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Heat-Related Illness in the Outdoor Environment

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Presentation on theme: "Heat-Related Illness in the Outdoor Environment"— Presentation transcript:

1 Heat-Related Illness in the Outdoor Environment
WAC Employee Training for WAC Taken largely from the Division of Occupational Safety & Health revision from Washington State Department of Labor and Industries

2 Presentation Outline Heat-related illness regulation
Types of heat-related illness Signs and symptoms of heat-related illness Environmental factors that contribute to the risk of heat-related illness Personal factors that may increase susceptibility to heat-related illness How to prevent heat-related illness Emergency response procedures to heat-related illness Ultraviolet radiation

3 Heat Illness Regulations WAC 296-62-095
Requires: Employers with one or more employees performing work in an outdoor environment to implement workplace practices designed to reduce or eliminate risk of heat-related illness. Practices must be in writing, and must include: Accessibility to drinking water in sufficient quantity to provide at least one quart per employee per hour Procedures to remove employees experiencing signs and symptoms of heat-related illness from duty, to provide sufficient means to reduce body temperature, and to determine if medical attention is needed Employee training must be provided initially and annually

4 Heat-Related Illness Heat illness can effect anyone
Why is it important to know about heat illness? Heat illness can effect anyone Heat illness is dangerous Heat illness can kill Heat illness is preventable NASA

5 Heat-Related Illness Risk of heat-related illness occurs in:
Heat illness is: Overheating of the body, potentially resulting in the inability of the body to cool itself Risk of heat-related illness occurs in: Any outdoor profession Temperatures greater than 75° or with a 10° spike in temperature High humidity (approaching 80% or greater)

6 Types of Heat-Related Illnesses
Heat Rash-red rash appears, often under clothing Heat Cramps-painful spasms usually in arms or legs, results in abnormal posture or grasping of legs or arms Heat Fatigue-impaired sensorimotor and/or mental performance Heat Exhaustion (stress)-symptoms include fainting, nausea, profuse sweating, headache, disorientation, and irritability Heat Stroke-symptoms include convulsions, hot, dry skin, loss of consciousness, and can be fatal

7 Heat Rash Heat Rash Red blister-like eruptions Itching or prickling
Keep skin dry Monitor for infection Consult physician

8 Heat Cramps=Muscle Cramps
A muscle cramp is an involuntarily and forcibly contracted muscle or fibers of a muscle that does not relax (i.e., a muscle spasm that doesn’t relax is a muscle cramp) Muscle cramps can last a few seconds, a quarter of an hour, and occasionally longer Muscle cramps can recur multiple times Muscle spasms and cramps are painful Heat cramps usually occur in the arm, leg or stomach muscles

9 Heat Fatigue Recognized when a person exhibits impaired sensorimotor or mental performance Person may faint Seek treatment ASAP before heat fatigue progresses to heat exhaustion

10 Heat Exhaustion and Heat Stroke
Take symptoms of both seriously Untreated heat exhaustion can progress to heat stroke & heat stroke can kill! When the body can’t cool itself, body temp can reach 106° in minutes Dehydration Heat Exhaustion Heat Stroke Heat exhaustion and heat stroke occur when the body becomes dehydrated – loses too much water. NOTE: pesticide poisoning and heat stroke have similar symptoms. This is more likely to occur in agriculture. If there is any doubt about the illness, get medical help immediately. Both pesticide poisoning and heat stroke can be life-threatening and require prompt treatment. Heat exhaustion or stroke can develop rapidly or over a few days

11 Heat Exhaustion & Heat Stroke
Learn to Recognize the Signs & Symptoms HEAT EXHAUSTION HEAT STROKE Dizziness or light-headed Weakness Extreme sweating Fatigue Red Face Mood changes, irritability or confusion High pulse rate Pale, clammy skin/ face Headache Nausea/Vomiting Normal to slightly elevated temperature Blurred vision Unsteady gait Fainting Disorientation Erratic behavior Hot, dry skin/face that is flushed, but not sweating Red face Mood changes, irritability, agitation, or confusion Rapid pulse Chills/Shivering Restlessness Nausea/Vomiting High temperature (>104° F) Convulsions and/or seizures Loss of consciousness Coma May resemble a heart attack

12 Heat Stroke or Heat Exhaustion
Telling the Difference! Mental confusion/disorientation occurs in ALL heat stroke victims Ask the person these 3 questions: “What is your name?” “What day is this?” “Where are we?” If the person can’t answer these questions assume it is heat stroke!

