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More About Space Catholics, Indians, and the Ugly American Party.

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Presentation on theme: "More About Space Catholics, Indians, and the Ugly American Party."— Presentation transcript:

1 More About Space Catholics, Indians, and the Ugly American Party

2 Moving into “white space”  Europeans replace Natives as wanderers  Indian tribes removed, restricted to reservations  “the white man, who roams the vast country at his pleasure... cannot know the cramp we feel in this little spot” – a Shoshone leader  Stability = homogeneity? Hegemony?  Texas, California, New Mexico annexed after Mexican War (1845-7)  Mexico not annexed, despite expansionist plan  “I protest against such a union as that!... Ours, sir, is the government of a white race” – John C. Calhoun, SC  Goldseekers displace California tribes, Mexican landowners, and much of the natural environment  1849-60: 300,000 overland emigrants Many more on ships; railroad by 1869

3 “The Great Reconnaissance”  1830s: George Catlin & Karl Bodmer put the “noble savage” on canvas & into magazines  Art or anthropology?  U.S. stereotype becomes Plains Indian  1840s-50s: US sends expeditions to Far West  Artist-scientists illustrate govt. publications  Lt. John C. Fremont explores & maps  Painters romanticize landscapes, pioneers  First “environmentalism”?  Paintings of Thomas Cole, novels of Fenimore Cooper  Ralph Waldo Emerson, “Nature” (1836)  Henry Thoreau, Walden (1854)  Nature as a mystical retreat from commercial world  George Perkins Marsh, Man & Nature (1854)  “dangers of interfering with the spontaneous arrangements of the organic and inorganic world”

4 Other “Others” in America  Some northern states prohibited entry of free blacks – North more segregated  “It is the wish of every patriot that our union should be homogenous in race and of our own blood” – Francis Blair, Republican Party leader (mid-1850s)  Slave revolts: Nat Turner et al.  South becomes more militantly anti-black  Religious & pseudo–scientific rationales for slavery  Colonization movement (1817-1830)  What American wants to go?  Abolitionism – organized anti-slavery  One of many 19 th -century reform movements  Prohibition, Women’s Rights, labor unions, vegetarianism  Moral, legal, economic arguments – but, “equal”?

5 White “Others” Also Unwelcome  Exclusion of “Mormons” (Church of LDS)  Religious practices offend WASPs  Mob violence sends them westward  Seek independence in the wilderness  “Civilization” caught up with them 1857: Pres. Buchanan sends troops to “Utah War” 1896: Polygamy traded for statehood  Mormon towns similar in their urban space  Communal, organized lifestyle  Cities planned, geometrical, rectangular  Newer U.S. cities follow the grid system  Compare London, Paris, Boston, lower Manhattan with upper Manhattan, Chicago, San Francisco  Trade novelty & intricacy (“European”) for efficiency

6 Birth of Nativism  Earliest WASP colonists disliked Catholicism  Associated with irrational medieval superstition  English & French religious wars of 17 th -18 th centuries  Allegiance to Pope believed to be unpatriotic  “No danger of Catholicism spreading in New England; Yankees can’t afford the time to be Catholics” –Richard Henry Dana (1830s)  1830: 300,000 Catholics (3%)  1860: 3 million (10%)  Irish immigrants, lacking skills, low-paid  Replaced women in New England textile factories  In South did jobs too dangerous for valuable slaves  First urban “slums” drive rich from cities  Poverty, disease, alcoholism  Lower-class WASPs angry at economic challenge  1834: burned Boston convent, 3-day riot

7 The “Know-Nothing” Party  Catholic immigrants resisted assimilation  Protested Protestant bibles in schools (1840s)  Immigrants tended to vote Democratic because anti-Catholics were Whigs?  Or because immigrants were pro-slavery? (Why?)  1850s: American Party coalition’s platform  Eliminate “foreign” influences  Restrict immigration & citizenship  Slogan: “Americans must rule America”  1856 – a million votes for candidate Fillmore swings vote to southern Democrat Buchanan  Leftovers fuse with Whigs into Republican party

8 More Important Fish to Fry  Series of shaky compromises restricting slavery  1787: Jefferson’s Northwest Ordinance  OH, IN, IL etc. free  1820: Missouri Compromise  Limits slavery to south of Kansas line  1854: Democrats repeal with Kansas-Nebraska Act  “Bloody Kansas” ensues; John Brown raids  Compromise of 1850  CA free; NM, Utah, AZ all slave  Fugitive Slave Act inflames abolitionists  Rising tide of secession – North & South split  1830s on – led by SC all the way – why?  Why not let the South go?

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