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SEX, Fertility, and Anti- Fertility Technology Team: CADAK Christy Nguyen Amika Hebert Derek Yip Andrea Noriega Kelly Yee Team: CADAK Christy Nguyen Amika.

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Presentation on theme: "SEX, Fertility, and Anti- Fertility Technology Team: CADAK Christy Nguyen Amika Hebert Derek Yip Andrea Noriega Kelly Yee Team: CADAK Christy Nguyen Amika."— Presentation transcript:

1 SEX, Fertility, and Anti- Fertility Technology Team: CADAK Christy Nguyen Amika Hebert Derek Yip Andrea Noriega Kelly Yee Team: CADAK Christy Nguyen Amika Hebert Derek Yip Andrea Noriega Kelly Yee

2 Sex Technology Amika Hebert

3 Self-Pleasuring Technology h Iceland - whalebone, 106,000 years old h Greeks - wood, padded leather h Egypt - coming of age h India - puberty rite h Celts/Druids - crops h Iceland - whalebone, 106,000 years old h Greeks - wood, padded leather h Egypt - coming of age h India - puberty rite h Celts/Druids - crops Amika Hebert

4 Fertility-Promoters h Nutrition h Plants g Pomegranate g Date Palm g Moghat h Estrogens g Estrone g Estriol g estradiol h Nutrition h Plants g Pomegranate g Date Palm g Moghat h Estrogens g Estrone g Estriol g estradiol Amika Hebert

5 Menstrual Technology Amika Hebert

6 The Takeover h Imitation g Subincision: primitive Australia, New Guinea, Philippines h Take Control g Redefine menstruation h Imitation g Subincision: primitive Australia, New Guinea, Philippines h Take Control g Redefine menstruation Amika Hebert

7 19th-20th Centuries Amika Hebert Emma H. Carpenter Catamenial sack/bandage 1892Springfield, VT Elizabeth Higgins “Dress protector”1862Boston, MA Mary G. Porter “Ladies safety belt”1870Charlestown, MA Maria P. Dibble Frances Carter “Bandages”

8 19th-20th Centuries Amika Hebert

9 20th Century Menstrual Receivers - Pads and Belts Amika Hebert Jennie L. BornsteinSanitary support1912Dayton, OH Elfreda J. CorbinNapkin1915Minneapolis, MN Ida M. ArgoCatemenialBandage1910Dallas, TX June HaughtonSanitary devices1913 Anna BrandNapkin-holder1924Chicago Aniela MajewskiSanitary pad holder1940Chicago Beatrice Kenner1st adhesive tabs1956Washington DC Anna M. Landy Neola Seidler “fluid-impervious” layer and rim - pad 1956Philadelphia, PA Carolyn R. MobleyTabbed napkin1971Appleton, WI Eleanor J. FendlerMicrofibrous pad1983Appleton, WI Pamela F. BaumDisposable napkins1983Neenah, WI Billie J. MatthewsAdhesive napkins Winnebago, WI Barbara Oakley3-D sanitary napkin1987WI

10 20th Century Menstrual Receivers - Tampons and Sponges Amika Hebert Alicia Bay LaurelKitchen sponge Doris MoehrleNature’s answer1978 Dr. Judith Mittogo.b. tampon1950s Virginia A. OlsonApplicator, wrapper,tampon Virginia CorriganTampon coating1971 Patricia McKelveyWrapper1977 Lin-Sun WoonFolded pledget1982 Billie J. MatthewsManufacturing ease - tampon 1981 Dawn M. HuffmanFinger grip1986

11 20th Century Menstrual Extraction h Carol Downer h Loraine Rothman h Carol Downer h Loraine Rothman Amika Hebert

12 20th Century Remedies for Menstrual Pain and Difficulties h PMS g Katharina Dalton g Dr. Michelle Harrison g Dr. Marcia Storch g Dr. Susan Lark h Prostaglandins g Dr. Penny Wise Budoff g Tamara Dejneka h PMS g Katharina Dalton g Dr. Michelle Harrison g Dr. Marcia Storch g Dr. Susan Lark h Prostaglandins g Dr. Penny Wise Budoff g Tamara Dejneka Amika Hebert

13 Pregnancy and Childbirth Technology Andrea Noriega

14 Pregnancy and Childbirth Technology: Midwives of Yesterday and Today h Prenatal Care h Pregnancy Care h Birth Care h Aftercare h Prenatal Care h Pregnancy Care h Birth Care h Aftercare Andrea Noriega

