Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Your Body Systems Chapter 5.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Your Body Systems Chapter 5."— Presentation transcript:

1 Your Body Systems Chapter 5

2 BELLRINGER: How many body systems can you name?

3 Body Organization Human Body Working together Complex Machine
City ( Buildings, transportation systems, Electrical energy) Working together Each part has role to play Contributes to the function of the other parts of the body ** What happens to the body when a part is not functioning properly?

4 Cells Simplest and most basic units of life Human Body vs. Bacteria
Nucleus “brain” of cell Largest organelle of the cell Contains the DNA


6 Tissues A group of cells that are similar & work together to perform a specific function 4 Types of Main Body Tissue : Epithelial ( Boundary) Protects body from moisture loss, bacteria, internal injury Muscle ( movement) Connective Tissue ( Support & Structure) Nervous Tissue ( Messaging System)

7 Body Tissue

8 Organ Two or more tissues that work together to perform a specific function

9 Organs How many organs are in the human body?
78 Which organ is the largest? Skin What is the major organ of the body? Brain Other organs of the body

10 Body System A group of organs that work together for one purpose
Your Body Systems: Nervous System Endocrine System Skeletal System Muscular System Digestive System Urinary System Circulatory System Respiratory System

11 Body System Function Nervous System Controls & coordinates activities of the body systems Endocrine System Helps nervous system control and coordinate activities of the body; helps regulate growth Skeletal System Provides a framework to support and protect the body Muscular System Works with the skeletal system to cause movement Digestive System Breaks down foods into simpler substances; transfers nutrients into the blood; eliminates solid waste products so they can be eliminated from the body; protects the body from disease Circulatory System Transports and distributes gases, nutrients, and hormones throughout the body; collects and transports waste products so they can be eliminated from the body; protects body from disease Respiratory System Exchanges oxygen from the environment and carbon dioxide from the body Urinary System Filters liquid waste products from the blood and eliminates them from the body

12 Body Systems Work Together
Each system has a different function Work together and help on another Body systems depend on one another Perform their functions properly When working properly The body stays alive and is healthy



15 Nervous System Body system that gathers and interprets information about the body’s internal & external environments and responds to that information

16 Nervous System Components
Brain Spinal Cord Nerves Sensory Organs ( eyes, ears, taste buds)

17 Nervous System Controls voluntary & involuntary activities
Walking Talking Heart beat Also allows … Seeing Hearing Smelling Tasting Detect pain & pressure

18 Nervous System controls
Conducts electrical messages to & from various parts of your body NERVE IMPULSES Carry information that help the organs and body systems carry out their functions correctly

19 The Brain Major organ Mass of nervous tissue that is located inside your skull

20 Brain Impulses Sends impulses to different parts of the body
Impulses contain information about your body and about the world around you Constantly receiving impulses Your brain uses this information to Tell your body how to react to the environment Sending impulses to different body parts

21 Structure of Brain Cerebrum Cerebellum Brainstem

22 Cerebrum Largest part of the brain Most complex
Coordinates many activities of the brain Controls Senses, emotions, voluntary muscle movements, consciousness, learning, & memory


24 Cerebellum Second largest part of the brain Controls
Muscle coordination, balance, and posture


26 Brainstem Connects to the spinal cord Controls Heart rate
Blood pressure Breathing



29 Central Nervous System (CNS)
Includes brain & spinal cord Spinal Cord Bundle of nervous tissue that is about a foot and a half long and is surrounded by your back bone Spinal cord Function Relay impulses between the brain and different parts of the body Interpreting impulse Brain – spinal cord – body part Body part – spinal cord – brain


31 Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Composed of nerves that connect all parts of your body to the CNS Uses nerves to control the actions of different parts of the body


Nerves A bundle of cells that conducts electrical signals through the body Like an electrical cable Many small wires ** ONLY IN THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ***

34 Nerves Means of communication in the CNS CNS & skeletal system
When & how to move CNS & Skin Heat Pressure Pain Other sensations from the environment

35 Common Problems of the Nervous System
Meningitis Rabies Concussions Stroke Paralysis Epilepsy Cerebral Palsy

36 Meningitis Infection, inflammation of the protective covering of the brain & spinal cord Bacterial & viral Bacterial ( antibiotics ) Vaccine No vaccine to treat / prevent viral form

