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Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Elaine N. Marieb The Muscular System.

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Presentation on theme: "Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Elaine N. Marieb The Muscular System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Elaine N. Marieb The Muscular System Modified by J. Kalinowski 12/2012

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3  Memorize the location of the muscles using the diagrams you were provided - (these are the muscles on your worksheet) ◦ Hamstrings: biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus ◦ Quadriceps: rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius (all insert into tibial tuberosity through quadriceps tendon and patellar ligament)

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6  deltoid muscle  gluteus medius – superior lateral quadrant used in order to avoid damaging underlying sciatic nerve  vastus lateralis  vastus lateralis and rectus femoris are used for infant injections due to poor development of gluteal muscles and deltoid muscles

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9 Naming of Skeletal Muscles Slide 6.36a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  You are responsible for knowing all examples in your textbook & notes !!!  Location of the muscle – named for a bone or region with which they are associated  Temporalis  Shape – named for a distinctive shape  Deltoid (triangular)

10 Naming of Skeletal Muscles Slide 6.36a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Relative size of the muscle  maximus (largest)  Minimus (smallest)  Longus (longer in length than in diameter)  Direction of muscle fibers  rectus (straight)  Oblique (at an angle)

11 Naming of Skeletal Muscles Slide 6.36b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Number of origins  Biceps, triceps, quadriceps (# of heads)

12 Naming of Skeletal Muscles Slide 6.37 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Location of the muscles origin and insertion  Example: sternocleidomastoid (on the sternum, clavicle, and mastoid process)  Action of the muscle  Example: flexor and extensor (flexes or extends a bone)

13 Complete the joint motions on page 2 of the notes all the way up to protraction using your lab manual, page 80.

14  Forward movement of a body part. ◦ Ex, jutting the chin forward ◦ Pushing up in a push-up

15  Moving a body part backward ◦ Tucking your chin ◦ Movement of scapula to spine during rows

16  Raising a body part ◦ Ex, shrugging your shoulders

17  Lowering a body part ◦ Drooping your shoulders

18  Movement around an axis ◦ Medial- toward the midline ◦ Lateral- away from the midline ◦ Ex. Shaking your head involves both medial and lateral rotation.

19  Movement of a body part backward. Opposite of Protraction ◦ Ex, tucking the chin to the chest ◦ Ex, letting down in a push-up (rows)

20 Connective Tissue Wrappings of Skeletal Muscle Slide 6.4b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Epimysium – covers the entire skeletal muscle – dense fibrous CT  Deep fascia – on the outside of the epimysium Figure 6.1

21 Connective Tissue Wrappings of Skeletal Muscle Slide 6.4a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Perimysium – around a fascicle (bundle) of fibers - collagen  Endomysium – around single muscle fiber – reticular tissue Figure 6.1

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23  Supports & reinforces each cell and the whole muscle  Provides entry and exit points for: ◦ Blood vessels ◦ Nerves

24  Each muscle fiber has its own motor end plate (nerve ending)

25  Each muscle is served by one major artery and one or more veins

26  Skeletal muscle is dependent on its: ◦ Nerve supply because  skeletal muscle cannot contract without nerve stimulation ◦ Blood supply because  Muscles use tremendous amounts of energy so must have lots of oxygen, etc. and wastes must be removed

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28 Muscle Attachments Slide 6.5 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Sites of muscle attachment  Bones  Cartilages  Connective tissue coverings

29 Types of Muscle Attachments Slide 6.5 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Direct attachments  Muscle is fused directly to bone or cartilage covering (periosteum or perichondrium)  Indirect attachments  Connective sheaths of muscle extend beyond muscle as a:  Tendon – cord-like structure  Aponeuroses – sheet-like structure

30 Direct Muscle Attachment Pectoralis Major Indirect Muscle Attachment Pectoralis Minor

31  Indirect is most common due to: ◦ Size ◦ Durability - Resistance against friction as muscle moves

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33  Range of Motion ◦ Longer muscle fibers along muscle axis = greater range of motion ◦ Parallel fascicle arrangement gives greatest ROM  Power ◦ Depends on # of Muscle fibers ◦ Greater # = greater power ◦ Bipennate – shorten very little but very powerful

34 Overview of Muscle Tissue Slide 6.2 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nearly ½ of body massNearly ½ of body mass Transforms chemical energy (ATP) into mechanical energy(motion)Transforms chemical energy (ATP) into mechanical energy(motion) All muscles share some terminology Prefix myo refers to muscle Prefix mys refers to muscle Prefix sarco refers to flesh  Contraction of muscles is due to the movement of microfilaments – actin & myosin that slide & overlap each other