15 What is a Midwife? Midwives provide care to women during the process of labor and childbirth, from the prenatal period to after the birth of a baby. Trained to be more holistic and woman-focused in their approach, midwives work with the backup support of a medical doctor. (Babycenter.com) 3 Types of Midwives: Midwives with Formal Training(CPM) Nurse-Midwives Traditional Birth attendant or Indigenous Midwife Andrea Noriega

16 Prenatal Remedies Midwifery of Yesterday and Today Preventing Morning sickness, Miscarriage and strengthening pregnancy ThenNow PeppermintChamomile AlfalfaGinger Root Blue Flag- Ironically if you take to much it makes you vomit Black Haw Blue Cohosh- Ladies, helps with the menstrual cramps Cramp Bark Star GrassMeditation MotherwortAromatherapy Nutritional Supplement Andrea Noriega

17 Easing, Speeding Labor and killing pain ThenNow Hydropaths or water cure specialists 1846 article Water Cure Journal (kathryn kylar,318n8) Midwives and water pools (Ease labor) (Activebirthcentre.com) Massage the Belly and the Perineum (between the Anus and Genitalia) (Gastromd.com) Midwives and Massaging (Focus on abdomen and Fetus) Birth ropes, foot-rests, abdominal bandsContractions: Walking, squatting, warm baths, cool compress Birth Fire Warm water Heated Stones Ease women during birth Midwives capable of handling dangerous situations Guiding mother through labor squatting on birth stools (Developed by women bearing babies or midwives) Andrea Noriega

18 Aftercare: Postpartum ThenNow Care of the new bornBaby is cleaned Umbilical cord cut with arrow caneVitamin K injection Baby fall to floor (first breath)Antibiotic ointment to eye Cold bath (Thick Juice squeeze from Banana Bark) Deliver Placenta Ashes and CharcoalPitocin injection Warm water(Pregnancyandbaby.com) MassageMidwife inspects genital area ExerciseDoula Midwife- midwife that helps after child birth Special diet herbal treatments- stimulate milk and sore nipples Andrea Noriega

19 Women’s inventions and Innovations for the Care and Socialization of their Children 18 th Century Octavia Studied medicine formally and practiced in her home She also invented useful toothache remedy and others remedies Trotula of Salerno (d. 1097) With her husband and two sons, wrote a medical encyclopidia Louyse Bourgeois( ) Prominent French obstetrician and Surgeon. Studied Midwifery and later published books on childbirth between 1608 and Andrea Noriega

20 Women’s inventions and Innovations for the Care and Socialization of their Children ( Cont.) 19 th Century Marie-Anne Victoria Boivin ( ) Invented a new pelvimeter and a vaginal speculum and also one of the first to use a stethoscope to listen to the fetal heart Mme Rondet (b. 1800) Invented and perfected a resuscitation tube newborn infants in states of asphyxia 20 th century Dr. Roberta A. Ballard(1940- ) C ontributed to the treatment of respiratory distress caused by immature lung development Dr. Hilda H. Kroeger Helped design a an efficient labor-delivery suite. She was named “Medical Women of the Year” in 1955 for this achievement Andrea Noriega

21 Anti-fertility Technology: Introduction Derek Yip

22 Anti-fertility Technology: Introduction h Men could not go into a women’s market because the market not only sold the typical fruits and vegetables, but also other types of food that act as contraceptives. h Primitive women consider their anti- fertility methods secret and will not share it with outsiders. h Men could not go into a women’s market because the market not only sold the typical fruits and vegetables, but also other types of food that act as contraceptives. h Primitive women consider their anti- fertility methods secret and will not share it with outsiders. Derek Yip

23 Anti-fertility Technology: Introduction (Cont.) h Women invented all the basic types of contraceptive today and that modern medicine just re-invented them or refined it. h Four categories of contraceptive methods g Cultural, mechanical, herbal and chemical h Women invented all the basic types of contraceptive today and that modern medicine just re-invented them or refined it. h Four categories of contraceptive methods g Cultural, mechanical, herbal and chemical Derek Yip

