle Found in the heart Blood is pushed through the body

93 Skeletal Muscle Muscle attached to bones Attached to bones by connective tissue – Tendons Pull onto the bones they are attached to – causes body to move Release energy – Maintains body temperature

94 Muscular System The muscles that move your body

95 How muscles Move Skeletal muscles work together – Make your Body move Movement – Result of muscles pulling on bones

96 Muscle Contraction- Flex Gets shorter ONLY pull bones closer together Flex – Bend Example : Bicep – Pulls the bones of the forearm toward shoulder

97 Muscle Contraction – Extend Extend Example : Triceps – Pulls the bones of the forearms away from the biceps


99 Muscular System Problems Tired & Sore Strained & Torn Warm up, cool down, stretch Problems: – Muscular Dystrophy – Inguinal Hernia – Muscle Cramp – Strain – Tendinitis – Shin Splints

100 Muscular Dystrophy Genetic Diseases – Causes muscle weakness Destruction of skeletal muscle tissue Treatment: – No Cure – Physical Therapy – Surgery

101 Inguinal Hernia Intestine bulges through abdominal muscles Causes Caused: – Lifting heavy objects – Improper lifting Treatment: – Surgery

102 Muscle Cramp Sudden & painful contraction of a muscle Night After Exercise No Treatment

103 Strain Overstretching Tearing of a muscle due to overuse / misuse Treatment : – Rest – Ice – Wrapping Injury

104 Tendinitis Inflammation of a tendon – Aging – Excessive Exercise Treatment – Rest – Hot or Cold compresses – Ant – inflammatory medications

105 Shin Splints Pain in the shin caused by damage Irritation to the muscles in the front of the leg Treatment: – Rest – Ice – Pain Medication

106 Exercise Circuit Activity


108 Digestion – Process by which your body breaks down food you eat

109 Digestive System Group of organs and glands that work together to physically & chemically break down, or digest food Mouth Stomach Small Intestine After Digestion – Food is absorbed in the blood

110 Nutrients Substances in foods that your body needs to function properly Produce Energy – Growth – Maintenance – Repair

111 Journey of Food- Mouth Mouth Chewing – Food particles are smaller – Makes digestion easier Saliva – Moistens food – Makes it easier to follow

112 Journey of Food – Throat Pushed by your tongue Throat Pharynx Esophagus to Stomach

113 Journey of Food – Stomach Food Particles – Mixed with acidic juices Stomach churns – Mixes food & juices Stays in stomach for a few hours – Travels to large intestine

114 Journey of Food – Small Intestine Most chemical digestion happens Food moves by contractions – Smooth muscle of small intestine Contractions – Push food through the organ Liver, gall bladder, pancreas – Release chemicals into the small intestine Leaves small intestine to large intestine

115 Journey of Food – Large Intestine No digestion happens Mostly waste products Pushed out Takes about 24 hours

116 Body Absorbs Nutrients Absorbed in bloodstream Alcohol, simple sugars, & simple salts – Absorbed in stomach Small Intestine Carbohydrates, proteins, fats – Absorbed in small intestine

117 Villi Inner wall of the small intestine covered in fingerlike projections Increase the surface of the intestinal wall Nutrients – Pass easily from the small intestine to the blood Large intestine – Water – Simple Salts

118 Common Digestive Problems Improper Chewing Too much Acid Problems: – Indigestion – Heartburn – Diarrhea – Constipation – Ulcers – Appendicitis – Hemorrhoids – Stomach & Colon Cancer

119 Indigestion Pain / discomfort in stomach Treatment: – Antacids – Medication

120 Heartburn Burning feeling in the esophagus – Backflow of acidic stomach contents Treatment: – Antacids – Medication

121 Diaherrea Increase amount & number of times a person passes waste Treatment: – Medication

122 Constipation Passing solid waste is difficult & infrequent Treatment: – Medication – Fluids

123 Ulcers Round, open sore in the lining of stomach or small intestine caused by bacteria Treatment: – Avoiding certain foods – Antacids – Antibiotics

124 Appendicitis Inflammation of the appendix – Releases harmful bacteria into the abdomen Treatment: – Surgical removal of the appendix

125 Hemorrhoids Swollen tissues of the rectum and anus – Contain blood vessels that may bleed Treatment: – Usually does not require treatment – May require surgery

126 Stomach & Colon Cancer Tumor in the stomach, colon, rectum of large intestine – Age – Diet Treatment: – Surgical removal of the affected organ – Chemotherapy – Radiation


128 Excretion Removal of liquid wastes from the body 3 Body Systems Involved: – Skin & Water Releases products Sweating – Lungs Get rid of Carbon Dioxide – Urinary System Removes waste products from blood

129 Urinary System Group of organs that work together to remove liquid wastes from the blood Carries waste from cells to kidneys Kidneys – Clean the blood of liquid waste Ureters – Waste passed from kidneys to tube like structures

130 Urinary System Bladder – Muscular, baglike organ that stores this liquid waste until it can be released from the body Urethra – When bladder is full, waste leaves the body through a single tube like structure Urination – Release of the waste

131 Filtering Blood Kidneys – clean you blood – Regulate amount of water in body Blood Contains – Nutrients, gases, water, & waste Kidney Removes – Waste & excess water from the blood

