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Nutrition Chapter 9. Nutrients Protein Protein Fat Fat Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Water Water Vitamins Vitamins Minerals Minerals Nutrients are substances.

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Presentation on theme: "Nutrition Chapter 9. Nutrients Protein Protein Fat Fat Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Water Water Vitamins Vitamins Minerals Minerals Nutrients are substances."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutrition Chapter 9

2 Nutrients Protein Protein Fat Fat Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Water Water Vitamins Vitamins Minerals Minerals Nutrients are substances that help with body processes, growth, repair of cells, and provides energy A Calorie is a unit of energy produced by food and used by the body

3 Protein A protein is a nutrient needed for growth and repair A protein is a nutrient needed for growth and repair Proteins form part of every cell in the body and make up more than 50% of total body weight Proteins form part of every cell in the body and make up more than 50% of total body weight The following are additional information on protein: The following are additional information on protein: Kcal value – 4 Kcal/gram Kcal value – 4 Kcal/gram Types – complete/incomplete Types – complete/incomplete Basic breakdown – amino acids Basic breakdown – amino acids Sources: Sources: Meat, chicken, tuna, dried beans, eggs, nuts Meat, chicken, tuna, dried beans, eggs, nuts

4 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for the body Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for the body They include sugars, starches, and fiber They include sugars, starches, and fiber The following is additional information on carbohydrates: The following is additional information on carbohydrates: Kcal value – 4 Kcal/gram Kcal value – 4 Kcal/gram Types – single/complex Types – single/complex Basic breakdown – glucose Basic breakdown – glucose Sources: Sources: Bread, wheat, rice, pasta, macaroni noodles, cereal, oatmeal Bread, wheat, rice, pasta, macaroni noodles, cereal, oatmeal Fiber is part of grains and plants that cannot be digested

5 Fats A fat is a nutrient that provides energy and helps the body store and use vitamins A fat is a nutrient that provides energy and helps the body store and use vitamins The following is additional information on fats: The following is additional information on fats: Kcal value – 9 Kcal/gram Kcal value – 9 Kcal/gram Types – saturated/unsaturated Types – saturated/unsaturated Basic breakdown – fatty acids Basic breakdown – fatty acids Sources: Sources: Ice cream, milk, cheese, butter, margarine, yogurt, meat, egg yolks, corn oil Ice cream, milk, cheese, butter, margarine, yogurt, meat, egg yolks, corn oil Cholesterol is a fat-like substance made by the body and found in certain foods

6 Vitamins A vitamin is a nutrient that helps the body use carbohydrates, proteins, and fats A vitamin is a nutrient that helps the body use carbohydrates, proteins, and fats The following is additional information on vitamins: The following is additional information on vitamins: Function – assists with body processes Function – assists with body processes Kcal value – 0 (does not supply energy) Kcal value – 0 (does not supply energy) Types – water (BC) and fat soluble (ADEK) Types – water (BC) and fat soluble (ADEK)

7 Vitamins Vitamin A – night vision, bone formation Vitamin A – night vision, bone formation Sources: carrots, sweet potatoes Sources: carrots, sweet potatoes Riboflavin – Appetite Riboflavin – Appetite Sources: Nuts, cereals, peas, beans Sources: Nuts, cereals, peas, beans Ascorbic acid – resist infection, strengthen blood vessels Ascorbic acid – resist infection, strengthen blood vessels Sources: Oranges, limes, tomatoes Sources: Oranges, limes, tomatoes

8 Minerals A mineral is a nutrient that assists with chemical reactions in the body A mineral is a nutrient that assists with chemical reactions in the body The following is additional information on minerals: The following is additional information on minerals: Kcal value – 0 (does not supply the body with energy) Kcal value – 0 (does not supply the body with energy) Types Types Macro minerals (required in larger amounts) Macro minerals (required in larger amounts) Trace minerals (needed in small amounts) Trace minerals (needed in small amounts) Iron, Calcium, and Sodium are considered 3 important minerals

9 Minerals Calcium – strong bones, teeth, heartbeat Calcium – strong bones, teeth, heartbeat Sources: milk, cheese, cottage cheese Sources: milk, cheese, cottage cheese Chlorine – aids in digestion, keeps body limber Chlorine – aids in digestion, keeps body limber Source: table salt Source: table salt Iodine – energy, mental alertness, growth Iodine – energy, mental alertness, growth Sources: table salt, seafood Sources: table salt, seafood Iron – forms red blood cells, growth, prevents fatigue Iron – forms red blood cells, growth, prevents fatigue Sources: Oatmeal, red meat, liver Sources: Oatmeal, red meat, liver Magnesium – fights depression, insomnia, nervousness Magnesium – fights depression, insomnia, nervousness Sources: dark green veggies, apples Sources: dark green veggies, apples

10 Water Water is a nutrient that is involved with all body processes, such as: waste removal, blood formation, body regulation Water is a nutrient that is involved with all body processes, such as: waste removal, blood formation, body regulation Dehydration is a condition in which the water content of the body has fallen to a low level Dehydration is a condition in which the water content of the body has fallen to a low level It is recommended that a person consume 6-8 glasses per day It is recommended that a person consume 6-8 glasses per day Water can make up more than 60% of body mass Water can make up more than 60% of body mass Estimate of daily intake: Estimate of daily intake:.6oz x Body weight (lbs) = H20 oz..6oz x Body weight (lbs) = H20 oz.