13 2.6 million sweat glands in the body
How We-Stay Cool! Gland (hypothalamus) in the brain controls body heat Blood flows to skins surface to cool itself Body sweats Sweat evaporates off skin and has a cooling effect on the body 2.6 million sweat glands in the body

14 Monitor Heat and Humidity
It is important to monitor heat and humidity values each workday, all day, in hot and/or humid weather

15 Environmental Risk Factors Humidity and Heat
Humidity (moisture in the air) interferes with sweat evaporating from the skin thus interferes with the cooling of the body The more humid it is, the less sweat can evaporate, and the less body cooling occurs, and the more chance of heat-related illness Heat and humidity together greatly increase the potential for heat-related illness

16 Heat Index Warnings Heat + Humidity = Heat Index
General Effect of Heat + Humidity with Prolonged Exposure & Physical Activity Caution 80-89 Fatigue possible Extreme Caution 90-104 Heat stroke, heat cramps, and heat exhaustion possible Danger Heat stroke, heat cramps, and heat exhaustion likely, and heat stroke possible Extreme Danger 130 or higher Heat stroke highly likely May feel effects at 80° Implement controls at 90° or before

17 Environmental Risk Factors Heat & Humidity Chart: Heat Index
Implement controls at 90° or before May feel effects at 80° Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

18 Environmental Risk Factors
Direct Sun More direct sun the greater the risk Radiant Heat From sun and other sources: transfers heat energy through the air Conductive Heat Sources Transfers heat to worker by direct contact with heat source (tools, machinery, etc.) Limited Air Movement Low or no wind

19 Radiant & Conductive Heat Sources
Hot equipment Engines add heat Reflected heat From ground or objects Radiant heat may add 15° to Heat Index

20 Risk Factors Physical Exertion
Produces Internal Heat in the Body Consider: What kind of work will be performed? How hard is the work? How long is the work task/period? Photo credit:

21 Risk Factors Clothing Type and Amount
Clothing traps body heat and inhibits perspiration Especially: Personal protective equipment (PPE) Heavy clothing Multiple clothing layers Dark-colored clothing which absorbs heat

22 Personal Risk Factors Illness, fever or hangover
Age, weight, and personal fitness Medical conditions Heart conditions Diabetes High blood pressure Etc. Certain medications Age over 40, overweight, and poor fitness increase the risk of heat illness. Illness, fever or hangover

23 Personal Risk Factors Medications
Some medications can make a person more sensitive to the effects of heat (many contribute to body dehydration) Allergy medicines (antihistamines) Cough and cold medicines Blood pressure and heart medicines Irritable bladder or bowel medicines Laxatives Mental health medicines Seizure medicines Thyroid pills Water pills (diuretics) Consult health care provider or pharmacist for more information

24 Personal Risk Factors Diet Matters No Nicotine No sugary drinks
No heavy foods No alcohol No caffeinated drinks No Nicotine Constricts blood vessels

25 Personal Risk Factors Ditch that “Macho” Attitude!
Slow down, pace yourself, and take breaks, especially on hot days!

26 Preventing Heat-Related Illness Acclimatize
Acclimatization is Extremely Important! People can collapse, become easily fatigued, make mistakes, get into accidents, or develop heat-related illnesses, if not properly acclimatized Many of us travel across the State, Nation, or over seas for our work Those who live in, and are used to, a cooler climate, should take special care when going to hot/humid climates Go Prepared!

