Presentation on theme: "Photosynthesis Photosynthesis song. Keystone Anchors BIO.A.3.2.1 Compare the basic transformation of energy during photosynthesis and cellular respiration."— Presentation transcript:
Photosynthesis Photosynthesis song
Keystone Anchors BIO.A Compare the basic transformation of energy during photosynthesis and cellular respiration. BIO.A Describe the role of ATP in biochemical reactions
Where does all of our energy come from?
How do plants get food? Photosynthesis - Process by which green plants or organism with chlorophyll convert _______ energy into _____________ energy in the bonds of carbohydrates ________________ – Can transfer energy to produce food – can synthesize food _________________ – Must obtain energy from preformed food – gotta eat food! chemical light Autotrophic Heterotrophic
TYPE I Explain the process of photosynthesis using the diagram on the previous page. Use at least 3 lines.
THE FORMULA _____________________________________ chlorophyll enzymes Seems simple, huh? Takes EIGHTY different chemical reactions from start to finish carbon dioxide + water + lightglucose + oxygen
Where does Photosynthesis happen? In the _________________! Chloroplasts are oval structure consisting of stacks called grana (photosynthetic membranes) and a liquid called stroma. Chlorophyll is found in the stacked grana chloroplasts
Light Reaction occurs in the... Calvin Cycle occurs in the...
ATP IT’S ENERGY When chlorophyll absorbs light, it is absorbing energy It stores it in the __________ of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) bonds
ATP v ADP
Section 4.1 Review What is the difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph? How are ADP and ATP related? What are the reactants of photosynthesis? The products? Autotroph—makes own food Heterotroph—needs to eat food ADP is missing a phosphate (and energy) ATP has all 3 phosphate and lots of energy They go back and forth carbon dioxide + water + lightglucose + oxygen
2 Main Steps of PS Step 1 1. Light reactions —occurs only in the presence of ___________ Occurs in the grana (thylakoids) of the chloroplasts Also known as Photolysis because light is used to __________ _________ molecules into hydrogen and oxygen light split water
2 Main steps of PS Step 2 1. Dark Reactions —can occur in light ____ darkness. Follows light reactions Occurs in the stroma of the chloroplasts Also known as Carbon fixation because CO 2 will get “fixed up” with the hydrogens and energy from the light reaction or
Light Reactions 1. Chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight. Water is __________ _________ Oxygen is ______________ 2. Oxygen leaves the plant and goes into the air broken down released
The Dark Reactions 1. _________ is added to a cycle of reactions to build larger molecules 2. _________ from the light reaction is added to CO 2 3. A molecule of simple sugar is formed _____________ CO 2 glucose H
Process Box Look at the diagram of photosynthesis from the previous slide. What are the names of the two reactions that are occurring in the chloroplasts Describe what reactants are going in and what products are going out.
Section 4.2 Review What is the role of chlorophyll in photosynthesis? What goes in the light reactions? What comes out? What goes in the dark reactions? What comes out? Absorbs energy from sunlight IN: light and water OUT: Oxygen IN: CO 2 OUT: Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 )
Nicholl REACTION TYPE What goes into it? What comes out of it? (What is Created?) Does it need light? Does it need the dark? What gets split? What gets ‘fixed up’? Light Reaction ‘DARK’ Reaction (Calvin Cycle) H2OH2O Sunlight Hydrogen Oxygen CO 2 Water Yes No Nothing H goes into the dark cycle GlucoseNo Nothing
1.What is the definition of Photosynthesis? 2.What are the reactants for Photosynthesis? 3. What are the products? 4. What happens during the light reaction of Photosynthesis? 5. What is made during the Calvin Cycle? 6. In what structure is chlorophyll found within a chloroplast? PHOTOSYNTHESIS REVIEW
7.What occurs in the stroma of a chloroplast? 8.Why is the Calvin cycle referred to as the “dark” reaction? 9.Does the light reaction have to occur in the light? Does the dark reaction have to occur in the dark? 10. Why is glucose so valuable to all living things? 11. Why are plants known as autotrophs (or “producers”)? 12. If you eat a hamburger for dinner, how is it that you are eating energy that was made by plants? 13.Plants store energy in many ways. For example, a carrot is the root part of a plant that stores lots of energy (that’s why carrots are SO good for you!!). 14. Name 3 other parts of a plant that store high energy? PHOTOSYNTHESIS REVIEW
Process Box Think about what our body need to take in to live? What does your body produce as waste products as a result of living?
