2EmergenciesSudden illness or injury that requires an immediate medical responseEmergencies can happen at any time.EmergenciesAn emergency situation occurs when a person suddenly becomes ill or is injured and requires an immediate medical response. Emergencies can happen at any time. For example, imagine two friends at an amusement park, talking and laughing while waiting in line to ride a rollercoaster. One friend tells the other that she does not feel well. She looks pale. Suddenly, she falls to the ground. If her friend knows what to do, she may be able to prevent further harm to her friend, or even save her life.
3First AidIn many cases, emergency care may require some form of first aid.It is important that the general population and all health care workers know how to perform emergency care.Agencies such as the American Red Cross and the American Heart Association train people to perform these life-saving procedures.First AidIn many cases, emergency care may require some form of first aid. In a best-case scenario, emergency care is performed by an emergency care professional. However, in some cases, emergency care procedures are required before a professional can arrive on the scene. For this reason, it is important that the general population and, more importantly, all health care workers know how to perform emergency care. Agencies such as the American Red Cross and the American Heart Association train people to perform these life-saving procedures.
4Effective First Aid Providers Obtain proper first aid trainingThis includes:Anyone in the medical fieldPeople in jobs that involve child carePark guides, camp counselors, life guards, etc.Effective First Aid ProvidersTo be an effective first aid provider, an individual should understand some essential first aid factors.Obtain proper first aid trainingFirst and foremost, anyone who expects to encounter an emergency situation should be properly trained. This clearly includes emergency care professionals, but it also includes anyone in the health and medical field. Other people who should be trained for emergency situations include people in jobs that involve child care. Additionally, people who are responsible for others in areas where medical care may be some distance away, such as park guides, camp counselors, and scuba diving instructors, should be prepared to administer first aid.
5Effective First Aid Providers (continued) Be alert for emergency situationsUnusual soundsUnusual sightsUnusual odorsUnusual behaviorsEffective First Aid Providers (continued)Be alert for emergency situations.For those who do have first aid training, they must keep alert for signs of an emergency, which include:Unusual sounds, such as breaking glass, screeching tires, or calls for help.Unusual sights, such as an empty medicine bottle or smoke from a fire.Unusual odors, such as natural gas or fumes.Unusual behaviors, such as clutching the chest or throat, or slurred speech.
6Effective First Aid Providers (continued) Assess the situation before taking actionThe first aid provider should have a reason for every action that is taken.Treatment depends on multiple factorsEffective First Aid Providers (continued)Assess the situation before taking action.Before taking any action at an emergency scene, the first aid provider must assess, or evaluate, the situation. The first aid provider should have a reason for every action that is taken. Treatment depends on several factors, including the type of injury, the environment, witnesses, available first aid supplies and equipment, and how quickly medical help will arrive. If conscious, the patient should be questioned for injuries and a full explanation of the situation. This information should be passed on to emergency care professionals when they arrive on the scene.
7Effective First Aid Providers (continued) Remain calm in emergency situations and observe safety precautionsIf possible, get the patient’s consentIf possible, wash their hands and put on glovesMake sure supplies are clean.If possible, explain the procedureBe careful when lifting heavy objects.Flush solutions that come into contact with eyes or skinOnly perform care for which trainedEffective First Aid Providers (continued)Remain calm in emergency situations and observe safety precautions.First aid providers should observe some basic precautions when treating a patient, including:If possible, get the patient’s consent before performing any care.If possible, wash their hands and put on gloves before handling a patient.Make sure supplies, such as water or bandages, are clean.If possible, explain the procedure to the patient.Be careful when lifting heavy objects.If any solutions come in contact with their skin or eyes, they should immediately flush them with water.Only perform care that they have been trained to do.
8Effective First Aid Providers (continued) Perform a safety check of the scene before taking actionSome emergency scenes are unsafe to enter.Call for help immediately.Prioritize tasks and triageTriage is a way to prioritize treatment. It determines which patient or which injury is treated first.Life-threatening injuries should always be attended to first.Effective First Aid Providers (continued)Perform a safety check of the scene before taking action.Some emergency scenes are unsafe to enter, such as a burning building or a collapsed tunnel. A would-be first aid provider should immediately call for professional help and remain clear of any dangerous areas.Prioritize tasks and triage.After calling Emergency Medical Services, EMS, or telling another person to call, the first aid provider may have to perform triage. Triage is a way to prioritize treatment. In cases involving two or more patients, triage determines who is treated first. In cases with only one patient who has several injuries, triage determines which injury is addressed first. Life-threatening injuries, such as excessive bleeding, should always be attended to first.
9Principles of Care Get professional care as soon as possible. Do not move a patient unless it is required for safety reasons.Keep the patient calm.Do not give unconscious or vomiting patients any food or fluids, unless the first aid procedure requires it.Regulate the patient’s temperature by adding blankets or removing layers of clothing.Administer first aid quickly and efficiently.Do not attempt to diagnose the patient or discuss the patient’s condition.Avoid further injury if possible.Principles of CareIn addition to first aid essentials, there are also some guidelines for first aid care that should be applied in every emergency situation.Get professional care as soon as possible.Do not move a patient unless it is required for safety reasons.Keep the patient calm.Do not give unconscious or vomiting patients any food or fluids, unless the first aid procedure requires it.Regulate the patient’s temperature by adding blankets or removing layers of clothing.Administer first aid quickly and efficiently.To avoid compromising the patient’s right to privacy, do not attempt to diagnose the patient or discuss the patient’s condition.Avoid further injury if possible.