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12 My Pyramid Based on 2,000 calorie diet Based on 2,000 calorie diet Grains: 6 oz. Grains: 6 oz. Vegetables: 2 ½ cups Vegetables: 2 ½ cups Fruits: 2 cups Fruits: 2 cups Milk 3 cups Milk 3 cups Meat and Beans 5 ½ oz Meat and Beans 5 ½ oz Oils: 6 tsp Oils: 6 tsp CHECK OUT : CHECK OUT :

13 Food labels provides nutritional information on all processes foods Regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

14 Understanding Food Labels FDA by law has to include: FDA by law has to include: Name of food Name of food Weight or volume Weight or volume Name and address of manufacturer, distributor, packager Name and address of manufacturer, distributor, packager Ingredients Ingredients Nutrient content Nutrient content

15 Nutrition Label Facts Serving size: amount of food considered a serving Serving size: amount of food considered a serving Servings per container: # of servings in package Servings per container: # of servings in package Calories listing: # of calories in one serving Calories listing: # of calories in one serving Calories from fat: # of calories in one serving Calories from fat: # of calories in one serving Must note Cholesterol, Trans fat, and Saturated (2006) Must note Cholesterol, Trans fat, and Saturated (2006) Percent Daily Value: proportion of recommended daily amount of a nutrient from one serving Percent Daily Value: proportion of recommended daily amount of a nutrient from one serving

16 FOOD LABEL ACTIVITY DO IT! DO IT!

17 Vegetarian Diet Vegetables are the foundation in a vegetarian diet Vegetables are the foundation in a vegetarian diet There are four kinds of vegetarian diets There are four kinds of vegetarian diets Vegan – excludes foods of animal origin Vegan – excludes foods of animal origin Lacto vegetarian – No eggs, fish, poultry, meat Lacto vegetarian – No eggs, fish, poultry, meat Ovo-lacto vegetarian- No fish, poultry, meat Ovo-lacto vegetarian- No fish, poultry, meat Semi vegetarian – excludes red meat Semi vegetarian – excludes red meat Strict vegans can meet protein requirements by Eating complimentary combinations of plant foods = Essential Amino Acids

18 Types of Eating Disorders Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder involving self-starvation and being 15% or more below desirable weight Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder involving self-starvation and being 15% or more below desirable weight Bulimia is an eating disorder which a person binges and purges Bulimia is an eating disorder which a person binges and purges Binge-eating disorder is an eating disorder in which a person cannot control eating and eats excessive amounts Binge-eating disorder is an eating disorder in which a person cannot control eating and eats excessive amounts

19 Risks for Developing an Eating Disorder Too Much Emphasis on Appearance Too Much Emphasis on Appearance Discomfort with Sexual maturity Discomfort with Sexual maturity Perfectionism Perfectionism Need for Control Need for Control Inability to Express Emotions Inability to Express Emotions Social Pressure from Media and Peers Social Pressure from Media and Peers Pressure Felt by Athletes Pressure Felt by Athletes

20 FITNESS

21 Fitness Physical activity is any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure Physical activity is any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure The lack of physical activity in the U.S. is a serious problem The lack of physical activity in the U.S. is a serious problem A majority of adults in the U.S. are not physically active at levels that promote and maintain health (Macera et al., 2005) A majority of adults in the U.S. are not physically active at levels that promote and maintain health (Macera et al., 2005) Tobacco use is the only behavior that kills more people Tobacco use is the only behavior that kills more people

22 Health Benefits of Regular Physical Activity Reduces the risk of: Reduces the risk of: Pre-mature Death Pre-mature Death Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular Disease Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes High blood pressure High blood pressure Colon cancer Colon cancer Feelings of depression and anxiety Feelings of depression and anxiety Helps with the following: Helps with the following: Controls weight Builds and maintains healthy bones, muscles, and joints Older adults become stronger and better able to move about without falling Promotes psychological well-being

23 FITNESS Physical fitness is the ability to perform physical activity and to meet the demands of daily living while being energetic and alert Physical fitness is the ability to perform physical activity and to meet the demands of daily living while being energetic and alert The five health-related areas of fitness are: The five health-related areas of fitness are: 1. Cardio-respiratory endurance 2. Muscular strength 3. Muscular endurance 4. Flexibility 5. Body composition Health related fitness is the ability of the heart, lungs, muscles, and joints to function at optimal capacity

