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Traditional Careers Hierarchical progression

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Presentation on theme: "Traditional Careers Hierarchical progression"— Presentation transcript:

1 Traditional Careers Hierarchical progression
Long term career in return for loyalty, commitments and adequate performance Managed on a planned basis by the organisation Some evidence that this type of career still exists

2 Factors Influencing a Change in Careers
Flatter structures Need for flexibility Uncertainty and change

3 Managers Managing Their Careers Today
Managers must learn to manage themselves and their work independently Managers must build portfolios of achievements and skills and develop networks Managers must market themselves within their sector

4 Portfolio Career ‘Exchanging full time employment for independence’
(Handy, 1994)

5 Boundaryless Career Includes moves between organisations and non-hierarchical moves within organisations where there are no norms of progress or success (Arthur, 1994)

6 The Old Psychological Contract
Table 19.1  The old psychological contract

7 Defining a Career Pattern or sequence of work roles of an individual
Increasingly appropriate to everyone’s work roles Implies upward movement and advancement Individuals’ development in learning and work throughout life (Collins & Watts, 1996)

8 Career Development Often referred to as the internal career
Responsibility rests with the individual Purpose to meet the current and future needs of the organisation and the individual at work Difficult to disentangle career development form general training and development

9 General Organisational Benefits in Career Development
Makes the organisation attractive to recruits Recognition of employee needs Likely to encourage employee commitment and reduce staff turnover Encourage motivation and job performance Exploits the full potential of the workforce

10 Career Development Stages (1 of 2)
Occupational choice – preparation for work Organisational entry Early career – establishment and achievement (Greenhaus & Callanan, 1994)

11 Career Development Stages (2 of 2)
Mid career Late career (Greenhaus & Callanan, 1994)

12 What are Career Anchors?
Items that explain the pattern of career decisions that each individual has taken Include the following: Self-perceived talents and abilities Self-perceived motives and needs Self-perceived attitudes and values (Schein, 1978)

13 Types of Career Anchors?
Technical/functional competence Managerial competence Security and stability Creativity Autonomy and independence (Schein, 1978)

14 Additional Types of Career Anchors?
Basic identity Service to others Power, influence and control Variety (Schein, 1978)

15 Career Balance Evidence that racial minorities and women limit their career choices Same impact with social class identity Until recently there has been no place for family & other interference in career development stages Attention turning to the concept of work life balance

16 Individual Career Management
Individual staff should identify career goals, adopt strategies to support them, and plan to achieve them In reality many people fail to plan

17 Types of Career Management Strategies
Creating opportunities Extended work involvement Self nomination Seeking career guidance Networking Interpersonal attraction

18 The Career Resilient Workforce
Individuals need to: Make themselves knowledgeable about market trends Understand the skills & knowledge needed Be aware of own strengths and weaknesses Have a plan for increasing their performance and employability Respond quickly to changing business needs Move on when a win/win relationship is no longer possible

19 Career Management Competencies
Planning Engaging in personal development Balancing work and non-work Optimising (Ball, 1979)

20 Organisational Support for Career Development
Organisations should support their staff Line managers taking career management seriously Commitment of senior managers Formal career management strategy Integration with overall HR and business strategy

21 How Organisations Can Help Individuals
Career exploration Career goal setting Career strategies and action planning Career feedback

22 Organisational Activities That Can Assist Individuals Career Development (1 of 2)
Career strategy Career pathways and grids Fast track programmes Career conversations Managerial support Career counselling

23 Organisational Activities That Can Assist Individuals Career Development (2 of 2)
Career workshops Self-help workbooks Career centres Assessment and development centres

24 Summary Context of careers is changing
Careers are owned and managed by individuals Theories of careers development include career stage and career anchors Individuals need to become career resilient Organisations can support individuals by encouraging individual career management and having appropriate structures in place

25 Focus on Skills: Part IV Teaching
Teaching a person to do something is different to teaching understanding Understanding something intellectually is different from understanding and changing how you interact with others

26 Bloom’s Approaches to Learning (CRAMP)
Comprehension Reflex learning Attitude development Memory training Procedural learning

27 Learning Stages Novice Advanced beginner Competency Proficiency Expert
(Quinn et al, 1990)

28 Job Instruction Understand task
Understand what satisfactory performance is Practice the performance – division of task Gain feedback

29 Job Instruction Sequence
Preparation Instruction Presentation

30 Preparation Establishing objectives Select learning methods
Practice routine

31 Preparation  Objectives
Organisational – contribution learner will make to the business Behavioural – what the learner should be able to do when training is complete

32 Alternative Job Instruction Methods
Progressive part Simplification Memory training Deduction Cumulative part Discrimination Magnification

33 Instruction Mutual appraisal occurs Exchanges are important
Demonstrations and explanations Task presented in simplest form Encourage questioning

34 Presentation Common methods of presentation includes:
Chronological sequence Known to unknown Simple to complex Problem to solution Comparison

35 Summary CRAMP Selecting the right approach to learning is helped by identifying stage of learner Alternative methods in job instruction include progressive part, simplification, mnemonics, rules, deduction, cumulative part, discrimination and magnification

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