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Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables. Nutrients Substances obtained from food that provide nourishment Macronutrients Micronutrients Energy producing.

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Presentation on theme: "Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables. Nutrients Substances obtained from food that provide nourishment Macronutrients Micronutrients Energy producing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

2 Nutrients Substances obtained from food that provide nourishment Macronutrients Micronutrients Energy producing Protective Carbohydrates, fats, proteins Vitamins, minerals Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

3 Major nutrients in foods Water Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Vitamins Minerals Bioactive compounds Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

4 Water Substrate of biological reactions or acts as the matrix or vehicle in which these reactions take place Regulates the temperature and pH in the human body Maintains cell and tissue integrity Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

5 After water, carbohydrates are the main components of fruits and vegetables and represent more than 90 % of their dry matter Classified into three groups -Monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, arabinose, xylose) -Oligosaccharides (sucrose, maltose, raffinose, stachyose) -Polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, hemicellulose) -RDA for carbohydrates is 130 g/ day, except in cases of pregnancy (175 g/day) and lactation (210 g/day) Carbohydrates Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

6 Functions of proteins Necessary for building and repairing of body tissues Act as transport nutrients Act as enzymes and hormones Supply 4Kcal/ g energy Help in recovering from infections and diseases (strenghten immune system) RDA for protein is g/ day, depending upon age and sex During pregnancy and lactation it is 71 g/ day Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

7 Functions of fats Supply energy 9 Kcal/g Essential for absorption of fat soluble vitamins such as vitamin A, D, E, K Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

8 VitaminFunctionsDeficiency Vitamin A Essential for proper vision, healthy skin, alimentary and urinary tracts Reduces susceptibility to infections foods rich in beta-carotene may reduce the risk of lung cancer and certain oral cancers Night blindness and keratomalacia Vitamin D Essential for healthy bones Helps in calcium absorption in body Rickets (in children) and osteomalacia (in adults)- degeneration of bones Vitamin E Possesses antioxidant property Reduces risk of degenerative diseases Prevents oxidation of lipids and maintains cell integrity Enhanced fragility of red blood cells and increased urinary excretion of creatine indicating muscle damage Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables Fat soluble vitamins: Vitamin A, D, E, K Water soluble vitamins: Vitamin B complex, C Vitamins Cont….

9 VitaminFunctionsDeficiency Vitamin KIt is an antihaemorrhagic vitamin. It is necessary for the clotting of blood, Necessary for liver functioning Prolonged blood clotting time which may lead to internal hemorrhage and uncontrolled bleeding Vitamin B complex Includes thiamine, riboflavin, nicotininc acid, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, folic acid, biotin, choline, inositol Act as co-enzymes and therefore esssential for the metabolism and proper utilization of energy, carbohydrates and fats Deficiency diseases involving the these vitamins are multiple in nature Vitamin C Required for collagen synthesis, bone and teeth calcification Helps in absorption of dietary iron Builds resistance to infection Aids in the prevention and treatment of the common cold Gives strength to blood vessels One of the major antioxidant nutrients Scurvy: soft and bleeding gums Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

10 Important Minerals Calcium Phosphorus Iron Sodium Potassium Magnesium Zinc Copper Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

11 MineralsFunctions CalciumFormation and maintenance of skeleton and teeth Contraction of muscles and normal functioning of heart and nervous system PhosphorusFor healthy bones and teeth Component of nucleic acids Helps in cellular metabolism of nutrients Iron Essential for formation of hemoglobin of red blood cells of blood and transport of oxygen Necessary for various oxidation reduction reactions in body PotassiumIn conjunction with sodium, it is necessary to maintain osmotic balance and keep cells in shape Magnesium Required for cellular metabolism Present in bones alongwith calcium Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

12 Major Phytochemicals Carotenoids: Lycopene, Lutein, Zeaxanthin,  -carotene Polyphenolics: Flavonoids, Flavones, Anthocyanine Glucosinolate: Sulphoraphane, Indole-3-Carbinol Thiosulphides: Alliin, Methiin, Ethiin Dietary fiber: Lignin, Pectin, Cellulose, Dietary fiber Miscellaneous : Selenium, Phytosterol & stanol, Saponins These are substances present in foods at low levels that may have a role in health maintenance in humans Have antioxidant properties Bioactive Compounds or Phytochemicals Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

13 PrincipleNutrient value% of RDA Energy70 kcal3.5 Carbohydrates15.9 g12 Starch15 g- Dietary fibre2.5 g7 Fat0.1 g0.5 Protein1.89 g3 Vitamin C11.4 mg20 Calcium10 mg1 Iron0.73 mg9 Magnesium22 mg5.5 Phosphorus61 mg9 Potassium455 mg10 Nutritional value of raw potato (with peel) per 100 g (Source: USDA National Nutrient Database) Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