Cellular Respiration Chapter 4 Glucose + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water + ATP Photosynthesis and food
The route from food to energy ________ Then With oxygen Aerobic Respiration Without oxygen Fermentation Alcoholi c Lactic Acid Goes through Glycolysis Not a lot of ATP made GLUCOSE
Glycolysis Breaks glucose down into 2 pyruvic acid molecules Occurs in ______________ cytoplasm
Glycolysis 2 ATP invested 4 ATP generated ___ “net” ATP gained 2
Fermentation Occurs after glycolysis Does ______ require oxygen ______________ Switches NADH back into NAD+ Allows glycolysis to continue not Anaerobic
Pyruvate cytoplasm Allows Glycolysis to continue to make 2 ATP’s No OXYGEN Present Occurs in mammals when O 2 runs out Causes burning muscles Acidity causes muscle pain Broken down over time (when O 2 becomes available again) A muscle will “cramp” without ATP Bacteria can also create lactic acid – and we use them to create pickles, and milk curdles in lactic acid = yogurt!
Pyruvate cytoplasm Allows Glycolysis to continue to make 2 ATP’s No OXYGEN Present Occurs in Yeast Makes alcohol CO 2 gas causes bread to rise (alcohol evaporates in the oven!)
Section 4.4 Review—Part A Where does glycolysis take place? What goes into glycolysis? What comes out of glycolysis? Why does fermentation occur? What are the two different types of fermentation? Cytoplasm IN: GlucoseOUT: 2 ATP & 3 carbon molecule No oxygen present Lactic acidAlcoholic
Aerobic Respiration After glycolysis Only in _______________ Require _________ _________ process NOT THE SAME AS REGULAR RESPIRATION! eukaryotes oxygen Aerobic
Where does aerobic respiration happen? In the mitochondria! _______________ are organelles that convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use Mitochondria
2 Main steps of Aerobic Respiration 1. Kreb’s cycle o Pyruvic acid is broken down into ________ in a series of energy-extracting reactions 2 ATP are generated CO 2
2 Main steps of Aerobic Respiration 2. __________ ___________ ________ o Uses high energy electrons from the Kreb’s cycle to convert ADP into ATP o _____________ are produced Electron transport chain 32 ATP
Energy Carrying Molecule From Krebs Cycle 90% of Glucose Energy!! H20H20 + mitochondria Breathed out of the body!!
AEROBIC RESPIRATION PROCESSLOCATIONINOUT# of ATP Produced Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Fermentation cytoplasm mitochondria cytoplasm Glucose Pyruvic acid oxygen Pyruvic acid 2 Pyruvic acid Carbon dioxide water NAD
Section 4.4 Review—Part B Where does aerobic respiration take place? What goes into the Kreb’s cycle? What comes out? What goes into electron transport? What comes out? How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration related? Mitochondria IN: 3 carbon moleculeOUT: ATP, CO 2 IN: OxygenOUT: Water and ATP!!! Reactants of one are basically the products of the other
1.What are the 3 stages of Cellular Respiration, and how many ATP’s are created with each? 2.What is the “fuel” that allows cellular respiration to begin? 3.How is Glycolysis different than Krebs and E.T.C.? 4.Why do humans not depend as much on Glycolysis for energy? 5.Muscle pain after a workout is a result of the buildup of what substance? RESPIRATION REVIEW Glycolosis -2 ATP Kreb’s Cycle – 2 ATP Electron Transport Chain – 32 ATP Glucose Glycolosis take place in the cytoplasm. Krebs and ETC in the mitochondria Only produces 2 ATP Lactic Acid
6. What is the role of oxygen in the electron transport chain? 7.What is the role of NADH during cellular respiration? 8.By what process do we create products such as yogurt, sauerkraut, and pickles? 9.What organisms can make alcohol? 10.What organisms can make lactic acid? RESPIRATION REVIEW Final H+ acceptor Provides H+ for ETC Lactic acid fermentation yeast mammals
7.Consider a person who runs a 5K. Afterward, he is breathing heavily because he is oxygen deficient. He is complaining of weak legs and is sweating profusely. 12. Because he is low in oxygen, what will accumulate in his muscles? 13. Breathing heavily allows more oxygen to be taken in. What is the role of oxygen? 14. Breathing heavily also allows excess CO 2 to be removed. What process forms the CO 2 ? 15. Sweat helps keep the body cool. How are sweating and ATP related? 16. What is the waste product of E.T.C.? 17. What do you think the FIRST thing this runner will do after he finishes the race? RESPIRATION SCENERIO Lactic acid_ Pick up H+ Krebs ATP produces heat and sweat cools the body water Drink water
Light energy chemical energy Chloroplasts Water + CO 2 + Light Oxygen + Sugar Water + CO 2 + ATP Oxygen + Sugar Water + CO 2 + Light Oxygen + Sugar Water + CO 2 + ATP Cytoplasm + Mitochondria Sugar ATP