10Emergency Medical Services Emergency Medical Services (EMS) provides expert care for serious emergencies.In many areas of the country, immediate help is available by dialing 911.When calling for help, be sure to give complete and accurate information.If you cannot call immediately, ask someone else to call for help.Emergency Medical ServicesEmergency Medical Services (EMS) provides expert care for serious emergencies. In many areas of the country, immediate help is available by dialing 911. Other sources for help include the local fire service and the police. Everyone should know the emergency numbers to call in their area. They are listed in local phone books. It is a good idea to place these numbers on a card that is stored in a wallet or in an emergency care supply kit.Remember to act quickly, using the resources available. If you cannot call immediately, ask someone else to call for help. Be sure to give complete and accurate information. This includes a description of the scene and any actions that have been taken. You must also report the patient’s condition, your exact location, and your telephone number.
11Emergency Care Legal Issues The haste in which emergency care occurs often leaves the caregivers with little or no time to consider the legal consequences of their actions.Emergency care professionals, other health care workers, and anyone else who has first aid training should be aware of some basic legal issues related to emergency care.Emergency Care Legal IssuesThe very nature of emergency care implies that it occurs quickly. The haste in which it occurs often leaves the caregivers with little or no time to consider the legal consequences of their actions. And yet in today’s atmosphere of malpractice claims, it does deserve some consideration. Emergency care professionals, other health care workers, and anyone else who has first aid training should be aware of some basic legal issues related to emergency care.
12The Good Samaritan Acts State that physicians and first responders are not required to acquire patient consent before performing life-saving procedures in the case of an emergency.To be protected by these Acts:Give care in good faith.Act within the scope of their training and knowledge.Use as much care as possible according to the circumstances.Do not bill the patient.The Good Samaritan ActsAll 50 states have adopted Good Samaritan Acts. Good Samaritan Acts offer some protection to caregivers who respond to emergency medical situations. With these acts, physicians and first responders are not required to acquire patient consent before performing life-saving procedures in the case of an emergency. Therefore, in the unfortunate event that the patient should have some permanent damage or die, the “good Samaritan” who stopped to help is not legally responsible.However, all caregivers must follow these basic rules in order to be protected by a Good Samaritan Act:Give care in good faith.Act within the scope of their training and knowledge.Use as much care as possible according to the circumstances.Do not bill the patient.Because of Good Samaritan Acts, people do not need to hesitate before helping in an emergency situation.
13Scope of PracticeEven a Good Samaritan Act cannot protect caregivers who perform procedures outside of their scope of practice.Emergency care providers should only perform tasks for which they have been trained.Scope of PracticeEven a Good Samaritan Act cannot protect caregivers who perform procedures outside of their scope of practice. Therefore, emergency care providers should only perform tasks for which they have been trained. Simply put, they should only do things that they know how to do.For example, if a caregiver performs CPR without any CPR training, he could cause serious harm to the patient. If damages occur, in this case the patient could sue the caregiver because the caregiver acted outside of his scope of practice.
14Keeping Records Event report after each emergency This report includes:The patient’s name and addressThe date and time of emergencyThe location of emergencyA description of the emergency and its causeA description of actions takenThe names, addresses, and signatures of any witnessesThe name and signature of the person preparing the reportKeeping RecordsEmergency care professionals must fill out an event report after each emergency.This report becomes a part of the patient’s medical record. It includes:The patient’s nameThe patient’s addressThe date and time of emergencyThe location of emergencyA description of the emergency and its causeA description of actions takenThe names, addresses, and signatures of any witnessesThe name and signature of the person preparing the report
16Dressings A dressing is a sterile covering for a wound or injury. Dressings are used to:stop bleedingprevent infectionabsorb secretionstreat painGauze pads are the most common materials used for dressings. However, in an emergency situation, any clean cloth can be used.DressingsA dressing is a sterile covering for a wound or injury. Dressings are used to stop bleeding, prevent infection, absorb secretions, and to treat pain. Gauze pads are the most common materials used for dressings.However, in an emergency situation, any clean cloth can be used. Avoid using any materials that have loose fibers, which can infect the wound or injury. Dressings can be held in place with tape or a bandage.
17Bandages A bandage is material used to secure dressings and splints. Tight enough to control bleeding and to hold dressings, but do not interrupt blood circulationThree popular types of bandages are:TriangularRoller gauzeElasticBandagesA bandage is material used to secure dressings and splints. Bandages should be tight enough to control bleeding and to hold a dressing in place. However, they should not interrupt blood circulation.The type of bandage used for an injury depends both on the type of injury and the body part affected by the injury. Three popular types of bandages are triangular, roller gauze, and elastic.