24 Cultural Methods: h Postpartum intercourse taboos g By making sexual intercourse taboo for the mother or both parents for a certain period of time after birth which could usually range from several weeks or to years. h Breast-feeding g By prolonging the nursing process wholly or partly it keeps the family small in size. h In some cultures like Baffin Land Eskimo or Native American mothers, they prolonged lactation so that they can space their children at least three years apart. h Postpartum intercourse taboos g By making sexual intercourse taboo for the mother or both parents for a certain period of time after birth which could usually range from several weeks or to years. h Breast-feeding g By prolonging the nursing process wholly or partly it keeps the family small in size. h In some cultures like Baffin Land Eskimo or Native American mothers, they prolonged lactation so that they can space their children at least three years apart. Derek Yip

25 Cultural Methods: (Cont.) h Other intercourse taboos/regulations g Regulating certain activities like pre marital love making. h Ridicule g In rural Ghana, a woman who has lots of kids will often be ridiculed as having no self control and be made fun of. h Imposed bareness/celibacy g By imposing bareness or celibacy, it also prevents excess births. h Such groups who do practice this are Nuns, monks, and priests. h Other intercourse taboos/regulations g Regulating certain activities like pre marital love making. h Ridicule g In rural Ghana, a woman who has lots of kids will often be ridiculed as having no self control and be made fun of. h Imposed bareness/celibacy g By imposing bareness or celibacy, it also prevents excess births. h Such groups who do practice this are Nuns, monks, and priests. Derek Yip

26 Physical/Mechanical Methods: h Barriers g Some of the barriers to prevent pregnancy would be by using grass, moss, sponges, plant fibers and or tampons which is to staunch the menstrual flow. g Developed more types of barriers such as packings, gums, cervical caps, and internal female sheaths. g Were usually soaked or smeared with spermicides, astringents, or irritating substances h Barriers g Some of the barriers to prevent pregnancy would be by using grass, moss, sponges, plant fibers and or tampons which is to staunch the menstrual flow. g Developed more types of barriers such as packings, gums, cervical caps, and internal female sheaths. g Were usually soaked or smeared with spermicides, astringents, or irritating substances Derek Yip

27 Physical/Mechanical Methods: (Cont.) h Examples of different cultures using barriers g Certain cultures in Central and East Africa used finely chopped up grass as a plug to prevent conception. g A Hebrew women used a soft spongy material that is like a absorbent material like cotton or wool where she used it as a plug or a cervical cap. h Examples of different cultures using barriers g Certain cultures in Central and East Africa used finely chopped up grass as a plug to prevent conception. g A Hebrew women used a soft spongy material that is like a absorbent material like cotton or wool where she used it as a plug or a cervical cap. Derek Yip

28 Physical/Mechanical Methods: (Cont.) h Oils/Gummy Substances g Gummy substances, various thick oils used along with spermicde or irritating substances or another form of barrier were among the most effective parts of early contraceptive technology. h Honey is also used among many countries like Egypt, Greece, India, Islam and by the Roman army physician. h Butter is another form where the poor uses it since it is cheap and easily available. h Other types of oily or greasy substances would be oil of cedar, tar, pitch, and gum. h Oils/Gummy Substances g Gummy substances, various thick oils used along with spermicde or irritating substances or another form of barrier were among the most effective parts of early contraceptive technology. h Honey is also used among many countries like Egypt, Greece, India, Islam and by the Roman army physician. h Butter is another form where the poor uses it since it is cheap and easily available. h Other types of oily or greasy substances would be oil of cedar, tar, pitch, and gum. Derek Yip

29 Physical/Mechanical Methods: (Cont.) h Cervical Cap/Female Internal Sheaths g Cervical cap h Disks of oiled paper and placed it in the cervix. h Using half a lemon with most of its juice and pulp extracted as a cervical cap. g Female Internal Sheaths h Comes a Djuka women where she used the end of an orka like seed pod where she inserts it into the vagina. h Because of this, this is where the condom may have been invented. h Cervical Cap/Female Internal Sheaths g Cervical cap h Disks of oiled paper and placed it in the cervix. h Using half a lemon with most of its juice and pulp extracted as a cervical cap. g Female Internal Sheaths h Comes a Djuka women where she used the end of an orka like seed pod where she inserts it into the vagina. h Because of this, this is where the condom may have been invented. Derek Yip

30 Physical/Mechanical Methods: (Cont.) h Chastity belts g A physical barrier that prevents any sexual activates worn by the women because it has a lock that can only be opened by a key. h Deep Massage g By tipping the uterus backwards by strong abdominal massage or manipulation, conception becomes more difficult if the uterus is tipped far enough. h Chastity belts g A physical barrier that prevents any sexual activates worn by the women because it has a lock that can only be opened by a key. h Deep Massage g By tipping the uterus backwards by strong abdominal massage or manipulation, conception becomes more difficult if the uterus is tipped far enough. Derek Yip

