K Everitt 2007 - Fitness Training - Physiological Factors - Psychological Factors - Acquisition of Skill - Technological Developments -Safety and Risk Assessment.
K Everitt 2007 Fitness Training WARM UP AND COOL DOWN Warming up and cooling down are vital to every training session. WARM UP Gradually gets your body ready for exercise Increases the body temperature and blood flow to the muscles Stretches the muscles, mobilises the joints and increases range of movement Concentrates the mind on training COOL DOWN Gets your body back to normal state Helps replace the O2 debt in the muscles, getting rid of any lactic acid, which could cause muscle stiffness later on Gets rid of extra blood in your muscles to prevent pooling in your veins. This can make you feel dizzy and weak if exercise is stopped suddenly
K Everitt 2007 TRAINING PRINCIPLES There are 4 training principles: SPECIFICITY Every person will need a different training programme because we are all different. The correct part of the body needs to be trained – there is no point making a weightlifter run 5 miles a day, as this will not improve his strength. Train to the correct level – if someone is unfit, do not start them with a 5 mile run. PROGRESSION Gradually increase the amount of training that’s done when the body has got used to the previous training. OVERLOAD To improve, you must make your body work harder than it usually would, so you need to push yourself beyond the threshold. You can do this by increasing frequency, intensity and duration of training. REVERSABILITY If you stop training, your fitness levels will drop. It takes much longer to gain fitness than it does to lose it.
K Everitt 2007 TRAINING PROGRAMMES A training programme must suit the person it is for. Many programmes are used using FITT Frequency – how often you should exercise. Intensity – how hard you exercise. Time – how long you should exercise. Type – what exercise you should use.
K Everitt 2007 WEIGHT TRAINING This improves muscle strength and tone. There are two types of weight training: Isometric - muscles contract but there is no movement. Sit with your back to the wall and your knees bent at 45* and hold it. Advantages - develops static strength, its quick, cheap and easy to do Disadvantages – no good if you have a heart problem, as blood flow is reduced to the muscles. Isotonic – muscles contract and shorten to produce a movement. Pull ups Advantages – easily adaptable to most sports, strengthens the muscle throughout the range of movement Disadvantages – muscle can become sore due to the stress To overload, use heavier weights, or lift more times. CIRCUIT TRAINING This uses lots of different exercises. There can be between 8-15 stations, and at each one you do a specific activity for a set amount of time. Advantages – less boring due to the variety of exercises, easily adaptable, can include weight and aerobic training Disadvantages – can take time to set up, can get overcrowded if too busy To overload, do more repetitions at each station, complete the circuit quicker, rest less between stations, or repeat the circuit
K Everitt 2007 CONTINUOUS TRAINING Involves exercising at a constant rate, like running or cycling. It usually means working at 60-90% VO2 max for an hour. Advantages – needs only small amount or no equipment, good for aerobic fitness and using up body fat Disadvantages – can be boring, does not improve sprinting, so not ideal for games. To overload, increase duration, distance, speed or frequency. FARTLEK TRAINING This can be made as easy or as hard as needed. It involves changing the intensity and type of exercise without stopping. Part of a fartlek run could be to sprint for 10 seconds, jog for 20 seconds, repeated 4 times. Advantages – good for sports that need different paces like football and hockey, easily changed to suit an individual. Disadvantages – difficult to see how hard the person is training, too easy to skip the hard bits. To overload, increase times or speeds of each bit, or make the terrain more difficult (running uphill)
K Everitt 2007 INTERVAL TRAINING Fixed patterns of fast and slow exercise are used in interval training. Each repetition of the pattern is called a rep, and you must finish a set before you can rest. Advantages – can mix aerobic and anaerobic exercise, its easy to see when athlete isn’t trying. Disadvantages – hard to keep going, can be a bit boring. To overload, increase reps or sets, or spend less time resting between sets.
K Everitt 2007 FITNESS TESTS If you have a high aerobic fitness level, then it means that compared to others your heart rate will be lower when resting and exercising, you can exercise for longer without feeling tired, and you can use up more O2 when you exercise. To measure you heart rate, place you first two fingers on one of you pulse points: 1.Carotid artery – this is on you neck, to the one side 2.Radial artery – this is on your wrist, by the base of your thumb Count the beats over 15 seconds, then multiply that number by 4 to get beats per minute. That’s your heart rate. There are 3 main tests for aerobic fitness: HARVARD STEP TEST 30 step-ups a minute for 5 minutes. Rest for 1 minute, then take your pulse to calculate your heart rate 12-MINUTE RUN Run around a track as many times as you can for 12 minutes. The further you run, the fitter you are. MULTISTAGE FITNESS TEST Run shuttles between 2 lines 20m apart. Start on the first bleep. The time between the bleeps gets shorter, so you have to run faster. When you drop out, your level and number of completed shuttles are recorded.