18Triangular BandagesThe triangular bandage is a triangular shape of cloth. It is often used for:Head and scalp injuriesTo create slings for shoulder, arm, wrist, and hand injuriesTriangular bandages can also be folded into cravats, which is a long strip of bandage folded to the proper width according to the injury.Triangular BandagesAs its name suggests, the triangular bandage is a triangular shape of cloth. It is often used for head and scalp injuries. They are also used to create slings for shoulder, arm, wrist, and hand injuries.Triangular bandages can also be folded into cravats, which is a long strip of bandage folded to the proper width according to the injury. The cravat can also be used on head injuries including injuries to eyes and ears. Cravats can also be used to create circular bandages around the limbs and torso. A cravat bandage should never be used around the neck because it could close the patient’s airway.
19Elastic and Roller Gauze Bandages Secure dressings and support injured areas.Elastic bandages stretch and mold to the body.Elasticity makes it easy to wrap an injury too tightly.Elastic and Roller Gauze BandagesElastic and roller gauze bandages come in a variety of widths. They are used to secure dressings and to support injured areas. They can be used on just about any part of the body.Elastic bandages have the advantage of stretching and molding to the body part. However, elastic bandages can also pose a disadvantage because their elasticity makes it easy to wrap an injury too tightly. First aid providers must be careful not to stretch elastic bandages as they are wrapping an injury.Particularly when wrapping the foot or ankle, health care workers must be careful that there are no wrinkles in the bandage. Wrinkles in the bandage wrap can cause skin irritation.
20Splints Rigid device that supports and immobilizes Can be created using anything that will support the injured area.Do not apply a splint if professional medical help is on the way.SplintsA splint is a rigid device that supports and immobilizes an injured body part. Splints are used to secure suspected bone or joint injuries to legs, forearms, fingers, and toes. Splints can be used alone or in combination with bandages and slings.Commercial splints work best. However, if none are available, a splint can be created using anything that will support the injured area. Some examples of materials that can be used to improvise a splint include heavy cardboard, bubble wrap, folded newspapers or magazines, and blankets or towels.Because you should limit moving an injured body part, do not apply a splint if professional medical help is on the way. In this case, keep the patient still until professional help arrives.
21Slings Keeps hand, forearm, arm, or shoulder immobilized In combination with a cast or used in place of a cast or splintCan be created using a triangular bandage.SlingsA sling is a device used to keep an injured hand, forearm, arm, or shoulder immobilized. Slings can be used in combination with a cast or used in place of a cast or splint until one can be applied. Commercial slings are available. However, a sling can be created using a triangular bandage. If a commercial sling or a triangular bandage is not available, a belt, handkerchief, or scarf can also be used.
22Crutches Help a patient ambulate Used when unable to put weight on an injured or impaired leg, knee, ankle or foot.Proper fit and use are importantCrutchesCrutches are supports that help a patient ambulate, or walk. Patients use crutches when they are unable to put weight on an injured or impaired leg, knee, ankle or foot. With crutches, patients transfer some or all of their weight to the crutches.It is important that crutches fit the patient properly and are used correctly by the patient. All medical professionals need to know how to fit and use crutches properly so that they can teach their patients.
23Types of Crutches Axillary crutches Forearm crutches Platform crutches Three types of crutches are axillary, forearm, and platform. All crutches require coordination. Axillary and forearm crutches require some upper body strength.Axillary crutches are placed under the axilla, or underarms, with the patient’s weight being applied to the hands.Likewise, with forearm crutches, a patient inserts arms through holders, grasps handles, and then supports weight on the hands.Platform crutches are designed for patients who cannot grasp handles or bear weight on their hands. The patient rests the forearm on a flat surface at the top of the crutch and then bears weight on the forearm.
24Adjusting Crutches Crutches must fit patients correctly. To avoid injury, it is important that crutches are adjusted properly for the patient’s height.With axillary crutches, the top of the crutch should reach two inches below the patient’s underarm. The handle should fall comfortably at the patient’s wrist.With forearm crutches, the handle should fall to just above the patient’s hand, when the arms are down and extended.With platform crutches, the top of the platform should reach the patient’s elbows.
25Crutch Gaits There are several types of crutch gaits. Four-point Three-pointTwo-pointSwing-toSwing-throughCrutch GaitsA gait is a method of walking. There are several gaits that can be used with crutches. The best gait for a patient is determined based on the injury.The four-point gait is used for patients who can bear weight on both legs.The three-point gait is used for patients who can bear weight on only one leg.The two-point gait is used for patients who can bear weight on both legs and have mastered the four-point gait.The swing-to gait is used for patients who can bear weight on one or both legs, has good shoulder and arm strength, and a good sense of balance and coordination.The swing-through gait is used for patients who can bear weight on one or both legs, has great shoulder and arm strength, and an excellent sense of balance and coordination.
27Shock Reduction of blood flow in the body Often results from physical or emotional traumaIf left untreated, shock can be fatal, even in cases where the initial injury was not fatal.ShockShock often results from physical or emotional trauma. Shock, also called hypoperfusion, is a reduction of blood flow in the body, particularly to the brain and heart. As the body attempts to increase the blood supply to the brain and heart, it reduces blood flow to other organs. Without proper blood flow, the body’s organs and tissues are deprived of oxygen. If left untreated, shock can be fatal, even in cases where the initial injury was not fatal. Therefore, it is important to recognize shock and to know how to respond to it as an emergency situation.
