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ERGONOMICS Recognition of Work-Related Musculoskeletal, Nerve Disease.

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Presentation on theme: "ERGONOMICS Recognition of Work-Related Musculoskeletal, Nerve Disease."— Presentation transcript:

1 ERGONOMICS Recognition of Work-Related Musculoskeletal, Nerve Disease

2 What is Ergonomics? Ergonomics is the science of fitting the job to the worker. Ergonomics refers to a work environment designed to maximize safety and increase productivity.

3 What is Ergonomics Gone Bad? When there is a mismatch between the physical requirements of the job and the physical capacity of the worker, work- related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) may result.

4 Repetitive motion injury Cumulative trauma disorder Musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) Repetitive stress injury Sprains, strains, tears Ergonomic Disease

5 Musculoskeletal Disorders Injuries or disorders of: –muscles –tendons –ligaments –nerves (compression or entrapment) –spinal discs –joints and cartilage

6 Muscle pain Joint pain Swelling Numbness Restricted motion Low back pain Signs and Symptoms

7 Musculoskeletal Disorders Upper Extremities Upper Back Lower Back Feet and Legs Hands Arms Shoulder Neck

8 Benefits of Good Ergonomics Decreased injury risk Increased productivity Decreased mistakes/rework Decreased lost work days Decreased turnover Improved moral

9 Risk Factors for Ergonomic Hazards

10 Repetitive Motion/Cycle Same repetitive task Use of same muscle groups Short cycle (~<2/min)

11 Awkward Posture Overhead Reach Twisting

12 Force Heavy lifting Forceful exertions, pulling, pushing, twisting

13 Contact Stress Using the hand or knee as a “hammer”

14 Vibration Whole body vibration –e.g.., Crane operators, truck drivers Segmental vibration –Pneumatic tools, grinders

15 Risk Factors Also Depend On: Duration of stress Amount of recovery time Temperature –Decrease blood flow to muscles (cold)

16 And a Higher Risk Occurs When: Risk factors are multiple

17 Controlling Ergonomic Hazards

18 Control Hierarchy 1)Engineering controls Physical changes 2)Administrative controls Employee rotation Change of pace Job enlargement 3)Work practice controls Utilization of better procedures, posture 4)Personal Protective equipment

19 Manual Material Handling and Back Protection

20 Acute: –Where the injury arises from a single identifiable event - when transient loads exceed internal tolerances. Chronic: –Where repeated trauma (albeit incapable of injury in isolation), after sufficient duration, reduces internal capacity resulting in eventual injury. –Microtrauma Acute vs. Chronic Stressors

21 Back Injury Muscle Ligament Vertebrae Discs

22 Ergonomic Risk Factors for Backs Awkward posture Sitting Static, bent postures Fatigue/aging Whole body vibration

23 Ergonomic Risk Factors for Backs Handling excessive weight/force Load size Frequency of lifting Grip consideration Poor physical condition

24 Kinds of Back Injuries Back strains-When weak or tense muscles are stretched beyond their limit Back sprains-A partial or complete tear of a back ligament Herniated discs-Resulting when stress, strain or gradual deterioration on a disc causes it to stick out between the vertebrae Ruptured discs-When the wall of a disc breaks open.

25 Upper Extremities Work- Related MSDs

26 Effects Pain Inflammation Swelling Numbness Decrease in range of motion Loss of function Cycle of injury

27 UECTD Risk Factors Awkward Wrist Postures

28 Tendon Disorders Tendonitis: –Fibers can become inflamed, fray or tear apart, tendons can thicken, become bumpy and irregular and without sufficient recovery time become permanently weakened

29 Tendon Disorders Epicondylitis Lateral epicondylitis - tennis elbow (inflammation of tendon fibers - outside of elbow) Source: American Society for Surgery of the Hand Medial epicondylitis or golfers elbow (inside)

30 Tendon Disorders Rotator cuff tendonitis Source:NIH, Medline Plus Repetitive overhead work Elevated elbows

31 Tendons Stenosing Tenosynovitis (progressive restriction of the synovial sheath) De Quervain’s disease (thumb tendons)

32 Tendons Tenosynovitis (injury of the synovial sheath) Source: Cleveland Clinic Ganglionic cyst (swelling of the synovial fluid) Trigger finger (stenosing tenosynovitis crepitans)

33 Nerve Disorders Injuries or disorders of the median nerve: –Carpal tunnel syndrome (compression of he median nerve as it passes through the carpal tunnel) –Pronator syndrome (compression of median nerve as it passes between the two heads of the pronator teres muscle)

34 Cubital Tunnel Pain/Numbness

35 Bursitis Shoulder Bursitis - Bursa irritated and thickens with overuse

36 Neurovascular Disorders Thoracic outlet syndrome - Caused by compression of the neurovascular bundle from repetitive activities overhead or with the arm pulled down towards the back

37 Neck Disorders Tension or ache in the neck (local muscle tightness/spasm) Numbness in the arms or hands (nerve impingement)

38 Lower Extremities Work- Related MSDs

39 Knee Disorders Chondromalacia: degeneration (softening) of the cartilage on the posterior aspect of the kneecap Bursitis of the knee

40 Lower leg disorders Shin splints: involve damage to one of two groups of muscles along the shin bone (caused by standing for a long time or repetitive stress to the lower leg)

41 Foot Disorders Plantar fasciitis (inflammation of the plantar fascia--the tissue that forms the arch of the foot) Tarsal tunnel syndrome (entrapment of the tibial nerve)

42 Reduce forces Work Tool Design

43 Use power grip Work Tool Design

44 Use optimal grasp span Work Tool Design

45 Work Environmental Concerns (Heat Stress,Energy Expenditure and Vibration)

46 Heat Disorders Heat stroke Heat exhaustion Heat cramp Heat collapse Heat rash Heat fatigue

47 Iron and steel foundries Nonferrous foundries Brickfiring and ceramic plants Glass product facilities Rubber product factories Heat Stress Operations

48 Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Heat Age Weight Degree of physical fitness and acclimatization Metabolism

49 Environmental Factors Air movement Humidity Conduction Radiant heat exchange

50 Engineering Controls Ventilation Air cooling Fans Shielding Insulation

51 Types of Vibration Whole Body Hand-Arm (HAVS)

52 Summary When there is a mismatch between the physical requirements of the job and the physical capacity of the worker, work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) may result. Risk Factors for ergonomic hazards: –Repetitive motion cycle –Awkward posture –Force –Contact stress –Vibration Upper extremities work-related MSD’s Lower extremities work-related MSD’s


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