35 Functional Characteristics of Muscles Slide 6.8 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Contractility – ability to shorten forcibly  Excitability – ability to receive and respond to stimuli  Elasticity – ability to resume resting length (recoil)  Extensibility – ability to be stretched or extended

36 Function of Muscles Slide 6.8 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Responsible for all locomotion & manipulation  Smooth: vasoconstriction, peristalsis  Skeletal: locomotion & manipulation  Cardiac: pump

37 Also know the main features of each type of tissue – review your tissue chart and tissue unit notes

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41  Maintain posture  Keeps organs etc in position to function correctly  CORE training, strengthening, free weights

42 Function of Muscles Slide 6.8 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Generate heat  By product of muscle metabolism & contractile activity (40% of body mass)  25% cellular activities and 75% heat  Example: shivering uses muscle activity to generate heat when you are cold  Stabilize joints – muscle tone & tendons extremely important to stabilize joints

43 Table 6.2 pg 176

44 Muscles and Body Movements Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  The bulk of the muscle typically lies proximal to the joint crossed  All muscles cross at least one joint Figure 6.12

45 Muscles and Body Movements Slide 6.30b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Muscles are attached to at least two points  Origin – attachment to the immovable or less movable bone  Insertion – attachment to the movable bone Figure 6.12

46 Muscles and Body Movements Slide 6.30b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Muscles can only pull, they never push  During contraction, the muscle insertion moves toward the origin Figure 6.12

47 Muscle Interactions Slide 6.35 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Prime mover (Agonist) – muscle with the major responsibility for a certain movement  Antagonist – muscle that opposes or reverses a prime mover

48 Muscle Interactions Slide 6.35 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Synergist – muscle that aids an agonist in a movement and helps prevent rotation (stabilize the motion)  Fixator – synergists that helps immobilize a bone or muscle origin (while the insertion point moves)

49  Actions of antagonistic and synergistic muscles are important in causing smooth, coordinated, and precise muscle motions.

50 Superficial Muscles: Anterior Slide 6.43 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 6.20 Know your muscle diagrams for QUIZ end of this week!!!

51 Superficial Muscles: Posterior Slide 6.44 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 6.21

52  Exerts force by use of lever action  Bones act as levers for muscles to pull on. Each type of lever has advantages and disadvantages in either the strength required to move the body part or the distance (ROM) that the body part can be moved or the speed of the motion.

53  Differences in the positioning of the fulcrum. load, and effort modify muscle activity with respect to:  speed of contraction  Direction of motion  range of motion (ROM)  Strength - weight that can be lifted

54  Effort – applied force – provided by muscle contraction  Load – resistance – bone, overlying tissues, and any other object you are trying to move  Fulcrum – fixed point - joints

55  Understanding lever action, angles and position, and muscle fiber direction is extremely important: ◦ To maximize the effectiveness of your work outs ◦ To prevent injury

56  Fulcrum is in the middle - between load and effort  The main advantage is the change in direction of the force – force exerted is equal to force lifted  Example: Muscle pulls downward to lift body part upward or vice versa  Example: Extension of head

57  Load is in the middle - between effort and fulcrum  Uncommon in the body  The main advantage is multiplication of force (strength)– force exerted is less than force lifted  Levers of strength BUT Range of motion is sacrificed  Example: ◦ Standing on your toes (contraction of calf muscle) lifts your whole body but only a small distance

58  Effort is in the middle - between load and fulcrum  Most common in the body  The main advantage is range of motion ◦ Strength is sacrificed ◦ Speed is gained  Example: ◦ Flexing at elbow using bicep muscle

59 Examples

60 Write on NB paper Read about anabolic steroids on page 180

61  Torticollis – a twisting of the neck which causes rotation and tilting of the head to one side – caused by injury to one of the sternocleidomastoid muscles  Pulled groin muscles – Strain or stretching of adductor muscles (magnus, longus, brevis)  Foot drop – paralysis of anterior muscles in lower leg – caused by injury to the peroneal nerve

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63  Shin splints – inflammation of the anterior muscle group of the lower leg (& the periosteum they pull on)– caused by trauma or strain – usually felt on the medial &/or anterior borders of the tibia

64  Charley horse – trauma induced tearing of muscles followed by bleeding into the tissues (NOT just a cramp)  Halux valgus – permanent displacement of the great toe – caused by wearing pointy toed shoes

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66  Page 194  Genetic – affects primarily males – X linked trait  Dystrophin protein not produced correctly – leads to muscle fiber degeneration & atrophy  Progresses from extremities upward  Generally do not live beyond young adulthood

67  Probably autoimmune  Shortage of neurotransmitter receptors in muscle  Muscles not stimulated properly & grow progressively weaker  Death occurs when respiratory muscles fail to function

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