28Causes of Shock Trauma causes shock. Types of trauma that can cause shock include:HemorrhageSevere painInfectionHeart attackStrokePoisonLack of oxygenDehydrationPsychological traumaCauses of ShockTrauma causes shock. Trauma can be physical or emotional in nature. The following list includes several types of trauma that can cause shock.HemorrhageSevere painInfectionHeart attackStrokePoison, including drugs, chemicals, and gasesLack of oxygenDehydration caused by burns, vomiting, and diarrheaPsychological trauma, such as a car accident
29Symptoms of Shock Shock has many symptoms, including: Pale, blue-gray skin color, especially under the nails and around the mouthCool skinRapid, weak pulseIrregular breathingLow blood pressureAnxiety or restlessnessShock symptoms vary from patient to patient.Symptoms of ShockJust as shock has many causes, it also has many symptoms. Symptoms vary from patient to patient; however, some symptoms are good indicators of shock. These symptoms include:Pale, blue-gray skin color, especially under the nails and around the mouthCool skinRapid, weak pulseIrregular breathingLow blood pressureAnxiety or restlessnessOther possible symptoms of shock include:NauseaVomitingExcessive thirstHeavy perspirationDizzinessFaintingClammy skinBlurry visionDilated, or large pupilsConfusion
30Types of Shock Anaphylactic Shock Cardiogenic Shock Hemorrhagic Shock Metabolic ShockNeurogenic ShockPsychogenic ShockRespiratory ShockSeptic ShockTypes of ShockBecause there are many causes of shock, there are also many types of shock. Types of shock are distinguished by their causes and the specific affects on the body.Anaphylactic Shock - Anaphylactic shock is caused by a severe allergic reaction, which causes blood vessels to dilate and reduces blood flow. It may also cause hives and trouble breathing.Cardiogenic Shock - Cardiogenic shock is caused by damage to the heart because of heart attack, heart infection, or other heart conditions.Hemorrhagic Shock - Hemorrhagic shock occurs when a patient hemorrhages, or loses a lot of blood.Metabolic Shock - Metabolic shock occurs when body chemistry is out of balance. Some causes include severe diarrhea, vomiting, heat, severe burns and other conditions that cause a loss of fluid in the intestines.Neurogenic Shock - Neurogenic shock can result from an injury to the brain or spinal cord that causes a nerve condition that relaxes and dilates the blood vessels.Psychogenic Shock - Psychogenic shock is caused by sudden, strong emotions, such as great fear, anger or grief.Respiratory Shock - Respiratory shock is the result of iInsufficient oxygen, which can be caused by choking, disease, or environmental conditions.Septic Shock - Septic shock, also called toxic shock, results from toxins, or poisons, in the blood, usually caused by infections.
31Treating Shock Begin treatment immediately There are several aims for treating shock, including:Eliminating or controlling the cause of shockImproving blood flowProviding oxygenRegulating body temperatureTreating ShockBecause shock is such a serious condition, the caregiver should begin treatment immediately. There are several aims for treating shock. In order of importance, these aims include:Eliminating or controlling the cause of shockImproving blood flowProviding oxygenRegulating body temperature
32Bone and Joint Injuries Include:fractures and breaksDislocationsSprainsstrainsBone and Joint InjuriesBone and joint injuries are very common. They include fractures and breaks, dislocations, sprains, and strains. Common causes for these injuries are falls and other accidents, working muscles too hard, and sports injuries
33Fractures Fractures are breaks or cracks in a bone. Symptoms: Compound factureSimple fractureSymptoms:DeformityLimited or loss of motionPain and swellingDiscolorationProtrusion of bone through the skinHearing the bone breakGrating sensationFracturesFractures are breaks or cracks in a bone. Fractures can be compound, which involves a break and an open wound. A simple fracture has no accompanying open wound. Fractures can be extremely painful until the bone can be properly set. For this reason, a fracture or break patient should be monitored for shock. This is especially true if the injury is compound and the patient has lost a lot of blood. When a fracture is suspected, it is critical that the injured area is not moved until it is immobilized by a splint or a cast.Symptoms of a fracture include:DeformityLimited or loss of motionPainSwellingDiscolorationProtrusion of bone through the skinHearing the bone breakGrating sensation inside the body at the site
34DislocationsA dislocation occurs when a bone separates from a joint or is moved out of place in the joint.Symptoms:DeformityLimited or abnormal movementSwellingDiscolorationPainShortening or lengthening of the limbDislocationsA dislocation occurs when a bone separates from a joint or is moved out of place in the joint. Like a fracture, dislocations are extremely painful until the bone can be moved back into its proper position. For this reason, a dislocation patient should be monitored for shock. When a dislocation is suspected, it is critical that the injured area is not moved until it is immobilized by a splint or sling. When medical help arrives, a professional can put the bone back into position. Repositioning the bone should only be done by a professional.Symptoms of a dislocation include:DeformityLimited or abnormal movementSwellingDiscolorationPainShortening or lengthening of the limb
35SprainsA sprain is a stretch or tear in the ligaments and tendons around a joint.Symptoms:SwellingDiscolorationPainPossibly limited motionSprainsA sprain is a stretch or tear in the tissues around a joint. These tissues include ligaments and tendons. Sprains make the joints painful to use. Ankles and wrists are common areas for sprains. Sprains are treated by supporting the injured joint with elastic bandages or splints. Before an x-ray is taken, a sprain may be confused as a fracture. In such cases, the injury should be treated as though it is a fracture, until the specific injury can be confirmed through x-ray.Symptoms of a sprain include:SwellingDiscolorationPainPossibly limited motion
36StrainsA strain occurs when a muscle is overused or overstretched. Strain injuries are common in the back.Symptoms:Sudden painSwellingBruisingStrainsA strain occurs when a muscle is overused or overstretched. Common causes for strains are performing difficult physical tasks that the body is not accustomed to, such as lifting heavy objects, or stretching a muscle improperly during a fall. Strain injuries are common in the back.Symptoms of a strain include:Sudden painSwellingBruising
38Lesson 1– Wounds Injury that damages the body’s tissues Watch for excessive bleeding and infectionWoundsA wound is an injury that damages the body’s tissues. The two greatest concerns in regards to wounds include excessive bleeding and infection. So it is important for a health care worker to know both how to stop or slow bleeding and how to treat a wound properly to prevent infection.
