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Catherine Breed. What Is the Muscular System? What does it do?

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Presentation on theme: "Catherine Breed. What Is the Muscular System? What does it do?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Catherine Breed

2 What Is the Muscular System? What does it do?

3  The main purpose of muscles is to help with movement  Muscles are bundles of cells and fibers.  Muscles work in a very simple way. All they do is tighten up, contract, and relax.  You have two sets of muscles attached to many of your bones which allow them to move.  There are 650 active muscles in your body and they act in groups.  Muscles can only pull. They never push. They never push  Three different types of muscle tissue: Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth  Two different types of muscles: involuntary, and voluntary  ?What do you think is an example of an involuntary and voluntary muscle? (info1, info2(info1, info2) LETS WATCH QUICK VIDEO VIDEO

4 What makes up the muscular system? What are the muscles called? How on earth do they move?

5 TENDONS: Skeletal muscles are attactched to the bone by tendons Tendons pull the bones up and down to work like levers Most skeletal muscles work in pairs, where one pulls one direction and the other pulls the other

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8 The Three Types of Muscle Tissue CARDIAC Cardiac: Found ONLY in the HEART (you can remember that by knowing that the Greek word for HEART is -cardio) Cardiac muscles are striated Cells are smaller than Skeletal Muscle cells They can have 1 or 2 nuclei The Cardiac muscle is Involuntary In control of pumping blood through the hearts chambers to the rest of the body Muscles are connected by intercalated disks

9 The Three Types of Muscle Tissue SMOOTH Smooth : Smooth muscles are the types of muscles that protect your organs in your body, such as your lungs and stomach. Smooth muscles are involuntary. Smooth muscles are spindle shaped, have one nucleus, and they aren’t striated (muscle tissue in which the contractile fibrils in the cells are aligned in parallel bundles, so that their different regions form stripes visible in a microscope.) They move food through your digestive tract, control direction of blood flow, and they control the size of your pupils

10 The Three Types of Muscle Tissue SKELETAL SkeletalSkeletal: Skeletal muscles are attached to bones in the skeletal system(hence the name skeletal) Sometimes called Striated muscles due to the dark bands or stripes called striations seen in the tissue Complete Skeletal muscles consist of: muscle fibers, connective tissue, blood vessels and nerves Skeletal muscles are large Contain many nuclei Skeletal muscles are Voluntary

11 SKELETAL MUSCLE TISSUE ~~how it moves~~ Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter released by vesicles in the axon terminals Acetylcholine molecules diffuse across the synapse and produce an impulse in the cell membrane of the fiber Muscles remain contracted until the release acetylcholine stops, causing an enzyme to be produced at the axon terminal. This video should explain the rest of itvideo Motor Neurons connect the central nervous system to skeletal muscles Impulses from motor neurons control the contraction of skeletal muscle fibers The point at which motor neurons meet the skeletal muscles is called Neuromuscular Junction

12 Muscle Contracti on Myosin-proteins that make up thick filaments Actin- proteins that make up thin filaments A muscle contracts when the thin filaments in the muscle fiber slide over the thick filaments The energy for muscle contraction is supplied by ATP This site is pretty simple in showing the Muscular system and other informationMuscular system

13 Has anyone died from a Muscular disease? What happens if something goes wrong?

14 List of Muscular Disorders:

15 More common Muscle Disorders: Muscular Dystrophy: Broad term to describe a genetic (inherited) disorder Compartment Syndromes: Compartment syndrome involves the compression of nerves and blood vessels within an enclosed space. Dermatomyositis:inflammatory muscle disease Eosinophilia-Myalgia Syndrome: A complex systemic syndrome with inflammatory and autoimmune components that affect the skin, fascia, muscle, nerve, blood vessels, lung, and heart. Fibromyalgia:Fibromyalgia is a debilitating chronic illness characterized by diffuse pain, fatigue, and a wide range of other symptoms. It is a syndrome, not a disease Isaacs Syndrome: A rare neuromuscular disorder with onset usually in late childhood or early adulthood, characterized by intermittent or continuous widespread involuntary muscle contractions; Mitochondrial Myopathies: A group of muscle diseases associated with abnormal mitochondria function. Polymyalgia Rheumatica: A syndrome in the elderly characterized by proximal joint and muscle pain, Rhabdomyolysis:Rhabdomyolysis is the breakdown of muscle fibers resulting in the release of muscle fiber contents into the circulationfiber Tendonitis : Inflammation of tendons and of tendon-muscle attachments. Tenosynovitis: Inflammation of a tendon sheath. info1 info2

16 Muscle Cramp:A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers Muscle Rigidity: Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction Muscle Spasticity:A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. Muscular Disorders, Atrophic: Disorders characterized by an abnormal reduction in muscle volume due to a decrease in the size or number of muscle fibers Myofascial Pain Syndromes: Muscular pain in numerous body regions that can be reproduced by pressure on trigger points, localized hardenings in skeletal muscle tissue. Myopathies, Structural, Congenital: A heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by the early onset of hypotonia, developmental delay of motor skills, non-progressive weakness Myositis: Inflammation of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL). Paralyses, Familial Periodic: Diseases characterized by MYOTONIA, which may be inherited or acquired. Polymyositis:is a systemic connective tissue disorder characterized by inflammatory and degenerative changes in the muscles. These 2 sites provide gret information on many of the more common muscular disorders: Muscle Diseases Muscular Diseases Categories

17 How can I keep my muscles toned? So I can look like these guys?….

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19 Keep your muscles in tone by….. Eating healthy nutritious foods Proteins repairs muscle tissues Carbs will give you energy and help repair your muscles Exercising ex.Weightlifting Sit-ups Drinking Water Stretching

20 Extra information from: Biology Book Pages: State Standards: a.Students know how the complementary activity of major body systems provides cells with oxygen and nutrients and removes toxic waste products such as carbon dioxide b. Students know how the nervous system mediates communication between different parts of the body and the body's interactions with the environment. c.Students know the cellular and molecular basis of muscle contraction, including the roles of actin, myosin, Ca+2, and ATP.


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