31 Physical/Mechanical Methods: (Cont.) h Intrauterine Devices g IUD was invented in 1909 by a German doctor g Mutton fat were being inserted into the cervix and left there in order to slow down the sperm and probably irritating the uterus as well. g IUD was basically used for every conceivable reason even including population control. g Some of the types of materials used was wool, ivory, wood, glass, silver, gold, ebony and pewter. g Some of the cultures that used IUD would be the Romans who used papyrus or dry sponges, India using a small stick, Turkish women who used tobacco or an olive stem, and Japanese women who used a silk thread covered by musk. h Intrauterine Devices g IUD was invented in 1909 by a German doctor g Mutton fat were being inserted into the cervix and left there in order to slow down the sperm and probably irritating the uterus as well. g IUD was basically used for every conceivable reason even including population control. g Some of the types of materials used was wool, ivory, wood, glass, silver, gold, ebony and pewter. g Some of the cultures that used IUD would be the Romans who used papyrus or dry sponges, India using a small stick, Turkish women who used tobacco or an olive stem, and Japanese women who used a silk thread covered by musk. Derek Yip

32 Anti-fertility Technology: Herbal or Chemical Methods Christy Nguyen

33 Physical- Chemical Methods: Douching What is douching? “rinsing or cleaning out the vagina (also called the birth canal) by squirting water or other solutions (such as vinegar, baking soda, or douching solutions you can buy at drug and grocery stores) into the vagina. The water or solutions are held in a bottle and squirted into the vagina through tubing and a nozzle. (4women.gov)vagina Why douche? Women would douche to rinse away blood after a menstrual period; clean the vagina after sex to avoid sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and wash away semen to prevent pregnancy; and reduce odors. Ineffective, unless it contained spermicide which made it partly effective What is douching? “rinsing or cleaning out the vagina (also called the birth canal) by squirting water or other solutions (such as vinegar, baking soda, or douching solutions you can buy at drug and grocery stores) into the vagina. The water or solutions are held in a bottle and squirted into the vagina through tubing and a nozzle. (4women.gov)vagina Why douche? Women would douche to rinse away blood after a menstrual period; clean the vagina after sex to avoid sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and wash away semen to prevent pregnancy; and reduce odors. Ineffective, unless it contained spermicide which made it partly effective Christy Nguyen

34 Physical- Chemical Methods: Contraceptive Tampons h Women got the idea from having to deal with their menstrual flow h If they could flood their vagina with an astringent or spermicidal fluid, she could then use a tampon to keep it from dripping out before taking its effect. h They then began to soak their tampons with an astringent and then insert it into their vagina. h Women got the idea from having to deal with their menstrual flow h If they could flood their vagina with an astringent or spermicidal fluid, she could then use a tampon to keep it from dripping out before taking its effect. h They then began to soak their tampons with an astringent and then insert it into their vagina. Christy Nguyen

35 Physical- Chemical Methods: Douching Syringe h - The douching system was not thought to be effective unless injected the fluids into the vagina under pressure - Primitive women had the technology for this process because it is reported that they had bulbed syringes. h - The douching system was not thought to be effective unless injected the fluids into the vagina under pressure - Primitive women had the technology for this process because it is reported that they had bulbed syringes. Christy Nguyen

36 Physical- Chemical Methods: Sponges h - Cleopatra used a sea sponge that was moistened with vinegar which was highly effective h - 19 th - century women of Constantinople soaked their sponges with diluted lemon juice just before having intercourse. h - Citric Acid is a highly effective spermicide - The sponge was then improved by attaching a string to it, so that it could be removed with ease. h - Cleopatra used a sea sponge that was moistened with vinegar which was highly effective h - 19 th - century women of Constantinople soaked their sponges with diluted lemon juice just before having intercourse. h - Citric Acid is a highly effective spermicide - The sponge was then improved by attaching a string to it, so that it could be removed with ease. Christy Nguyen

37 Chemical Pessaries h - Instead of being a fiber tampon they used one that was a gummy substance - Some women used a black mass that was shaped like a pill and inserted it into their vagina before intercourse. It contained a large amount of tannic acid which is stronger than lactic acid h - Instead of being a fiber tampon they used one that was a gummy substance - Some women used a black mass that was shaped like a pill and inserted it into their vagina before intercourse. It contained a large amount of tannic acid which is stronger than lactic acid Christy Nguyen