39Lesson 1– Signs of Infection RednessSwellingPainHeatFeverPusRed streaks coming from the woundSigns of InfectionInfections can be very serious. Some infections, like tetanus, can cause death if they are not treated. It is important that health care workers be able to recognize the signs of infection so that it can be treated immediately. Signs of infection include:RednessSwellingPainHeatFeverPusRed streaks coming from the wound
40Lesson 1– Closed Wounds Damage to the tissue under the skin Caused when the body hits against a blunt object, such as in a bump or fallUsually heal on its own in a few weeksClosed WoundsA closed wound is an injury that causes damage to the tissue under the skin. Closed wounds are caused when the body hits against a blunt object, such as in a bump or fall. Contusions, or bruises, and black eyes are examples of closed wounds. A closed wound will usually heal on its own in a few weeks. Because skin is not broken, there is no external bleeding. Closed wounds are also unlikely to be threatened by infection. Therefore, the treatment for a closed wound is much different than the treatment for an open wound.
41Lesson 1– Open WoundsIncisions - clean wounds with regular, smooth edgesLacerations - rough, irregular wounds caused by jagged or blunt objects that crush or rip the skinAbrasions - wounds in which the top layer of skin is rubbed or scraped off by a rough surfacePunctures - caused when a sharp object, such as a nail or needle, pierces a hole in the skinAvulsions - wounds in which tissue is torn and separated from the bodyAmputations - wounds in which a body part is completely cut off of the body.Open WoundsAn open wound is an injury where the skin or mucous membrane is broken. Open wounds can be caused by a fall or when the body comes in contact with a sharp object. There are several types of open wounds.Incisions -Lacerations -Abrasions -Punctures -Avulsions -Amputations -
42Lesson 1– Minor Open Wounds Shallow and produce very little bloodNot life-threatening and can be treated at homeUntreated, or improperly treated, minor wounds can become infected or can cause tetanusMinor Open WoundsSome open wounds are classified as minor wounds. They are shallow and produce very little blood. They are not life-threatening and can be treated at home. However, they must be treated with care. Untreated, or improperly treated, minor wounds can become infected or can cause tetanus.
43Lesson 1– Major Open Wounds It is important to act quickly when treating a patient with a major wound because a patient can bleed to death in a short period of timeCare for a major wound includes stopping the bleeding and then cleaning and covering.When caring for major wounds, the health care worker should also check the patient’s vital signs, and watch for signs of shock.Major Open WoundsSome open wounds are classified as major or severe wounds. It is important to act quickly when treating a patient with a major wound. A patient can bleed to death in a short period of time. Care for a major wound includes stopping the bleeding and then cleaning and covering. However, because a major open wound causes a lot of bleeding and pain, the health care worker should also check the patient’s vital signs, and watch for signs of shock.
44Lesson 2– BurnsA burn is an injury caused by fire, heat, chemicals, radiation, or electricity.Burns are traumatic in that they can cause extreme pain, permanent disfigurement, psychological problems, and even death.BurnsA burn is an injury caused by fire, heat, chemicals, radiation, or electricity. Burns are traumatic in that they can cause extreme pain, permanent disfigurement, psychological problems, and even death. The three types of burns are thermal, chemical, and electrical. And there are three classifications of burns. They are first-degree, second-degree, and third-degree. In addition to type and classification, burns can also be described by extent and severity of the injury.
45Lesson 2 – Types of Burns Thermal Chemical Electrical Types of Burns Types of burns include thermal, chemical, and electrical.Thermal burns are perhaps the most common. They are caused by house fires and car accidents. They can also be caused by playing with matches and firecrackers. Other thermal burns are caused by scalding water, irons, stoves, and sunburn.Chemical burns are caused by contact with acids or alkaline. Contact includes ingesting, inhalation, and injection. People who work with harmful chemicals must take precautions to avoid contact with the skin or inhalation of dangerous fumes.Electrical burns are caused by faulty electrical wiring, chewing on electrical cords, high-voltage power lines, and the rare occurrence of lightening strikes. Electrical burns can pose a unique problem for health care workers. Treatment depends on whether or not the patient needs to be separated from the electrical source. A person who touches a live wire is often unable to let it go. In this case, the patient needs to be carefully separated from the electrical source using a nonconductive material, such as plastic, wood, or cardboard. Conductive material such as a person’s hands or metal should never be used. Using conductive material will result in the caregiver becoming electrocuted as well.