K Everitt 2007 Endurance tests This can test the endurance of different muscles, seeing how many times you can do an exercise. Sit ups or press ups. Strength tests A dynamometer measures hand and forearm strength. Speed tests 30m sprint test measures your speed over a certain distance Flexibility test Sit and reach test measure flexibility in the hamstrings and back Power test Vertical jump and standing long jump measures your power in your legs
K Everitt 2007 Physiological Factors AGE Strength You do not reach your maximum strength until you are around 20-that’s when you are fully grown In your 20s and 30s it is still easy to build muscle. After this, protein levels and muscle mass falls, and strength declines, so its harder to build muscle. O2 capacity This falls as you get older, so less O2 can be taken to the muscles Injury and disease Older people are more prone to injury, and it takes them longer to recover from one Older people generally suffer from more diseases Reaction time These get slower as you get older Flexibility You are most flexible in your teens Experience This is a vital factor in sport As you get older, you become more experienced This is why there are age divisions in competitions. It would be unfair to expect a 50 year old to compete against a 25 year old. GENDER Competitions usually split men and women, along with young and old. Men and women have different bodies Men have longer, heavier bone structure Women have a wider, fatter pelvis (better for child birth) Women generally have more body fat than men The menstrual cycle can affect performance Girls mature earlier than boys Girls reach physical maturity at 16 or 17, whereas boys mature at around 20 Men are generally stronger Men have bigger muscles, due to higher testosterone levels Women are generally more flexible This is partly due to them having less muscle.
K Everitt 2007 SOMATOTYPES Somatotype means the shape of your body. This can affect your suitability for certain sports. There are 3 basic somatotypes: ECTOMORPH Narrow shoulders, hips and chest Not much fat or muscle Long, thin arms and legsTHIN - high jump, long distance running Thin face, high forehead ENDOMORPH Wide hips, but narrow shoulders Lot of fat on body, arms and legsDUMPY – wrestling, shot putting Ankles and wrists slim MESOMORPH Wide shoulders, narrow hips Muscular bodyMUSCULAR – swimming, gymnastics Strong arms and thighs Not much body fat
K Everitt 2007 DRUGS ALCOHOL Affects coordination, speech and judgment Slows reactions Makes muscles tired more quickly Eventually damages liver, kidneys, heart, muscles, brain and the digestive and immune system DRUGS SMOKING Causes nose, throat and chest irritations Makes you short of breath Increases the risk of developing heart disease, lung cancer, bronchitis. Every single cigarette damages your body
K Everitt 2007 PERFORMANCE ENHANCING DRUGS These are banned by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) STIMULANTS Speed up your reactions Increase aggression Make you feel less pain, which can make you train too hard Lead to high blood pressure, heart and liver failure and strokes They are addictive ANABOLIC AGENTS (STERIODS) Increase muscle size Allow you to train harder Cause high blood pressure, heart disease, infertility and cancer Women may grow facial and body hair, and their voices may deepen PERFORMANCE ENHANCING DRUGS NARCOTIC ANALGESICS Kill pain so injury and fatigue don’t interfere with performance, and make you train too hard They are addictive, with unpleasant withdrawal symptoms Lead to constipation and low blood pressure PEPTIDE HORMONES Most have similar effects as steroids Cause strokes, and abnormal growth DIURETICS Make you urinate, causing weight loss Mask traces of other drugs in your system Cause cramp and dehydration
K Everitt 2007 The use of the following drugs are restricted by IOC: BETA BLOCKERS Medicine that lowers heart rate, steadys shaking hands, and reduces anxiety Banned in sports where they may give an advantage, such as shooting, snooker ALCOHOL Sometimes used in snooker or shooting to calm nerves LOCAL ANAESTHETICS Reduce pain, but may be allowed for medical reasons MARIJUNA Similar effect to alcohol CORTICOSTERIODS Reduce pain and inflammation from injury Serious side effects, including diabetes, depression and weakening of the bones
K Everitt 2007 DOPE TESTING Can be done at any time. Urine samples are spilt into 2 bottles A and B A sample is tested. If drugs are found, B sample is tested to double check Refusing to give a sample is as serious as failing a test If an athlete is found guilty of taking banned drugs, they are banned from competing, sometimes forever. BLOOD DOPING This is used to simulate high altitude training, without going to high altitudes. Red blood cells are taken out of the athlete, so their body makes more to replace them Before a competition, the red blood cells are injected back into the athlete, so that more O2 can be carried around their body. This is banned by IOC
K Everitt 2007 Psychological Factors PERSONALITY People with different personalities prefer different sports. You can use the words introverted and extroverted to describe people’s personalities. INTROVERTED – tend to choose more of these things for their sport Tend to get more nervous Individual performances Concentration Precision Less pain Calm Self-motivation Thinking Intricate skills Less arousal PERSONALITY EXTROVERT – tend to choose more of these things Excitement Activity Team involvement Arousal Speed More pain Simple skills Less concentration Less thinking AGGRESSION can have good and bad effects. It must be controlled. There are 2 types: INDIRECT – hitting objects (tennis balls) DIRECT – actual physical contact (rugby)
K Everitt 2007 MENTAL PREPARATION You need to be mentally fit to perform well at most sports. MOTIVATION is how keen you are to do something, the force that drives you on, your desire to succeed. It can be INTRINSIC or EXTRINSIC. INTRINSIC – this comes from inside you. You play the sport because you want to do well at it and you enjoy it. EXTRINSIC – this comes from outside. You may want to do well for a reward, such as money or publicity. AROUSAL is about being excited, keen, and mentally ready to perform a task. If your arousal level is too low, you will not perform at your best because you probably aren’t that excited. If your arousal level is too high, you become anxious and nervous, so you won’t be able to give your best performance. If your arousal level is just right, you will be determined and ready, so should perform well.