27 Preventing Heat-Related Illness
Acclimatize Acclimate: plan in extra time (several days) to adjust to hot working conditions Gradually build up exposure time, and adjust work routines, to increase heat tolerance Pay special attention to employees: That are new Just returning from being sick Are absent for more than 2 weeks Just moved from a cooler climate During heat-wave events

28 Preventing Heat-Related Illness Information for Employees
WSU strives to prevent heat-related illness by: Monitoring the work day weather & tracking heat index Scheduling tasks to minimize physical exertion on hot days Advising employees to pace themselves Encouraging frequent breaks on hot days Assigning workers a radio, pager, or cell phone to keep in contact with base and each other Providing annual heat-related illness awareness training Providing CPR and First Aid training

29 Preventing Heat-Related Illness Information for Employees
WSU strives to prevent heat-related illness by: Providing: Appropriate PPE Cooling vests and bandanas Hats, sunglasses, etc. UVA/UVB rated sun glasses Sun screen (SPF 15 or above and UVA/UVB effective) Easy access to water via water bottles, coolers, hydration packs, and/or transportation to base water supply

30 Preventing Heat-Related Illness Work Smart
Schedule the hardest work for the cooler parts of the day Alternate heavy work with light work when possible Pace yourself Keep hydrated Increase breaks when: Conditions are very hot Work requires high exertion levels Protective clothing limits evaporative cooling

31 Preventing Heat-Related Illness Work Smart
ESTABLISH A BUDDY SYSTEM! Keep an on co-workers for symptoms of heat illness such as crankiness and denial

32 Work Smart Preventing Heat-Related Illness Stay Cool!
Remove PPE and excess clothing during breaks

33 Preventing Heat-Related Illness Work Smart
Work in the shade or out of direct sun when possible Wear proper clothing Light colored Light weight Natural fibers Hat with a brim Cooling vest or bandanas may be helpful in some cases

34 Preventing Heat-Related Illness Stay Hydrated
Proper hydration is key to preventing heat illness It is important to drink water throughout the day or dehydration results When dehydrated the amount of sweat that can be produced decreases, and the body can’t properly cool itself Do not wait for thirst before drinking water Water replaces body fluid lost by sweating One quart or more of water over the course of an hour may be necessary when the work environment is hot, and a person may be sweating more than usual as they work

35 Preventing Heat-Related Illness Stay Hydrated
A quart of water is suggested because the body can produce 1/2 gallon (2 quarts) of sweat per hour in hot environments It is also important to incorporate electrolyte-containing drinks in your daily fluid intake ~1 cup every 15 minutes

36 Preventing Heat-Related Illness Stay Hydrated
Drinking water sources: Be closeable & have a tap Clearly marked Suitably cool Individual cups Bottled water Hydration packs called camelbacks-users sip water through a tube Photo credit: UC Davis With this water consumption comes a need to use the bathroom. Facilities need to be available and workers must be given the opportunity to use them as needed. Hydration pack Worker wearing hydration pack

37 STOP All Activity if you become
Light-headed Confused Weak Faint Or have a pounding heart or trouble breathing Notify Supervisor immediately, if you or a co-worker experience symptoms of heat-related illness Take a Break and Rest in a cool place Drink fluids Loosen or shed unnecessary clothing Lie Down

38 What You Can Do For Others Treatment for Heat Exhaustion & Stroke
Transport person to base, or to cooler, shaded area so person can rest and lay down Get help on the way: call base and/or 911 Do not leave person alone! Loosen and remove heavy clothing that restricts evaporation and cooling If person is alert and not nauseated, provide fluids such as cool water, juice, sports drinks, or non-caffeinated soft drinks (~ cup every 15 minutes). Fan the person, spray or mist with cool water, apply wet cloth to skin Do not further expose the person to heat this day. Have them rest and continue to drink cool water and electrolyte drinks

39 Get Help on the Way! Call 911! When person does not feel better in about 15 minutes, or sooner, if they show signs of heat stroke SECONDS COUNT!