46Lesson 2– First-Degree Burns Superficial burnsMost mild burnDamages only the epidermisSymptoms:Hot, red, dry skinMild SwellingPainCauses:SunburnBrief contact with hot objects, steam, or weak acidsFirst-Degree BurnsFirst-degree burns are also called superficial burns. The first-degree burn is the most mild of classifications. It is a shallow burn that damages only the first layer of skin, called the epidermis.Symptoms of first-degree burns include hot, red, dry skin, mild swelling, and some pain. Causes of first-degree burns are sunburn and brief contact with hot objects, steam, or weak acids.Usually, a first-degree burn on a small area of the body is not serious and will heal in 5-6 days without leaving permanent scars.
47Lesson 2– Second-Degree Burns Partial-thickness burnsAffects the epidermis and the dermisSymptoms:Blister or vesicleSkin appears wet and mottledSwellingCauses:Boiling liquid and fireExtreme sunburnArtificial radiationSecond-Degree BurnsSecond-degree burns are also called partial-thickness burns. This type of burn affects both layers of skin, the epidermis and the dermis.Symptoms of a second-degree burn include a blister or vesicle. Skin may appear wet and mottled. Swelling, or edema, likely occurs. Causes of second-degree burns include exposure to boiling liquid, fire, extreme sunburn, and artificial radiation.Second-degree burns are very painful and may take 3 to 4 weeks to heal.
48Lesson 2– Third-Degree Burns Full-thickness burnsAffects the epidermis, dermis, the tissue beneath the skin, and possibly the muscles and bonesSymptoms:White or charred skinCauses:Fire and flamesExtended contact with hot objectsExposure to electricityImmersion in a boiling substanceThird-Degree BurnsThird-degree burns are also called full-thickness burns. This type is called a full-thickness burn because it is the deepest, or thickest, kind of burn. It affects both layers of skin and the tissues beneath the skin, known as subcutaneous tissue. The muscles and bones beneath the tissue might also be affected.Symptoms of a third-degree burn include skin that appears either white or charred. Charred skin has a black, brown, or red color. Causes of third-degree burns include fire and flames, extended contact with a hot object, exposure to electricity, and immersion in a boiling substance.A third-degree burn is a very serious injury that can be fatal. These injuries range from extremely painful to almost painless if nerve endings are destroyed. The patient’s skin is too badly damaged to heal and may require skin grafts. This type of burn may also cause other health complications. Patients may have breathing or heart problems, or they may go into shock. Any patient with a third-degree burn should receive professional medical care.
49Lesson 2– Extent and Severity of Burns Burns are also categorized based on the extent and severity of the injuryThe Rule of NinesAdults should get medical care if burns cover more than 15% of the bodyChildren should get medical care if burns cover more than 10% of the body.Another method for categorizing burns is a combination of the burn’s depth and its size.Extent and Severity of BurnsBurns are also categorized based on the extent and severity of the injury. The Rule of Nines and the Lund and Browder chart are methods that estimate the percentage of the body surface area, called BSA, that has been affected by the burn.With the Rule of Nines, an adult patient should get professional medical care if burns cover more than 15% of the body; children, if burns cover more than 10%. The percentage is determined by comparing the burn pattern on the patient to the Rule of Nines chart model and then adding the percentages to get a total. For example, an adult with a burn on the front of one leg and the front and back of one arm would have a burn percentage of 18%. This patient should see a medical professional.Another method for categorizing burns is a combination of the burn’s depth and its size. Depth refers to first-, second-, or third-degree. Size refers to BSA. This method classifies burns as minor, moderate, or major.
51Lesson 1– Foreign Bodies Objects or substances that have entered the body and do not belong thereRange in seriousness from a simple splinter in a foot or finger to the life-threatening situation of an object blocking a person’s airwayThe location determines type of careForeign BodiesForeign bodies are objects or substances that have entered the body and do not belong there. Foreign bodies range in seriousness from a simple splinter in a foot or finger to the life-threatening situation of an object blocking a person’s airway. The treatment for foreign bodies always involves removing the object. However, the similarity ends there. The location of the foreign body determines the specific type of care that should be provided.
52Lesson 1– Foreign Bodies in the Eye Common objects that can get into the eye include soap, beauty products, dirt, eyelashes, and insects.Sharp objects that are lodged in the eye should be removed by a doctor.Foreign Bodies in the EyeMild cases of foreign bodies in the eye are not unusual. Common objects that can get into the eye include soap, beauty products, dirt, eyelashes, and insects. These incidents are usually minor. However, foreign bodies in the eye can be very serious. Sharp objects, such as glass shards, can puncture the eye. Even a small object can cause scratches if the affected eye is rubbed. Sharp objects that are lodged in the eye should be removed by a doctor.