37 Rabies A viral infection of the brain that causes irritation of the brain and spinal cord Passed by saliva of an infected animal Avoid wild / unfamiliar animals Medical treatment needed

38 Concussion Blow to the head
May cause brief memory loss; unconsciousness Preventative measure Wear protective headgear

39 Stroke Death of brain tissue Medical attention & hospitalization
Lack of blood going to brain Medical attention & hospitalization

40 Paralysis Partial / total loss of the ability to use muscles
Caused by damage to brain or spinal cord May be permanent

41 Epilepsy Disorder of the nerves and brain that are characterized by uncontrollable muscle activity Form of seizure Treated with medication

42 Cerebral Palsy Very poor muscle control No cure or prevention
Caused by damage of the brain No cure or prevention Physical therapy

43 Endocrine System Network of tissues and organs that release chemicals that control certain body functions

44 Hormones Chemicals that travel in the blood and cause changes in different body parts Tells body how to grow or develop Stressful Situations Fight or Flight Epinephrine Rush

45 Hormone Facts Makes & releases between 50-100 different hormones
Every hormone has an important function for the body Most glands make & release different hormones Each function of the body is controlled by more than one hormone Hormones work together to cause changes in the body

46 Gland A tissue or group of tissues that makes and releases chemicals
Endocrine Glands make hormones* Specific Endocrine Glands Hormones released into blood Control certain body functions

47 Types of Glands Thyroid Gland Adrenal Gland Pancreas Ovaries Testes
Thymus Gland Parathyroid Glands Pituitary Gland

48 Thyroid Gland Controls the rate at which your body uses energy
Located in the neck area

49 Adrenal Glands Helps the body respond to stress or danger
Located above kidneys

50 Pancreas Regulates blood sugar levels Located on the bend of stomach

51 Ovaries Females Only Produce hormones involved in reproductions
Estrogen & progesterone

52 Testes Males Only Produce hormones in reproduction Testosterone

53 Thymus Gland Regulates the immune system, which helps body fight disease Located between Lungs

54 Parathyroid Gland Regulates the calcium level in the blood
Located behind thyroid

55 Pituitary Gland Secretes hormones that affect other glands & organs
Located in the Brain

56 Types of Hormones Thyroxine Testosterone Estrogen Progesterone Insulin
Human Growth Hormone Epinephrine & Norephinephrine

57 Thyroxine Thyroid Stimulates body metabolism
Regulates body growth & development

58 Testosterone Testes Stimulates secondary sex characteristics in males
Stimulates sperm production

59 Estrogen Ovary Stimulates secondary sex characteristics in females

60 Progesterone Ovary Allows the uterus to prepare for pregnancy
Regulates menstrual cycle

61 Insulin Pancreas Regulates the amount of sugar in blood

62 Human Growth Hormone Pituitary Gland Stimulates body growth

63 Epinephrine & Norepinephrine
Adrenal Stimulate the body systems and metabolism in emergencies & during stress


65 Common Problems of the Endocrine System
Too much / Too little of a hormone Interfere with Normal Structure Function of the Body Endocrine System Problems Type II Diabetes Gigantism Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism

66 Type II Diabetes High level of sugar in the blood
Body does not produce enough insulin Body’s cells do not Treatment Diet & Exercise Insulin Injection Pills

67 Gigantism Individual has a very large body size
Excess production of human growth hormone by pituitary gland Treatment Medication

68 Hyperthyroidism Produces too much of the thyroid hormone
Body Systems become too active Lead to rapid & unhealthy weight loss and other problems Treatment Medications Radiation Surgery

69 Hypothyroidism Produces too little of the thyroid hormone
Body system slow down Can lead to rapid and unhealthy weight gain Treatment: Medication that replace missing hormones


71 Skeletal System Bone Is a living organ made of bone cells, connective tissues, and minerals Bone, Cartilage, & special structures make up the system