38 Oral Contraceptives h - usually herbs or herbal preparations h - potion was the first form of contraceptives that were mentioned h - Hippocrates in 4th/5th Century BC said: 'If a woman does not wish to become pregnant, dissolve in water misy as large as a bean and give it to her to drink and for a year she will not become pregnant h - Many women from different areas used herbal contraceptives they gathered from different parts of plants h - In some areas contraceptives were a matter of life and death Ex. Upper-class Incan women having intercourse with a commoner was a capital offense h - usually herbs or herbal preparations h - potion was the first form of contraceptives that were mentioned h - Hippocrates in 4th/5th Century BC said: 'If a woman does not wish to become pregnant, dissolve in water misy as large as a bean and give it to her to drink and for a year she will not become pregnant h - Many women from different areas used herbal contraceptives they gathered from different parts of plants h - In some areas contraceptives were a matter of life and death Ex. Upper-class Incan women having intercourse with a commoner was a capital offense Christy Nguyen

39 Oral Contraceptives (Cont,) h Many concoctions recommended were poisons h 19 th century European peasant women believed in continuous drinking after each menstrual period of water obtained from a “blacksmith’s metal-quenching water” which was thought to contain lead of iron sulfate Interesting oral contraceptives h - drinking mixtures of gunpowder – Oasis of Sima h - foam from a camel’s mouth- Oasis of Sima h - burnt earth from under a fire- White Mountain Apache Women - scraping of a male deer horn- Cora women h Many concoctions recommended were poisons h 19 th century European peasant women believed in continuous drinking after each menstrual period of water obtained from a “blacksmith’s metal-quenching water” which was thought to contain lead of iron sulfate Interesting oral contraceptives h - drinking mixtures of gunpowder – Oasis of Sima h - foam from a camel’s mouth- Oasis of Sima h - burnt earth from under a fire- White Mountain Apache Women - scraping of a male deer horn- Cora women Christy Nguyen

40 Anti-fertility Technology: Surgical and Cyclical or Rhythm Methods Christy Nguyen

41 Anti-fertility Technology: Cyclical or Rhythm Methods h Billings Ovulation Method - (Dr. Evelyn Billings) g the woman is fertile every month only during the 100 hours that is immediately surrounding her ovulation. Her mucus will change dramatically as this period approaches. By looking at her mucus everyday she can be pre-warned of her fertile period h Body Aware System - ( Selmaree Oster) g A paper dipped into urine or saliva will change color to respond to high estrogen levels that support ovulation h Billings Ovulation Method - (Dr. Evelyn Billings) g the woman is fertile every month only during the 100 hours that is immediately surrounding her ovulation. Her mucus will change dramatically as this period approaches. By looking at her mucus everyday she can be pre-warned of her fertile period h Body Aware System - ( Selmaree Oster) g A paper dipped into urine or saliva will change color to respond to high estrogen levels that support ovulation Christy Nguyen

42 Anti-fertility Technology: Surgical Methods h Ovariotomy g Surgical method that is unknown, however, the women have a scar on their side above their hip. g It is assumed that the ovary is removed g Women were knowledgeable in this area to know how to perform the procedure h Ovariotomy g Surgical method that is unknown, however, the women have a scar on their side above their hip. g It is assumed that the ovary is removed g Women were knowledgeable in this area to know how to perform the procedure Christy Nguyen

43 Anti-Fertility Technology : Modern Period Kelly Yee

44 19th Century: Pessaries h The U.S. Patent Office refused to patent anything overtly described as a contraceptive. h The word pessary is the patent class of “Abdominal and uterine supporters.” g 1897 Sears catalogue model makes clear, in this device a heavy belt supported the abdomen externally and held in place a hard rubber pedestal- called a pessary- that supported the uterus internally h The U.S. Patent Office refused to patent anything overtly described as a contraceptive. h The word pessary is the patent class of “Abdominal and uterine supporters.” g 1897 Sears catalogue model makes clear, in this device a heavy belt supported the abdomen externally and held in place a hard rubber pedestal- called a pessary- that supported the uterus internally Kelly Yee