53Lesson 1– Foreign Bodies in the Ear Common objects that can get into the ear include insects, small objects, and chemicals.Generally, objects in the outer part of the ear do not cause significant damage, and they often fall out when the head is gently shaken .More stubborn objects can usually be removed with blunt tweezers or forceps.Foreign Bodies in the EarForeign bodies in the ear can range from mild to serious. Common objects that can get into the ear include insects, small objects, and chemicals. Generally, objects in the outer part of the ear do not cause significant damage, and they often fall out when the head is gently shaken. More stubborn objects can usually be removed with blunt tweezers or forceps. Serious cases occur when a foreign body causes the eardrum to rupture or perforate.
54Lesson 1– Flushing Objects from the Ear If an object cannot be removed from the ear using tweezers, the ear can be flushed with a few drops of warm oil or water.If flushing the ear does not remove the object, then the patient should seek medical help.Flushing Objects from the EarIf an object cannot be removed from the ear using tweezers, the ear can be flushed with a few drops of warm oil or water. The head is tilted away from the affected ear. Then the ear is pulled up and back, to straighten the canal. The water or warm oil is placed in the ear using an eyedropper. Then the head is tilted so that the oil or water and the object will pour out. If flushing the ear does not remove the object, then the patient should seek medical help.
55Lesson 1– Foreign Bodies in the Nose Common objects that can get into the nostrils include insects and chemicals that are accidentally inhaled.Children are also famous for placing objects such as coins, buttons, pebbles, marbles and other small toys in their noses.In most cases, the foreign body can be safely removed without medical help.Foreign Bodies in the NoseMost cases of foreign bodies in the nose are minor. Common objects that can get into the nostrils include insects and chemicals that are accidentally inhaled. Children are also famous for placing objects such as coins, buttons, pebbles, marbles and other small toys in their noses. In most cases, the foreign body can be safely removed. However, if an item is stuck, get medical help.
56Lesson 1– Foreign Bodies in the Skin Common objects that can get into the skin include splinters, insect stingers, and fish hooks.In most cases, the foreign body can be safely removed without professional medical help.Foreign Bodies in the SkinMost cases of foreign bodies in the skin are minor. Common objects that can get into the skin include splinters, insect stingers, and fish hooks. In most cases, the foreign body can be safely removed without professional medical help. However, if an item is stuck, be sure to get help.
57Lesson 2– PoisonsAny substance that causes injury, illness, or death when it enters or comes in contact with the body.Poison may be swallowed, injected, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin.Exact treatment for poisoning varies according to the substance, the amount, the way it enters the body, and whether the patient is conscious or unconscious.PoisonsPoison is any substance that causes injury, illness, or death when it enters or comes in contact with the body. Most poisonings occur in the home from household cleaners, beauty products, or other substances. They may be swallowed, injected, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. Another method of poisoning is abusing alcohol or prescribed or illegal drugs. Poisoning can also be caused by plants and insect and snakebites.Exact treatment for poisoning varies according to the substance, the amount, and the way it enters the body. Also, treatment for a conscious patient differs from that for an unconscious patient. Some poisons can be fatal, so it is critical to treat poisoning quickly and correctly.
58Lesson 2– The Poison Control Center In most cases, poison does not enter the bloodstream right away, so fast action can prevent injury or death.If a patient has swallowed or inhaled poison, the health care worker should call EMS or the local Poison Control Center immediately.The Poison Control Center is prepared to help treat poison cases by giving specific instructions over the phone.The Poison Control CenterAll poisoning requires quick action. In most cases, poison does not enter the bloodstream right away, so fast action can prevent injury or death. If a patient has swallowed or inhaled poison, the health care worker should call EMS or the local Poison Control Center, or PCC, immediately. The Poison Control Center is prepared to help treat poison cases by giving specific instructions over the phone.The national Poison Control Center hotline is Health care workers should also be aware of the phone number for their local Poison Control Centers.
59Lesson 2– Signs of Poisoning Symptoms of poisoning:Burns or redness around mouth and lipsBreath that smells like chemicalsVomitingDifficulty breathingSleepiness or confusionDramatic changes in appearance or behaviorSigns of PoisoningAn ill or unconscious patient combined with an open or empty container of a poisonous substance can indicate poisoning.In addition, people who have been poisoned can experience any of the following symptoms:Burns or redness around mouth and lipsBreath that smells like chemicalsVomitingDifficulty breathingSleepiness or confusionDramatic changes in appearance or behavior
60Lesson 2– Gather Information What is the poisonous agent?How did the poison enter the body?How much poison entered the body?What time did the poison enter the body?Gather InformationWhen treating a patient for poisoning, quickly gather as much information as possible. Treatment may depend on the answers to four important questions:What is the poisonous agent?How did the poison enter the body?How much poison entered the body?What time did the poison enter the body?If possible, ask the patient and any witnesses for information. Look for clues, such as an open or empty bottle or chemical stains on clothes. If the poison is a commercial product in a container, read the label for instructions about treatment, and save the container or label for EMS. If the patient vomits, gather a sample of the vomit. The sample can help medical professionals see how much poison is in the patient’s system.