132 Kidneys Nephrons – Remove harmful products from your blood Filtration – A process where nephrons remove the wastes from the blood Urine – Liquid waste

133 Common Problems of the Urinary System Waste products can build up in the blood – Lifetime threatening conditions Uncomfortable or painful Problems: – Urinary Tract Infection – Stones – Urinary Incontinence – Overactive or Neurogenic Bladder

134 Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Infection of one or more of the organs of the urinary system – Bacteria – Viruses – Fungi – Parasites More common in women Treatment: – Antibiotics – Antiviral drugs

135 Stones Crystallized mineral chunks that frequently from in the kidneys and bladder Small stones leave body with urine Larger stones may be trapped Treatment: – Medications – Ultrasound waves – Surgery

136 Urinary Incontinence Uncontrollable loss of urine from the bladder Inability to control urination – Aging Treatment: – Medication – Surgery

137 Overactive / Neurogenic Bladder Inability to control urination – Damage to nerves that go to the urinary bladder Treatment: – Medications – Surgery – Catheter


139 Circulatory System Made up of three parts – Clean blood – Help regulate the amount of waster in your body Functions – Transport nutrients and gases to a different parts of the body where they can be used by the cells – Take waste materials from the cells to kidneys, lungs, and skin, where wastes can be removed

140 Heart zU-xI zU-xI

141 Blood 5 liters Tissue that is made of liquid, cell parts, and 2 types of cells Liquids & solids Components: – Plasma – Platelets – Red Blood Cells – White Blood Cells


143 Plasma 55% of blood 90% of plasma is water Fluid Carries nutrients, hormones, and waste products from one part of the body to another

144 Platelets Solids 45% of blood Carried by plasma Cell fragments that help repair blood vessels and form blood clots Made in bone marrow Clump together in the damaged area of body – Forms blood clots & stops you from bleeding

145 Red Blood Cells ( RBCs) Most numerous blood cells Transport oxygen & carbon dioxide through the body Hemoglobin – Protein – Oxygen & carbon dioxide attach – Carries gases through the body

146 White Blood Cells ( WBCs) Large cells that help you stay healthy by fighting infection and protecting the body from foreign particles


148 Supply Lines Arteries – Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart Veins – Blood vessels that carry blood to the heart Capillaries – Microscopic blood vessels of the body that link the arteries and veins – Nutrients, carbon dioxide, and waste products enter and leave the blood stream

149 Common Circulatory Problems Cells do not get oxygen & nutrients – They will die Wastes are removed from cells – They will die Problems: – Hypertension – Heart Attack – Anemia – Sickle Cell Anemia – Leukemia – Hemophilia

150 Hypertension Abnormally high blood pressure Increase the chance of stroke/ heart attack Treatment: – Losing Weight – Eating healthy – Not Smoking – Medication

151 Heart Attack Blood supply to the heart is reduced or stopped – Injures heart Treatment – Medical emergency – Medical professional

152 Anemia Number of blood cells or the amount of hemoglobin is below normal Treatment: – Treated with vitamin B 12 – Iron supplements – Medications

153 Sickle Cell Anemia Blood cells are sickle cell shaped Contain an abnormal type of hemoglobin Genetic Treatment: – Cannot be cured – Hospitalization at times

154 Leukemia Cancer of the tissues of the body that produce white blood cells Treatment: – Chemotherapy

155 Hemophilia Genetic disorder Blood does not clot Clots very slowly Treatment: – Blood transfusions – Avoiding situations that may cause bleeding

156 Respiratory System Body system that brings oxygen into the body and removes carbon dioxide from the body Gases forced in & out of the lungs through breathing

157 Respiratory system 1.Nose & Mouth 2.Pharynx ( throat) 3.Voice Box ( Larynx) 4.Windpipe ( trachea ) 5.Bronchi 1.Allows air to enter lungs

158 Lungs Large sponge like organs in which oxygen and carbon dioxide are passed between the blood and environment

159 How you Breathe Diaphragm – Movement of air in & out of the lungs – Dome shaped muscle beneath the lungs Contract – Air enters lungs Relax – Air leaves lungs


161 Alveoli Gases move between the blood and tiny air sacs

162 Common Respiratory problems Air may contain harmful materials Avoid smoking tobacco & using drugs Problems: Tuberculosis Pneumonia Asthma Emphysema Lung Cancer

163 Tuberculosis Contagious infection that infects the lungs – Chest pain – Difficulty breathing – Bacteria in the air Treated with antibiotics

164 Pneumonia Inflammation of the lungs – Alveoli become filled with thick fluid Treatment: – Rest – Fluids – Antibiotics

165 Bronchitis Inflammation of the bronchi – Includes cough Treatment: – Rest – Aspirin – Cough medicine – Antibiotics

166 Asthma Allergic response in which airways fill with mucus Triggers – Pollen – Dust – Smoke – Cold air – Stress – Strenuous exercise Treatment – Drugs

167 Emphysema Condition in which the alveoli in the lungs break – Difficulty breathing Treatment – Can’t be cured – Medication

168 Lung Cancer Cancer destroys lung tissue Most common type of cancer – Men & Women Treatment – Surgery – Chemotherapy – Radiation Therapy



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