K Everitt 2007 SKILLS A skill is something you learn to do, you can’t be born with it. Skills can be either basic or complex BASIC Running, jumping, throwing Can be transferable across many activities Tend to be learnt at an early age COMPLEX More specific to certain sport, like taking a penalty in football Take more practice to master, and have more room for improvement Skills can also be open or closed OPEN - these are affected by external factors, such as where the ball is, where the goal is CLOSED – these are hardly affected by the environment, as the same movements are usually made, like in darts the same movement is made.
K Everitt 2007 FEEDBACK This is the most important part of the learning process. Your brain looks at the result of the output, and registers the information to enable you to do better next time. There are 3 main ways of getting feedback: Intrinsic – you can feel how you kicked the ball Extrinsic – you get verbal feedback off a coach, teacher or friend You can see the output. How successful was it? Did it go where I aimed it?
K Everitt 2007 Safety There are many ways of staying safe whilst taking part in sport. Its important to make sure you are using the correct technique, wearing the correct types of clothing, have warmed up and cooled down, and are playing by the rules. Many sport have protective clothing that should be worn when playing. In football, shin pads are expected to be worn, mouth guards in hockey and rugby. There are also many rules in the sports that are there purely for health and safety reasons. No two-footed tackling in football, no tackling above the neck in rugby, no contact in netball.
K Everitt 2007 SPORTING INJURIES There are 2 different types of injury you can get from sport: CHRONIC Caused by continuous stress on a certain body part over a long period of time by overuse Tennis players can develop tennis elbow – an inflammation of the tendons in the elbow due to overuse of certain arm muscles Long distance runners can develop shin splints – a bone injury in the front of the leg Risks of this type of injury can be training too hard, not enough rest, poor footwear or bad technique ACUTE Caused by sudden stress on a body part, such as a fracture, pulled muscle or concussion Can occur by colliding with an opponent, being hit by something or falling from a height or with speed. INJURY PREVENTION 1.Take off any jewellery 2.Use the right equipment 3.Be aware of possible dangers 4.Use correct technique 5.Warm up before activity 6.Know and follow the rules 7.Wear suitable footwear 8.Use protective equipment if necessary 9.Use officials to ensure fair play 10.Cool down after activity 11.Give yourself time to recover before playing again.
K Everitt 2007 SOFT TISSUE INJURIES Open injuries occur when the skin is broken, usually allowing blood to escape Closed injuries happen under the skin 1.Bruising – damage to blood vessels 2.Strained (pulled) muscles – tears in tissues, caused by overstretching 3.Sprains – joint injuries, where the ligament has been stretched or torn 4.Dislocation – joint injuries, where the bone is pulled out of its usual position 5.Cartilage – can be torn by violent impact such as twisting HARD TISSUE INJURIES Fractures are either cracks in the bone or an actual break. These can be open or closed. In an open fracture, the bone breaks the skin; in a closed fracture, it happens under the skin. Fractures are usually accompanied by bruising and swelling around the injured area, because the blood vessels are damaged there They are also painful because of the damaged nerves inside the bone. A stress fracture is a crack along the length of the bone, which is caused by continuous stress over a long period of time.
K Everitt 2007 TYPES AND TREATMENTS HYPERTHERMIA Symptoms – temperature increases, weak pulse, results from over exercising and dehydration Treatment – lie patient in cool place, give them liquids HYPOTHERMIA Symptoms – temperature falls too low, muscles go rigid, irregular heart beat Treatment – raise temperature, wrap in warm, dry clothing, hot drinks CRAMP Symptoms – involuntary contraction of muscles, caused by lack of salt in the blood, or lack of blood flowing to the muscle Treatment – stretch the muscle, massaging it gently TYPES AND TREATMENTS WINDING Symptoms – difficulty in breathing, pain in the abdomen Treatment – lean forward, rub affected area SHOCK Symptoms – pale, clammy skin, fast, weak pulse, feel dizzy, thirsty, or sick Treatment – call ambulance CONCUSSION Symptoms – unconsciousness, memory loss, sick Treatment – call ambulance STITCH Symptoms – sharp pain in abdomen Treatment – stop exercising, take deep breaths, breath out slowly
K Everitt 2007 RICE This is a good treatment for all soft tissue injuries. It reduces pain, swelling and bruising. R – rest. Stop straight away. If you carry on it will make the injury worse I – ice. Apply ice to the injury. This makes the blood vessels contract to reduce the bleeding and swelling C – compression. Wrapping the injury will also help to reduce the swelling, but don’t make it so tight that the blood is prevented from circulating E – elevation. Support the injury at a raised level (above the heart), so the flow of blood is reduced because it has to flow against gravity