62Lesson 1– Exposure to Heat Overexposure can cause a chemical imbalance that prevents the body’s cooling system from working properlyCauses include:Being in extreme heat for too longWorking or exercising on a hot dayIllnesses, such as heart conditions, diabetes, and high blood pressureExposure to HeatThe body works hard to keep itself cool. If body temperature rises just a few degrees, the heart must pump harder to get blood to the muscles and to the skin. Blood at the skin’s surface helps the body perspire. Perspiration moistens and cools the surface of the skin. Usually this cooling system works.However, if too much water and salt are lost from the body through excessive perspiration, there can be serious consequences. Overexposure to heat can cause a chemical imbalance inside the body. If the situation is not properly addressed, the effects can be fatal.Some causes of overexposure to heat include being in extreme heat for too long, working or exercising on a hot day, and illnesses, such as heart conditions, diabetes, and high blood pressure. All of these occurrences can affect the body’s ability to cool itself.When the body is unable to cool itself, a heat-induced condition occurs. These conditions include heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke.
63Lesson 1– Heat CrampsHeat cramps occur when a person perspires a lot, usually through working or exercising on a hot day.A heat cramp is essentially a muscle cramp.Symptoms:Muscle painMuscle spasmHeat CrampsHeat cramps occur when a person perspires a lot, usually through working or exercising on a hot day. This causes the body to lose water and salt. If the person does not drink fluids to replace the water and salt, heat cramps may result.A heat cramp is essentially a muscle cramp. Often, the cramps affect the calves, back, abdomen, or arm muscles. However, any muscle can be affected.Symptoms of a heat cramp include muscle pain or spasm.
64Lesson 1– Heat Exhaustion Similar to heat cramps, heat exhaustion also occurs when the body loses too much water and salt through perspiration.Symptoms:Pale and clammy skinExcessive perspirationWeakness and tirednessHeadacheHeat crampsNausea and dizzinessVomiting or faintingHeat ExhaustionSimilar to heat cramps, heat exhaustion also occurs when the body loses too much water and salt through perspiration. A patient with heat exhaustion must be monitored carefully because heat exhaustion can quickly lead to a life-threatening condition called heat stroke.Symptoms of heat exhaustion include pale and clammy skin, excessive perspiration, weakness, tiredness, headache, heat cramps, nausea and dizziness, or even vomiting or fainting. People with heat exhaustion may also have a low-grade fever, usually 104º Fahrenheit or less.
65Lesson 1– Heat StrokeA heat stroke occurs when heat causes high blood pressure and very high body temperature.Symptoms:Red, dry, flushed skinRapid, shallow breathingHigh temperatureFast, strong pulseSeizureIrritability and confusionUnconsciousnessHeat StrokeThe most serious condition caused by heat exposure is the heat stroke. Heat stroke can be fatal. A heat stroke occurs when heat causes high blood pressure and very high body temperature. In fact, during a heat stroke, body temperature can rise to 105º Fahrenheit or higher. If left untreated, this high fever can cause brain damage.Symptoms of heat stroke include red, dry, flushed skin; rapid, shallow breathing; a high temperature; and a fast, strong pulse. Other symptoms include seizure, irritability, confusion, or unconsciousness.
66Lesson 2– Exposure to Cold Cold temperatures cause the body to shiver, which helps to keep it warm. However, even shivering is unable to keep the body warm in some conditions.Causes of exposure to cold include:Improper dressImmersion in very cold waterAn affect of illnessesExposure to ColdCold temperatures cause the body to shiver, which helps to keep it warm. However, even shivering is unable to keep the body warm in some conditions. Exposure to cold as a result of improper dress, immersion in very cold water, or as an affect of illnesses, can lower body temperature below the normal 98.6º Fahrenheit. Prolonged exposure to cold can cause hypothermia and frostbite.
67Lesson 2– HypothermiaA patient with hypothermia will have a temperature reading below 95°F.Hypothermia can be caused by submersion in extremely cold water. It can also result from spending too much time in cool, damp environments.Symptoms:ShiveringNumbnessDrowsinessConfusionPoor coordinationUnconsciousnessHypothermiaA patient with hypothermia will have a temperature reading below 95°F. Hypothermia can lead to death if a patient’s temperature falls below 93°F for a period of time.Hypothermia can be caused by submersion in extremely cold water. It can also result from spending too much time in cool, damp environments or in temperatures that are below freezing. Both the very young and the very old of age are at the greatest risk of hypothermia. Their bodies have the most difficulties regulating body temperature.Symptoms of hypothermia include any of the following.ShiveringNumbnessDrowsinessConfusionPoor coordinationUnconsciousness
68Lesson 2– FrostbiteFrostbite occurs when skin and the tissues and fluids beneath it freeze from exposure to extremely cold temperatures.Symptoms:Redness and tinglingNumbness and white or gray/yellow, glossy skinBlistersConfusionFatigue and weaknessUnconsciousnessFrostbiteFrostbite occurs when skin and the tissues and fluids beneath it freeze from exposure to extremely cold temperatures. Frostbite usually affects fingers, toes, ears, and the nose. The longer a person is exposed to cold, the more serious the damage. In time, the tissue cells in the affected area can die. In this case, frostbitten areas need to be amputated.The initial symptoms of frostbite are redness and tingling in a certain area after exposure to cold. These symptoms are followed by numbness and white or gray/yellow, glossy skin. Blisters may appear as well. The area may be numb, or it may be painful. If exposure continues, symptoms may include confusion, tiredness and weakness, and even unconsciousness.