45 Vaginal Syringes: contraceptive douching h Anna L. Palmer patented earliest contraceptive syringe. g Laura M. Adams, Margaret Hart, Annie H. Collins, Lucy R. Meyer. h Survey conducted in Indiana g 20% using any contraception were still douching. g Reducing conception by 80% h Elizabeth Holcombe patented a Vaginal irrigator and urinal in h Anna L. Palmer patented earliest contraceptive syringe. g Laura M. Adams, Margaret Hart, Annie H. Collins, Lucy R. Meyer. h Survey conducted in Indiana g 20% using any contraception were still douching. g Reducing conception by 80% h Elizabeth Holcombe patented a Vaginal irrigator and urinal in Kelly Yee

46 Cervical cap h An ancient method, invented at least a thousand years ago g Molded opium, silky paper, orange and lemon halves. h Interfere with menstrual bleeding. h No names of women inventors, only their role in testing the effectiveness h An ancient method, invented at least a thousand years ago g Molded opium, silky paper, orange and lemon halves. h Interfere with menstrual bleeding. h No names of women inventors, only their role in testing the effectiveness Kelly Yee

47 Diahphragm h Greatest advancement since condom h Dr. Aletta Jacobs g First birth-control clinic g Suffrage movement g Lowest maternal death rate and infant death rate in Europe h Greatest advancement since condom h Dr. Aletta Jacobs g First birth-control clinic g Suffrage movement g Lowest maternal death rate and infant death rate in Europe Kelly Yee

48 The Perennial Sponge h Annie Besant ( ) g Sponge soaked in quinine solution and inserted into the vagina before intercourse h 1877 trial established Englishwomen’s right to birth- control informatio h Annie Besant ( ) g Sponge soaked in quinine solution and inserted into the vagina before intercourse h 1877 trial established Englishwomen’s right to birth- control informatio

49 The 20th Century: Anti-Fertility Technology Margaret Sanger ( ) Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau in NYC Katherine Dexter McCormick ( ) First birth-control pill Blanche Ames Ames ( ) Co-founded Birth Control League of Massachusetts Marie Carmichael Stopes ( ) England’s first birth- control clinic Kelly Yee

50 Rational Methods: Barrier, Chemical, Combined, Hormonal Louise NelsonPatented a Pessary (1907) Hannah StoneCombined diaphragm with spermicidal jellies Dr. Connie Chambers Harris Modern birth-control pill Dr. Edris Rice-WrayLong-lasting injection contraceptive *Doris MoehrleNature’s Answer reusable sponge tampon *Marjorie R. MurrayPersonal Pill Reminder (1974)

51 Male Contraception h Dr. Martha Voegli g Three weeks of daily 45-minute baths in water of 116 degrees F can make a man sterile for six months h Barbara Seaman g Suggested condoms should be made in different sizes g Transformed women’s reproductive freedom h Dr. Martha Voegli g Three weeks of daily 45-minute baths in water of 116 degrees F can make a man sterile for six months h Barbara Seaman g Suggested condoms should be made in different sizes g Transformed women’s reproductive freedom Kelly Yee

52 Natural or Cyclical Methods h Louise Lacey g “Lunaception” h 1. Determine cycle and the precise pattern of temperature changes that signals ovulation h 2. Sleep in absolute darkness for the first 13 days of cycle h 3. After 13 days, sleep with a source of white light for the next 2 days h 4. Return to absolute darkness for the remaining nights of the cycle. h Louise Lacey g “Lunaception” h 1. Determine cycle and the precise pattern of temperature changes that signals ovulation h 2. Sleep in absolute darkness for the first 13 days of cycle h 3. After 13 days, sleep with a source of white light for the next 2 days h 4. Return to absolute darkness for the remaining nights of the cycle. Kelly Yee

53 Mental/Psychological Methods h Barbara Brown g The human brain can exert control over the body and its functions even down to the level of a single cell h A woman could be able to close her cervix against sperm until a spermicidal douche could be administered. h Barbara Brown g The human brain can exert control over the body and its functions even down to the level of a single cell h A woman could be able to close her cervix against sperm until a spermicidal douche could be administered. Kelly Yee

54 Research h Carol Grace Smith g THC (tetrahydrocannab inol), active principle of marijuana h Ann de Peyster g Gossypol h Carol Grace Smith g THC (tetrahydrocannab inol), active principle of marijuana h Ann de Peyster g Gossypol Kelly Yee

55 Just Some FACTS Abstinence100% effective The Pill98% effective Abortion96% effective Condoms90% effective Foams/Spermicides85% effective Kelly Yee

56 We’re not done yet!!! It’s time to have some fun (not that kind of fun) It’s time to have some fun (not that kind of fun)


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