24 Types of Exercise Exercise is planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movements done to improve the components of physical fitness Exercise is planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movements done to improve the components of physical fitness Types of exercises are: Types of exercises are: Aerobic (using oxygen continually for an extended time) Aerobic (using oxygen continually for an extended time) Anaerobic (high intensity activity producing lactic acid) Anaerobic (high intensity activity producing lactic acid) Isometric (tightening of muscles without no body movement) Isometric (tightening of muscles without no body movement) Isotonic (muscles move weight 8 to 15 times) Isotonic (muscles move weight 8 to 15 times) Isokinetic (use of machines to provide resistance through full range of motion) Isokinetic (use of machines to provide resistance through full range of motion)

25 The F.I.T.T. Principle The F.I.T.T. Principle F = frequency (how often) I = intensity (how hard) T = time (how long) T = type (what kind)

26 Cardiorespiratory Fitness Cardio-respiratory Fitness is the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen during sustained physical activity Cardio-respiratory Fitness is the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen during sustained physical activity

27 Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Endurance Helps the heart and lungs function more efficiently Helps the heart and lungs function more efficiently Improves metabolic rate Improves metabolic rate Promotes healthful aging Promotes healthful aging Improves insulin sensitivity Improves insulin sensitivity Improves the muscles’ ability to use lactic acid Improves the muscles’ ability to use lactic acid Improves the function of the immune system Improves the function of the immune system Protects against some types of cancer Protects against some types of cancer Improves psychological well-being Improves psychological well-being

28 Developing a Cardio-respiratory Fitness Program Frequency: 3-5 times/week Frequency: 3-5 times/week Intensity: Exercise Target Heart Rate (220 – age x 75%= Exercise Intensity) Intensity: Exercise Target Heart Rate (220 – age x 75%= Exercise Intensity) Time: minutes Time: minutes Type: prolonged activity using large muscles without stopping Type: prolonged activity using large muscles without stopping Include warm-up and cool-down

29 Muscular Strength and Endurance Muscular Strength is the maximum amount of force a muscle can produce in one effort Muscular Strength is the maximum amount of force a muscle can produce in one effort Muscular Endurance is the ability of the muscles to perform without fatigue Muscular Endurance is the ability of the muscles to perform without fatigue

30 Benefits of Muscular Strength and Endurance Helps with everyday tasks/routines Helps with everyday tasks/routines Helps maintain correct posture Helps maintain correct posture Reduces the risk of low back pain Reduces the risk of low back pain Reduces the risk of being injured Reduces the risk of being injured Helps a person enjoy physical activities without tiring Helps a person enjoy physical activities without tiring Improves body composition by increasing muscle mass and decreasing fat tissue Improves body composition by increasing muscle mass and decreasing fat tissue Improves self-image because muscles are firm/tone Improves self-image because muscles are firm/tone Keep bones dense and strong Keep bones dense and strong Makes the surface of joints less susceptible to injury Makes the surface of joints less susceptible to injury

31 Developing a Muscular Strength and Endurance Program Frequency: 2-4 days/week with a day of rest in-between Frequency: 2-4 days/week with a day of rest in-between Intensity: ability to perform 3 sets of 8-12 reps (lower reps/higher resistance for strength and higher reps/lower resistance for endurance Intensity: ability to perform 3 sets of 8-12 reps (lower reps/higher resistance for strength and higher reps/lower resistance for endurance Time: perform 3 sets of 8-12 reps Time: perform 3 sets of 8-12 reps Type: Exercises that provide resistance upon the body Type: Exercises that provide resistance upon the body

32 Flexibility Flexibility is the ability to bend the joints through the full range of motion To develop flexibility, you need to incorporate the following: To develop flexibility, you need to incorporate the following: Frequency: 2-3 times/week Frequency: 2-3 times/week Intensity: Hold for seconds Intensity: Hold for seconds Time: minutes Time: minutes Types: Types: Static (hold to the point of tension) Static (hold to the point of tension) Ballistic (rapidly stretching the muscle quickly) Ballistic (rapidly stretching the muscle quickly)

33 Benefits of Flexibility Helps improve the quality of life by being able to bend and move easily and without pain Helps improve the quality of life by being able to bend and move easily and without pain Helps prevent the relieve symptoms associated with arthritis Helps prevent the relieve symptoms associated with arthritis Helps prevent low back pain Helps prevent low back pain Helps prevent injuries to muscles and joints Helps prevent injuries to muscles and joints Decreases the likelihood of having accidents, such as falls Decreases the likelihood of having accidents, such as falls Improves performance in sports, such as golf and tennis, that require a range of motion Improves performance in sports, such as golf and tennis, that require a range of motion