14 Health benefits of potato Potato is a wholesome food and a person won't be hungry at all, for some hours, after eating potatoes. It contains carbohydrate, which is a good source of energy. They facilitate easy digestion. So, if you are suffering from diarrhea, eating potato is best! The energy produced through potato gets stored as glycogen in muscle and liver and functions as a readily available energy during prolonged, strenuous exercise. That’s why; it is an important part of players’ diet. Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

15 Health benefits of potato Potatoes are rich source of vitamin C, vitamin B6, copper, manganese, and dietary fiber. Potatoes help to improve resistance to heart attack and stroke. The potassium content, available in potatoes, helps in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance in the body cells. Raises the glucose level in the blood and over intake may cause obesity, hence it is not recommended for obese or diabetic people. Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

16 Nutritive value of raw mango (per 100g) PrincipleNutrient value% of RDA Energy70 kcal3.5 Carbohydrates17 g13 Dietary fiber1.8 g4.5 Fat0.27 g1 Protein0.51 g1 Vitamin A765 IU25.5 Vitamin C27.7mg46 Calcium10 mg1 Iron0.13 mg1.5 Magnesium9 mg2 Potassium156 mg3 (Source: USDA National Nutrient Database) Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

17 Health benefits of mango Many Indians consider the mango to be a blood builder, and good for anaemia due to its high iron content. It is also said to be good for alleviating menstrual and muscular cramps. The fruit has a high potassium and magnesium content. Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

18 Health benefits of mango Its papain-like enzyme is good for digestion and purifies the intestines. Mango juice has also been proven to kill certain viruses. It also has good fibre, beta-carotene, vitamins C, B1, B2, B3, B6, zinc and calcium. The fruit is also effective in cooking as a meat tenderiser and flavour enhancer. Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

19 Nutritive value of grapes per 100 g (Source: USDA National Nutrient Database) PrincipleNutrient value% of RDA Energy69 kcal3.5 Carbohydrates18 g14 Dietary fiber0.9 g2 Fat0.16 g0.5 Protein0.72 g1 Vitamin A66 IU3 Vitamin C10.8mg18 Calcium10 mg1 Iron0.36 mg4.5 Magnesium7 mg2 Potassium191 mg4 Grapes, red or green (European type, Thompson seedless) Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

20 Health benefits of grapes Rich source of vitamin A, C, B6 and folate in addition to essential minerals like potassium, calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium and selenium. Contain flavanoids that are very powerful antioxidants which can reduce the damage caused by free radicals and slacken ageing. Considered as laxative food owing to their organic acid, sugar and cellulose Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

21 Nutritive value of banana per 100 g PrincipleNutrient Value% of RDA Energy90 kcal4.5 Carbohydrates22.84 g18 Fat0.33 g1 Dietary fiber2.6 g7 Protein1.09 g2 Vitamin A64 IU2 Vitamin C8.7 mg15 Calcium5 mg0.5 Iron0.26 mg2 Magnesium27 mg7 Potassium358 mg8 (Source: USDA National Nutrient Database) Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

22 Health benefits of banana One banana has 11% of RDA of dietary fibre and only about 108 calories which helps to maintain healthy bowel movement. Has high amount of potassium (13 % of RDA) that can help lower blood pressure, which helps to reduce incidence of atherosclerosis and heart attack. Rich in vitamin B6 (34% of RDA) which helps to maintain proper. functioning of nervous system, production of white blood cells and plays pivotal role in cell formation. Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

23 Nutritional value of tomato per 100g (Source: USDA National Nutrient Database) PrincipleNutrient Value% of RDA Energy18 kcal1 Carbohydrates3.9 g3 Fat0.2 g0.7 Dietary fiber1.2 g3 Protein0.9 g1.6 Vitamin A833 IU28 Vitamin C13 mg21.5 Calcium10 mg1 Iron0.3 mg4 Magnesium11 mg3 Potassium237 mg5 Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

24 Health benefits of tomato Contain ‘lycopene’ pigment which is a vital anti-oxidant that helps to fight against cancerous cell formation as well as other kinds of health complications and diseases. When tomato products are heat processed the bioavailability of the Lycopene actually increases rather than the anticipated decrease. It is a rich source of vitamins and minerals. A single tomato can provide 40% of the daily requirement of vitamin C which is a natural antioxidant. High potassium helps to maintain nerve health, whereas high iro helps to maintain blood health. Tomatoes are rich in vitamin K which plays a major role in blood clotting. It also improves eye health and prevents hypertension and urinary tract infections Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables

25 Let us sum up Food is composed of nutrients: macronutrients and micronutrients classified according to the amount required for a healthy body. Fruits and vegetables are called ‘Protective foods’. They are a rich source of sugars, vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds which help to maintain proper functioning of the body. Nutritive value of fruits and vegetables


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