72 Skeleton Body’s framework Support the Body Protect organs
Store Minerals Work with your muscles to move


74 2 Types of Bone Tissue Compact Bone Spongy Bone
Is dense bone tissue found outside of all bones Spongy Bone Many air spaces Lighter & less dense than compact bone and found inside most bones

75 Compact & Spongy Bone

76 Cartilage & Marrow Cartilage Marrow 2 Types
Ends of many bones which are covered by a soft, flexible tissue Marrow Soft tissue inside bones 2 Types Red Marrow – makes red & white blood cells Yellow Marrow – stores fat


78 Joints Place in the body where 2 or more bones connect Allow movement
When muscles attached to the bone contract Classified by how bones move Fixed Joints Joints allow little or no movement Ligaments Flexible bands of connective tissue



81 Skeletal / Joint Problems
Break Dislocate Stretch or torn Aging / poor diet Osteoporosis Fracture Osteomyelitis Arthritis Osteoarthritis Rickets Scoliosis Sprain

82 Osteoporosis Density of bone decreases Bones are weak
More likely to break Treatment Exercise Calcium / Vitamin D Medications

83 Fracture Break in a bone Caused by accident or injury Treatment Cast

84 Osteomyelitis Bacterial infection of the bone and marrow Treatment:
Antibiotics Surgery Prevention: Clean deep wounds / cuts

85 Arthritis Joint inflammations Treatment : Physical Therapy Medications

86 Osteoarthritis Caused by aging Joints are stiff & painful Treatment:
Anti-inflammatory Drugs Physical Therapy Surgery

87 Rickets Children Causes the body to have difficulty absorbing calcium
Bones soften Caused by lack of vitamin D Treatment: Medication with vitamin D

88 Scoliosis Curvature of the spine Uneven growth of the body Treatment:
Exercise Brace Surgery

89 Sprain Injury to ligaments at a joint Treatment: Rest Ice Cast

90 Types of Muscle Muscle Types of Muscle
Any tissue that is made up of cells or fibers that contract & expand to cause movement Types of Muscle Smooth Muscle Cardiac Muscle Skeletal Muscle

91 Smooth Muscle Move materials such as food through internal organs
Makes up internal organs Stomach Intestines

92 Cardiac Muscle Found in the heart Blood is pushed through the body

93 Skeletal Muscle Muscle attached to bones
Attached to bones by connective tissue Tendons Pull onto the bones they are attached to causes body to move Release energy Maintains body temperature

94 Muscular System The muscles that move your body

95 How muscles Move Skeletal muscles work together Movement
Make your Body move Movement Result of muscles pulling on bones

96 Muscle Contraction- Flex
Gets shorter ONLY pull bones closer together Flex Bend Example : Bicep Pulls the bones of the forearm toward shoulder

97 Muscle Contraction – Extend
Example : Triceps Pulls the bones of the forearms away from the biceps


99 Muscular System Problems
Tired & Sore Strained & Torn Warm up, cool down, stretch Problems: Muscular Dystrophy Inguinal Hernia Muscle Cramp Strain Tendinitis Shin Splints

100 Muscular Dystrophy Genetic Diseases
Causes muscle weakness Destruction of skeletal muscle tissue Treatment: No Cure Physical Therapy Surgery

101 Inguinal Hernia Intestine bulges through abdominal muscles Causes
Caused: Lifting heavy objects Improper lifting Treatment: Surgery

102 Muscle Cramp Sudden & painful contraction of a muscle Night
After Exercise No Treatment

103 Strain Overstretching Tearing of a muscle due to overuse / misuse
Treatment : Rest Ice Wrapping Injury

104 Tendinitis Inflammation of a tendon Treatment Aging Excessive Exercise
Rest Hot or Cold compresses Ant – inflammatory medications

105 Shin Splints Pain in the shin caused by damage
Irritation to the muscles in the front of the leg Treatment: Rest Ice Pain Medication

106 Exercise Circuit Activity


108 Digestion Digestion Process by which your body breaks down food you eat

109 Digestive System Group of organs and glands that work together to physically & chemically break down, or digest food Mouth Stomach Small Intestine After Digestion Food is absorbed in the blood

