Presentation on theme: "Differentiated Instruction Modifications RtI David Keithley, Director of Special Education Stephanie Gain, Diagnostician."— Presentation transcript:
Differentiated Instruction Modifications RtI David Keithley, Director of Special Education Stephanie Gain, Diagnostician
Differentiated instruction is an instructional theory that allows teachers to face this challenge by taking diverse student factors into account when planning and delivering instruction. Based on this theory, teachers can structure learning environments that address the variety of learning styles, interests, and abilities found within a classroom.
Differentiation is responsive teaching rather than one-size- fits all teaching
Why do I have to differentiate instruction Your students may lack the prerequisite skills needed to learn the material. They may not have mastered everything from the previous grade They also may have a lower cognitive ability or may be dealing with a learning disability. Or they might just learn different from the others.
What Differentiated Instruction Means for Teachers DO DON'T provide several learning options, or different paths to learning, which help students take in information comprehend concepts and skills. provide appropriate levels of challenge for all students, including those who are behind, those who are ahead and those that are right on target. develop a separate lesson plan for each student in a classroom. "water down" the curriculum for some students. Believe that a child “just wont get it.”
So how do I do this? Get to know your students Determine their: STUDENT READINESS-did they come to you with the prerequisites needed to be successful THEIR INTERESTS-what interests them that you might be able to use when delivering content THEIR LEARNING PROFILE-are they kinesthetic learners? Do you need to use a more hands on approach, or are they more auditory and will pick up on the material better through song
Planning for Differentiated Instruction There are three areas in which teachers differentiate. They are: Content Process Product
CONTENT is what the students learn. This is the objective. Content can be differentiated by having multiple materials and resources like textbooks, picture or chapter books, magazines, videos, artifacts, or the Internet.
PROCESS is how the students learn the content. This is based on students' needs. Some students may learn better in a group, while others learn by working alone. Students may learn by reading and writing or by acting it out.
PRODUCT is how students demonstrate what and how much they have learned. This could be a unit test, a project, a speech, or a written essay.
What can I use to help me differentiate instruction?
Strategies for Differentiating Instruction pre-tests to assess where individual students need to begin study of a given topic or unit. Encourage thinking at various levels of Bloom's taxonomy. Use a variety of instructional delivery methods to address different learning styles. Break assignments into smaller, more manageable parts that include structured directions for each part. Choose broad instructional concepts and skills that lend themselves to understanding at various levels of complexity. Based on ProcessProvide access to a variety of materials which target different learning preferences and reading abilities. Develop activities that target auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learners. Establish stations for inquiry-based, independent learning activities. Create activities that vary in level of complexity and degree of abstract thinking required. Use flexible grouping to group and regroup students based on factors including content, ability, and assessment results. Based on ProductUse a variety of assessment strategies, including performance-based and open- ended assessment. Balance teacher-assigned and student-selected projects. Offer students a choice of projects that reflect a variety of learning styles and interests. Make assessment an ongoing, interactive process. Based on Content Utilize pre-tests to assess where individual students need to begin study of a given topic or unit. Use a variety of instructional delivery methods to address different learning styles. Break assignments into smaller, more manageable parts that include structured directions for each part. Based on Process Provide access to a variety of materials which target different learning preferences and reading abilities. Develop activities that target auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learners. Establish stations for inquiry-based, independent learning activities. Create activities that vary in level of complexity and degree of abstract thinking required. Use flexible grouping to group and regroup students based on factors including content, ability, and assessment results. Based on Product Use a variety of assessment strategies, including performance- based and open-ended assessment. Offer students a choice of projects that reflect a variety of learning styles and interests. Make assessment an ongoing, interactive process.
Accommodations and Modifications Modification means a change in what is being taught to or expected from the student. Making an assignment easier so the student is not doing the same level of work as other students is an example of a modification. Accommodation is a change that helps a student overcome or work around the disability. Allowing a student who has trouble writing to give his answers orally is an example of an accommodation.
