Presentation on theme: "More About Space Catholics, Indians, and the Ugly American Party."— Presentation transcript:
More About Space Catholics, Indians, and the Ugly American Party
Moving into “white space” Europeans replace Natives as wanderers Indian tribes removed, restricted to reservations “the white man, who roams the vast country at his pleasure... cannot know the cramp we feel in this little spot” – a Shoshone leader Stability = homogeneity? Hegemony? Texas, California, New Mexico annexed after Mexican War (1845-7) Mexico not annexed, despite expansionist plan “I protest against such a union as that!... Ours, sir, is the government of a white race” – John C. Calhoun, SC Goldseekers displace California tribes, Mexican landowners, and much of the natural environment : 300,000 overland emigrants Many more on ships; railroad by 1869
“The Great Reconnaissance” 1830s: George Catlin & Karl Bodmer put the “noble savage” on canvas & into magazines Art or anthropology? U.S. stereotype becomes Plains Indian 1840s-50s: US sends expeditions to Far West Artist-scientists illustrate govt. publications Lt. John C. Fremont explores & maps Painters romanticize landscapes, pioneers First “environmentalism”? Paintings of Thomas Cole, novels of Fenimore Cooper Ralph Waldo Emerson, “Nature” (1836) Henry Thoreau, Walden (1854) Nature as a mystical retreat from commercial world George Perkins Marsh, Man & Nature (1854) “dangers of interfering with the spontaneous arrangements of the organic and inorganic world”
Other “Others” in America Some northern states prohibited entry of free blacks – North more segregated “It is the wish of every patriot that our union should be homogenous in race and of our own blood” – Francis Blair, Republican Party leader (mid-1850s) Slave revolts: Nat Turner et al. South becomes more militantly anti-black Religious & pseudo–scientific rationales for slavery Colonization movement ( ) What American wants to go? Abolitionism – organized anti-slavery One of many 19 th -century reform movements Prohibition, Women’s Rights, labor unions, vegetarianism Moral, legal, economic arguments – but, “equal”?
White “Others” Also Unwelcome Exclusion of “Mormons” (Church of LDS) Religious practices offend WASPs Mob violence sends them westward Seek independence in the wilderness “Civilization” caught up with them 1857: Pres. Buchanan sends troops to “Utah War” 1896: Polygamy traded for statehood Mormon towns similar in their urban space Communal, organized lifestyle Cities planned, geometrical, rectangular Newer U.S. cities follow the grid system Compare London, Paris, Boston, lower Manhattan with upper Manhattan, Chicago, San Francisco Trade novelty & intricacy (“European”) for efficiency
Birth of Nativism Earliest WASP colonists disliked Catholicism Associated with irrational medieval superstition English & French religious wars of 17 th -18 th centuries Allegiance to Pope believed to be unpatriotic “No danger of Catholicism spreading in New England; Yankees can’t afford the time to be Catholics” –Richard Henry Dana (1830s) 1830: 300,000 Catholics (3%) 1860: 3 million (10%) Irish immigrants, lacking skills, low-paid Replaced women in New England textile factories In South did jobs too dangerous for valuable slaves First urban “slums” drive rich from cities Poverty, disease, alcoholism Lower-class WASPs angry at economic challenge 1834: burned Boston convent, 3-day riot
The “Know-Nothing” Party Catholic immigrants resisted assimilation Protested Protestant bibles in schools (1840s) Immigrants tended to vote Democratic because anti-Catholics were Whigs? Or because immigrants were pro-slavery? (Why?) 1850s: American Party coalition’s platform Eliminate “foreign” influences Restrict immigration & citizenship Slogan: “Americans must rule America” 1856 – a million votes for candidate Fillmore swings vote to southern Democrat Buchanan Leftovers fuse with Whigs into Republican party
More Important Fish to Fry Series of shaky compromises restricting slavery 1787: Jefferson’s Northwest Ordinance OH, IN, IL etc. free 1820: Missouri Compromise Limits slavery to south of Kansas line 1854: Democrats repeal with Kansas-Nebraska Act “Bloody Kansas” ensues; John Brown raids Compromise of 1850 CA free; NM, Utah, AZ all slave Fugitive Slave Act inflames abolitionists Rising tide of secession – North & South split 1830s on – led by SC all the way – why? Why not let the South go?