110 Nutrients Substances in foods that your body needs to function properly Produce Energy Growth Maintenance Repair

111 Journey of Food- Mouth Mouth Chewing Saliva Food particles are smaller
Makes digestion easier Saliva Moistens food Makes it easier to follow

112 Journey of Food – Throat
Pushed by your tongue Throat Pharynx Esophagus to Stomach

113 Journey of Food – Stomach
Food Particles Mixed with acidic juices Stomach churns Mixes food & juices Stays in stomach for a few hours Travels to large intestine

114 Journey of Food – Small Intestine
Most chemical digestion happens Food moves by contractions Smooth muscle of small intestine Contractions Push food through the organ Liver, gall bladder, pancreas Release chemicals into the small intestine Leaves small intestine to large intestine

115 Journey of Food – Large Intestine
No digestion happens Mostly waste products Pushed out Takes about 24 hours

116 Body Absorbs Nutrients
Absorbed in bloodstream Alcohol, simple sugars, & simple salts Absorbed in stomach Small Intestine Carbohydrates, proteins, fats Absorbed in small intestine

117 Villi Inner wall of the small intestine covered in fingerlike projections Increase the surface of the intestinal wall Nutrients Pass easily from the small intestine to the blood Large intestine Water Simple Salts

118 Common Digestive Problems
Improper Chewing Too much Acid Problems: Indigestion Heartburn Diarrhea Constipation Ulcers Appendicitis Hemorrhoids Stomach & Colon Cancer

119 Indigestion Pain / discomfort in stomach Treatment: Antacids

120 Heartburn Burning feeling in the esophagus Treatment:
Backflow of acidic stomach contents Treatment: Antacids Medication

121 Diaherrea Increase amount & number of times a person passes waste
Treatment: Medication

122 Constipation Passing solid waste is difficult & infrequent Treatment:
Medication Fluids

123 Ulcers Round, open sore in the lining of stomach or small intestine caused by bacteria Treatment: Avoiding certain foods Antacids Antibiotics

124 Appendicitis Inflammation of the appendix Treatment:
Releases harmful bacteria into the abdomen Treatment: Surgical removal of the appendix

125 Hemorrhoids Swollen tissues of the rectum and anus Treatment:
Contain blood vessels that may bleed Treatment: Usually does not require treatment May require surgery

126 Stomach & Colon Cancer Tumor in the stomach, colon, rectum of large intestine Age Diet Treatment: Surgical removal of the affected organ Chemotherapy Radiation


128 Excretion Removal of liquid wastes from the body
3 Body Systems Involved: Skin & Water Releases products Sweating Lungs Get rid of Carbon Dioxide Urinary System Removes waste products from blood

129 Urinary System Group of organs that work together to remove liquid wastes from the blood Carries waste from cells to kidneys Kidneys Clean the blood of liquid waste Ureters Waste passed from kidneys to tube like structures

130 Urinary System Bladder Urethra Urination
Muscular, baglike organ that stores this liquid waste until it can be released from the body Urethra When bladder is full, waste leaves the body through a single tube like structure Urination Release of the waste

131 Filtering Blood Kidneys Blood Contains Kidney Removes clean you blood
Regulate amount of water in body Blood Contains Nutrients, gases, water, & waste Kidney Removes Waste & excess water from the blood

132 Kidneys Nephrons Filtration Urine
Remove harmful products from your blood Filtration A process where nephrons remove the wastes from the blood Urine Liquid waste

133 Common Problems of the Urinary System
Waste products can build up in the blood Lifetime threatening conditions Uncomfortable or painful Problems: Urinary Tract Infection Stones Urinary Incontinence Overactive or Neurogenic Bladder

134 Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
Infection of one or more of the organs of the urinary system Bacteria Viruses Fungi Parasites More common in women Treatment: Antibiotics Antiviral drugs

135 Stones Crystallized mineral chunks that frequently from in the kidneys and bladder Small stones leave body with urine Larger stones may be trapped Treatment: Medications Ultrasound waves Surgery

136 Urinary Incontinence Uncontrollable loss of urine from the bladder
Inability to control urination Aging Treatment: Medication Surgery

137 Overactive / Neurogenic Bladder
Inability to control urination Damage to nerves that go to the urinary bladder Treatment: Medications Surgery Catheter


