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Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.1 Traditional Careers Hierarchical progression Long.

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Presentation on theme: "Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.1 Traditional Careers Hierarchical progression Long."— Presentation transcript:

1 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.1 Traditional Careers Hierarchical progression Long term career in return for loyalty, commitments and adequate performance Managed on a planned basis by the organisation Some evidence that this type of career still exists

2 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.2 Factors Influencing a Change in Careers Flatter structures Need for flexibility Uncertainty and change

3 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.3 Managers Managing Their Careers Today Managers must learn to manage themselves and their work independently Managers must build portfolios of achievements and skills and develop networks Managers must market themselves within their sector

4 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.4 Portfolio Career ‘Exchanging full time employment for independence’ (Handy, 1994)

5 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.5 Boundaryless Career Includes moves between organisations and non- hierarchical moves within organisations where there are no norms of progress or success (Arthur, 1994)

6 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.6 The Old Psychological Contract Table 19.1 The old psychological contract

7 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.7 Defining a Career Pattern or sequence of work roles of an individual Increasingly appropriate to everyone’s work roles Implies upward movement and advancement Individuals’ development in learning and work throughout life (Collins & Watts, 1996)

8 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.8 Career Development Often referred to as the internal career Responsibility rests with the individual Purpose to meet the current and future needs of the organisation and the individual at work Difficult to disentangle career development form general training and development

9 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.9 General Organisational Benefits in Career Development Makes the organisation attractive to recruits Recognition of employee needs Likely to encourage employee commitment and reduce staff turnover Encourage motivation and job performance Exploits the full potential of the workforce

10 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.10 Career Development Stages (1 of 2) 1.Occupational choice – preparation for work 2.Organisational entry 3.Early career – establishment and achievement (Greenhaus & Callanan, 1994)

11 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.11 Career Development Stages (2 of 2) 4.Mid career 5.Late career (Greenhaus & Callanan, 1994)

12 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.12 What are Career Anchors? Items that explain the pattern of career decisions that each individual has taken Include the following: Self-perceived talents and abilities Self-perceived motives and needs Self-perceived attitudes and values (Schein, 1978)

13 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.13 Types of Career Anchors? 1.Technical/functional competence 2.Managerial competence 3.Security and stability 4.Creativity 5.Autonomy and independence (Schein, 1978)

14 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.14 Additional Types of Career Anchors? 6.Basic identity 7.Service to others 8.Power, influence and control 9.Variety (Schein, 1978)

15 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.15 Career Balance Evidence that racial minorities and women limit their career choices Same impact with social class identity Until recently there has been no place for family & other interference in career development stages Attention turning to the concept of work life balance

16 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.16 Individual Career Management Individual staff should identify career goals, adopt strategies to support them, and plan to achieve them In reality many people fail to plan

17 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.17 Types of Career Management Strategies Creating opportunities Extended work involvement Self nomination Seeking career guidance Networking Interpersonal attraction

18 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.18 The Career Resilient Workforce Individuals need to: Make themselves knowledgeable about market trends Understand the skills & knowledge needed Be aware of own strengths and weaknesses Have a plan for increasing their performance and employability Respond quickly to changing business needs Move on when a win/win relationship is no longer possible

19 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.19 Career Management Competencies Planning Engaging in personal development Balancing work and non-work Optimising (Ball, 1979)

20 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.20 Organisational Support for Career Development Organisations should support their staff Line managers taking career management seriously Commitment of senior managers Formal career management strategy Integration with overall HR and business strategy

21 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.21 How Organisations Can Help Individuals Career exploration Career goal setting Career strategies and action planning Career feedback

22 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.22 Organisational Activities That Can Assist Individuals Career Development (1 of 2) Career strategy Career pathways and grids Fast track programmes Career conversations Managerial support Career counselling

23 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.23 Organisational Activities That Can Assist Individuals Career Development (2 of 2) Career workshops Self-help workbooks Career centres Assessment and development centres

24 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.24 Summary Context of careers is changing Careers are owned and managed by individuals Theories of careers development include career stage and career anchors Individuals need to become career resilient Organisations can support individuals by encouraging individual career management and having appropriate structures in place

25 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.25 Focus on Skills: Part IV Teaching Teaching a person to do something is different to teaching understanding Understanding something intellectually is different from understanding and changing how you interact with others

26 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.26 Bloom’s Approaches to Learning (CRAMP) 1.Comprehension 2.Reflex learning 3.Attitude development 4.Memory training 5.Procedural learning

27 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.27 Learning Stages 1.Novice 2.Advanced beginner 3.Competency 4.Proficiency 5.Expert (Quinn et al, 1990)

28 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.28 Job Instruction Understand task Understand what satisfactory performance is Practice the performance – division of task Gain feedback

29 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.29 Job Instruction Sequence Preparation Instruction Presentation

30 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.30 Preparation Establishing objectives Select learning methods Practice routine

31 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.31 Preparation  Objectives Organisational – contribution learner will make to the business Behavioural – what the learner should be able to do when training is complete

32 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.32 Alternative Job Instruction Methods Progressive part Simplification Memory training Deduction Cumulative part Discrimination Magnification

33 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.33 Instruction Mutual appraisal occurs Exchanges are important Demonstrations and explanations Task presented in simplest form Encourage questioning

34 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.34 Presentation Common methods of presentation includes: Chronological sequence Known to unknown Simple to complex Problem to solution Comparison

35 Torrington, Hall & Taylor, Human Resource Management 6e, © Pearson Education Limited 2005 Slide 19.35 Summary CRAMP Selecting the right approach to learning is helped by identifying stage of learner Alternative methods in job instruction include progressive part, simplification, mnemonics, rules, deduction, cumulative part, discrimination and magnification


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