ACCOMMODATIONS MODIFICATIONS They do not alter the stand or what the student is expected to master. They are changes that DO lower or alter the standard or expectation of the course
Modification = The WHAT Accommodation = The HOW
Examples of Accommodations Quantity #of questions Time Extended amount of time Level of Support Peer tutors, teacher small group Input Hands on activities, groups Output Adapt how the student will respond to instruction Participation Adapt how much the student needs to be involved
Examples of Modifications Difficulty Adjust the assignment to lower the grade level Alternate Goals Same assignment but different goal Substitute Curriculum Different instruction or material
Susie has an intellectual disability. She is placed in a self‐contained class, but she has been participating in some general education classes. Susie’s 4th grade general education teacher has required her to participate in spelling tests. Susie received a failing grade for the past 4 spelling tests. The teacher has decided to reduce the number of spelling words on Susie’s list. She is only responsible for the single syllable words on the spelling list each week.
Marco is a high school student who does not receive special education or Section 504 services. In his Algebra I class, Marco often makes mistakes when multiplying or dividing large numbers with decimals. When Marco uses a calculator, he arrives at the correct answer.
Bobby has a learning disability in reading. He is overwhelmed by long reading passages, because he cannot read on grade level. Bobby needs to learn about main idea and supporting details. The teacher provides Bobby a story on his reading level. Bobby only has to identify the main idea while the rest of the class must identify the main idea and supporting details.
Patricia has a learning disability in mathematics. Her teacher has required her to complete the first 10 fast fact problems, but she does not have to reduce to simplest form). The rest of the class must complete the entire page of addition fractions and reduce to the simplest form, including challenging questions numbers 1‐30.
Malcolm’s scores on in‐class assignments and assessments improve when he is provided with large print material. The teacher provides Malcolm materials with larger print because she has observed that his comprehension also greatly improves.
Jacob is a ninth grade student who receives special education services under the category of Other Health Impairment. When reading, Jacob continuously blinks and moves his head, skips lines, omits or transposes words, and loses his place often, even when using a place marker. He sits at the teacher’s computer so he can follow along during PowerPoint presentations.
Knowing the answer and being able to articulate it clearly are two different things! Accommodations and modifications help students demonstrate what they DO know.
Response to Intervention Response to Intervention, RTI, is a three-tier prevention, early identification and intervention strategy provided by the general education teacher in the general education classroom. It is based on the concept of providing evidence-based instructional and behavioral strategies by highly qualified staff that specifically addresses the needs of the student and is monitored and reviewed frequently. The information collected during the RTI process is used to make informed educational decisions regarding the student’s educational program.
Accommodations DO Modifications DO Interventions DO Change the environment Change the method Allows students fair/equal access to education Change the curriculum Change the behavioral expectations Changes the standards for the individual students Teach new skills Teach new behaviors Focus on the needs of the individual Environment is adjusted Changes the expectations Based on their ability Includes assessment, planning, and data collection Provides relief to the student In some cases (504) mandated by law Provides relief to the student In some cases (IEPs) mandated by law Are situation specific and based upon the student’s needs A look at all three
Differentiation means tailoring instruction to meet individual needs. Whether teachers differentiate content, process, products, or the learning environment, the use of ongoing assessment and flexible grouping makes this a successful approach to instruction.
Rajiv is a fourth grade student who receives special education services for disabilities in reading and mathematics. He has difficulty in all areas of reading such as decoding words, blends, and frequently used sight words. What accommodations can be utilized to address this student’s need?
Eliza is a fifth grade student not receiving special education or Section 504 services. She struggles with mathematics computations, but her performance improves when she uses a calculator. What accommodations can be utilized to address this student’s need?
Jesse is able to recall basic mathematics facts; However, when solving more complex mathematics problems with algorithms, he is unable to remember the steps and often loses his place. Jesse has attended afterschool tutoring all year, but scores on his classroom assignments and tests indicate that his performance has not improved. What accommodations can be utilized to address this student’s need?
Victor is an eighth grade student who receives special education services to address his needs related to a physical disability. Victor does not struggle with mathematics reasoning and computation; however, he is only able to write with a pencil for short amounts of time because his muscles become fatigued easily and begin to cramp. What accommodations can be utilized to address this student’s need?