139 Circulatory System Made up of three parts Functions Clean blood
Help regulate the amount of waster in your body Functions Transport nutrients and gases to a different parts of the body where they can be used by the cells Take waste materials from the cells to kidneys, lungs, and skin, where wastes can be removed

140 Heart

141 Blood 5 liters Tissue that is made of liquid, cell parts, and 2 types of cells Liquids & solids Components: Plasma Platelets Red Blood Cells White Blood Cells


143 Plasma 55% of blood 90% of plasma is water Fluid
Carries nutrients, hormones, and waste products from one part of the body to another

144 Platelets Solids 45% of blood Carried by plasma
Cell fragments that help repair blood vessels and form blood clots Made in bone marrow Clump together in the damaged area of body Forms blood clots & stops you from bleeding

145 Red Blood Cells ( RBCs) Most numerous blood cells
Transport oxygen & carbon dioxide through the body Hemoglobin Protein Oxygen & carbon dioxide attach Carries gases through the body

146 White Blood Cells ( WBCs)
Large cells that help you stay healthy by fighting infection and protecting the body from foreign particles


148 Supply Lines Arteries Veins Capillaries
Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart Veins Blood vessels that carry blood to the heart Capillaries Microscopic blood vessels of the body that link the arteries and veins Nutrients, carbon dioxide, and waste products enter and leave the blood stream

149 Common Circulatory Problems
Cells do not get oxygen & nutrients They will die Wastes are removed from cells Problems: Hypertension Heart Attack Anemia Sickle Cell Anemia Leukemia Hemophilia

150 Hypertension Abnormally high blood pressure
Increase the chance of stroke/ heart attack Treatment: Losing Weight Eating healthy Not Smoking Medication

151 Heart Attack Blood supply to the heart is reduced or stopped Treatment
Injures heart Treatment Medical emergency Medical professional

152 Anemia Number of blood cells or the amount of hemoglobin is below normal Treatment: Treated with vitamin B 12 Iron supplements Medications

153 Sickle Cell Anemia Blood cells are sickle cell shaped
Contain an abnormal type of hemoglobin Genetic Treatment: Cannot be cured Hospitalization at times

154 Leukemia Cancer of the tissues of the body that produce white blood cells Treatment: Chemotherapy

155 Hemophilia Genetic disorder Blood does not clot Clots very slowly
Treatment: Blood transfusions Avoiding situations that may cause bleeding

156 Respiratory System Body system that brings oxygen into the body and removes carbon dioxide from the body Gases forced in & out of the lungs through breathing

157 Respiratory system Nose & Mouth Pharynx ( throat) Voice Box ( Larynx)
Windpipe ( trachea ) Bronchi Allows air to enter lungs

158 Lungs Large sponge like organs in which oxygen and carbon dioxide are passed between the blood and environment

159 How you Breathe Diaphragm Contract Relax
Movement of air in & out of the lungs Dome shaped muscle beneath the lungs Contract Air enters lungs Relax Air leaves lungs


161 Alveoli Gases move between the blood and tiny air sacs

162 Common Respiratory problems
Air may contain harmful materials Avoid smoking tobacco & using drugs Problems: Tuberculosis Pneumonia Asthma Emphysema Lung Cancer

163 Tuberculosis Contagious infection that infects the lungs
Chest pain Difficulty breathing Bacteria in the air Treated with antibiotics

164 Pneumonia Inflammation of the lungs Treatment:
Alveoli become filled with thick fluid Treatment: Rest Fluids Antibiotics

165 Bronchitis Inflammation of the bronchi Treatment: Includes cough Rest
Aspirin Cough medicine Antibiotics

166 Asthma Allergic response in which airways fill with mucus Triggers
Pollen Dust Smoke Cold air Stress Strenuous exercise Treatment Drugs

167 Emphysema Condition in which the alveoli in the lungs break Treatment
Difficulty breathing Treatment Can’t be cured Medication

168 Lung Cancer Cancer destroys lung tissue Most common type of cancer
Men & Women Treatment Surgery Chemotherapy Radiation Therapy



Download ppt "Your Body Systems Chapter 5."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google