40 If You Suspect Heat Stroke
While waiting for medical help to arrive: Cool the person using whatever methods available Do not give person fluids to drink If emergency 911 medical personnel are delayed; call the hospital emergency room for further instruction Cooling Methods Immerse the person in a tub of cool water Place the person in a cool shower Spray them with cool water from a hose Sponge the person with cool water If the humidity is low, wrap person in a cool wet sheet and fan them vigorously Apply ice packs under arms and to the groin area

41 In Summary: Work Smart! Stay hydrated! Drink water/fluids frequently!
Know the signs and symptoms of heat related illnesses and take them seriously Consider sports drinks when sweating a lot Avoid alcohol, caffeinated drinks, and heavy meals before or during work Plan work tasks for heat relief Pace yourself Acclimatize Wear appropriate clothing Take regular breaks Keep an eye on your buddy! Photo credit:

42 Questions?

43 A Word About Ultraviolet Radiation (UV)
Ultraviolet radiation is energy from the sun Responsible for sunburn and skin cancers Three types of UV Rays come from the sun: UVA passes through the ozone layer, not blocked by glass or most sunscreens, penetrate deep into the skin UVB only some absorbed in ozone layer thought to cause most sunburns, block by glass and some sunscreen UVC is absorbed by the ozone layer Can track UV intensity levels by monitoring the UV Index: Enter zip code for UV index of interest Sign up for UV alerts for your area The Index was developed by the National Weather Service and the EPA

44 UV Index UV Index Exposure Level 0 to 2 Low 3 to 5 Moderate 6 to 7
The UV Index provides a daily (next-day) forecast by zip code of the expected risk of overexposure to the sun. The index predicts UV intensity levels on a scale of 1 to 11+. UV Index Exposure Level 0 to 2 Low 3 to 5 Moderate 6 to 7 High 8 to 10 Very High 11+ Extreme The UV index takes into account clouds and other local conditions that affect the amount of UV radiation reaching the ground

45 Health Effects of UV Over-Exposure
Sunburn: is an inflammation of the skin that is caused by UV radiation from the sun or UV tanning lamps Frequent UV ray overexposure effects: Skin Damage: may cause scarring, freckling, drying out of, or premature wrinkling of the skin Skin Cancer: is directly linked to skin cancer Eye Damage: may burn the cornea, and increase the risk of developing macular degeneration (a leading cause of blindness), and cataracts Immune System Damage: potential to cause immune system damage

46 Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of human cancer (~ 1 million new cases occur annually) Approximately, half of all Americans who live to age 65 will develop skin cancer at least once Skin cancer refers to three different conditions. From the least to the most dangerous, they are: Basal cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Melanoma most serious as can metastasize and spread quickly throughout the body The most common warning signs of skin cancer is a change in the appearance of the skin, such as a new growth or a sore that will not heal

47 Recognizing Skin Cancer
A change in the size, shape, or color of an existing mole The appearance of a new, abnormal, or "ugly-looking" mole. The texture of an existing mole changes and becomes hard, lumpy, or scaly. A mole may feel different and itch, ooze, or bleed, but it usually is not painful

48 The A-B-C-D’s of Recognizing Melanoma
Watch moles for: A Asymmetry -The shape of 1/2 doesn’t match the other B Border -The edges are ragged, notched, or blurred C Color -The color is uneven: Shades of black, brown, and tan, or areas of white, gray, red, or blue D Diameter - There is a change in size Melanoma causes ~75% of skin cancer deaths annually 1 in 4 people that develop melanoma are under 40

49 A B C D

50 UV Protection Guidelines
Incorporate heat-related illness prevention guidelines so not to develop a heat-related illness while working in the sun, and in addition for UV protection: Minimize sun exposure at midday (10AM to 4PM) Use broad spectrum sunscreen SPF15 of higher (offers UVA & UVB protection) Reapply sunscreen every 2 hours Wear a broad brimmed hat (at least 2” to 3” brim all around), and long sleeve shirts and pants Wear sunglasses that are labeled to block 99 to 100% of UVA and UVB radiation. No UV Label-No Buy! ANSI Z80.3 UV ANSI Z87.1 Safety

51 Questions?


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