34 Healthful Body Composition Healthful Body Composition is the high ratio of lean tissue to fat tissue in the body Healthful Body Composition is the high ratio of lean tissue to fat tissue in the body Overfat is having too high percentage of body fat Overfat is having too high percentage of body fat

35 Benefits of Healthful Body Composition Reduces the risk of obesity Reduces the risk of obesity Reduces the risk of coronary heart disease Reduces the risk of coronary heart disease Reduces the risk of developing diabetes Reduces the risk of developing diabetes Reduces the risk of developing high blood pressure Reduces the risk of developing high blood pressure Reduces the risk of having a stroke Reduces the risk of having a stroke Improves appearance and self-image Improves appearance and self-image

36 Developing a Program to Improve/Maintain a Healthful Body Composition Frequency: 3-5 days/week of physical activity Frequency: 3-5 days/week of physical activity Intensity: Perform at Target Heart Rate Intensity: Perform at Target Heart Rate Time: 1.8 calories to be burned per pound of body weight (to be determined) Time: 1.8 calories to be burned per pound of body weight (to be determined) Type: Aerobic in nature Type: Aerobic in nature

37 Skill-Related Fitness Agility Agility Balance Balance Coordination Coordination Reaction Time Reaction Time Speed Speed Power Power Skill related fitness is the capacity to perform well in sports and physical activities

38 Lifetime Sports and Physical Activities Basketball Basketball Cross-Country Skiing Cross-Country Skiing Golf Golf In-Line Skating In-Line Skating Martial Arts Martial Arts Bicycling Bicycling Rock Climbing/Wall Climbing Rock Climbing/Wall Climbing Running and Jogging Running and Jogging Swimming Swimming Walking Walking These are sports and physical activities that can be engaged throughout one’s life

39 Training Principals Training Principals 1. Warm-up 2. Cool-down 3. Specificity 4. Overload 5. Progression 6. Fitness reversibility Training Principles are guidelines to follow to obtain maximum fitness benefits and reduce the risks of injuries/illnesses

40 Injuries Related to Physical Activity Overuse Overuse Micro-trauma Micro-trauma Bruise Bruise Muscle cramp Muscle cramp Muscle strain Muscle strain Shin splints Shin splints Side stitch Side stitch Sprain Sprain Stress fracture Stress fracture Tendonitis Tendonitis

41 Sleep The amount of sleep needed varies from person to person The amount of sleep needed varies from person to person First to Second graders sleep hours First to Second graders sleep hours Six graders average 9-10 hours Six graders average 9-10 hours Adolescents require extra sleep due to the demands of a busy lifestyle Adolescents require extra sleep due to the demands of a busy lifestyle Sleep is a state of deep relaxation

42 The Need for Sleep Young people who are not getting enough sleep lack the concentration needed to perform well in school Young people who are not getting enough sleep lack the concentration needed to perform well in school Sleep is needed to restore physical, emotional, and mental energy and is critical to growth Sleep is needed to restore physical, emotional, and mental energy and is critical to growth Inadequate sleep can result in: Inadequate sleep can result in: Increased risk of unintentional injuries and death Increased risk of unintentional injuries and death Low grades and poor school performance Low grades and poor school performance Negative moods Negative moods Increased use of stimulants Increased use of stimulants

43 Getting Adequate Sleep and Rest Establish a regular time to go to bed and rise in the morning Establish a regular time to go to bed and rise in the morning Quiet activities such as reading or taking a bath can help Quiet activities such as reading or taking a bath can help Nightly rituals prepare the body for sleep Nightly rituals prepare the body for sleep Having a quiet environment and comfortable bed is necessary for a good night’s sleep Having a quiet environment and comfortable bed is necessary for a good night’s sleep Reduce substances, such as caffeinated drinks should be avoided Reduce substances, such as caffeinated drinks should be avoided

44 VEGETABLES Asparagus Asparagus Bell Peppers Bell Peppers Broccoli Broccoli Brussels sprouts Brussels sprouts Cabbage Cabbage Carrot Carrot Cauliflower Cauliflower Celery Celery Chili Peppers Chili Peppers Corn Corn Cucumber Cucumber Green Beans Green Beans Romaine Lettuce Romaine Lettuce Lima Beans Lima Beans Mushrooms Mushrooms Onion Onion Peas Peas Potato Potato Radish Radish Spinach Spinach Tomato Tomato Turnips Turnips

45 Fruits Apple Apple Apricot Apricot Avocado Avocado Banana Banana Blueberry Blueberry Cherry Cherry Coconut Coconut Cranberry Cranberry Grape Grape Grapefruit Grapefruit Kiwi Kiwi Lemon Lemon Lime Lime Nectarine Nectarine Orange Orange Peach Peach Pineapple Pineapple Plum Plum Raisin Raisin Strawberry Strawberry Watermelon Watermelon


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