28B Respiration Releasing energy The circulation system Contents8B RespirationReleasing energyThe circulation systemThe breathing systemAnaerobic respirationSummary activities
3How is digested food used by the body? The body needs a constant supply of energy which comes from digested food.Glucose from digested carbohydrate is an important substance that contains stored chemical energy .When glucose reacts with oxygen a lot of energy is released.In the body’s cells, glucose and oxygen react to releaseenergy . Some of this is released as heat and the rest is used by the cells.The release of energy from glucose is called…respiration
4from the digestive system from the breathing system What is respiration?Respiration is the process that the body uses to release energy from digested food (glucose):energyglucoseoxygencarbondioxidewaterfrom the digestive systemfrom the breathing systemuseful!waste product exhaledThis type of respiration is called aerobic respiration because energy is released with oxygen.How do the glucose and oxygen needed for aerobic respiration get to the all the body’s cells?
6Comparing respiration and combustion Burning is the reaction between a fuel and oxygen.This reaction is called combustion:fueloxygencarbondioxidewaterWhen something burns, heat and light energy arereleased and carbon dioxide and water are also produced, so combustion is similar to respiration.However, combustion is different because it is not a controlled reaction. Respiration is a controlled reaction which slowly releases energy from food in the body’s cells and the cells do not catch fire!
78B Respiration Releasing energy The circulation system Contents8B RespirationReleasing energyThe circulation systemThe breathing systemAnaerobic respirationSummary activities
8The body’s transport system The dissolved food and oxygen needed for respiration are carried around the body by the circulation system.The circulation system includes the blood, blood vessels, the heart and the lungs.Which part of the circulation system actually carries dissolved food and oxygen to the body’s cells?body’scellslungs
9BloodThe blood carries oxygen and dissolved food to all the body’s cells so that respiration can take place.
10Your beating heartThe heart is made of very special muscle called cardiac muscle.This is because it has to keep beating for the whole of a person’s life!If you tried to do the same action repeatedly (like the heart does), your muscles would get tired and after a while stop working.For example, if you keep clenching and unclenching your hand, it will get tired and may even start to get cramp.Why is it important for respiration that the heart keeps beating?
11Different types of activity What happens to the pulse rate whilst someone is running?The body needs to release more energy:so oxygen and glucose need to reachmuscle cells quickly;so blood is pumped around the body faster;so the pulse is faster.What happens to the pulse rate whilst someone is sleeping?The body needs to release less energy:so oxygen and glucose need to reach muscle cells slowly;so blood is pumped around the body slower;so the pulse is slower.
128B Respiration Releasing energy The circulation system Contents8B RespirationReleasing energyThe circulation systemThe breathing systemAnaerobic respirationSummary activities
13What is breathing?The breathing system is used by the body to get the oxygen needed for respiration.It is also use to get rid of the waste product of respiration, the gas carbon dioxide.Breathing in and breathing out are separate processes in the body:Breathing in is also known as inhalation. When you inhale you breathe in air, including oxygen, into your lungs.Breathing out is also known as exhalation. When you exhale you breathe out the contents of our lungs and getting rid of the waste gas carbon dioxide.
15The alveoliIn the lungs, oxygen travels to thousands of tiny air sacs called alveoli. These are covered with tiny blood vessels.The alveoli give the lungs a huge surface area which is equalin size to the area of a tennis court!
16Gas exchangeGas exchange takes place in the alveoli – oxygen is transferred into the blood and carbon dioxide moves out of the blood.Each alveolus has a thin wall so that gas exchange betweenthe lungs and the blood can take place quickly.
18Comparing inhaled and exhaled air What are the differences between inhaled and exhaled air?inhaled airnitrogen (78%)oxygen (21%)carbon dioxide (0.04%)otherexhaled airnitrogen (78%)oxygen (17%)carbon dioxide (4%)otherHow could you test for the differences between inhaled and exhaled air?
198B Respiration Releasing energy The circulation system Contents8B RespirationReleasing energyThe circulation systemThe breathing systemAnaerobic respirationSummary activities
20Aerobic and anaerobic respiration When the body is able to supply the cells with the oxygen and glucose that they need, it carries out aerobic respiration.energyglucoseoxygencarbondioxidewaterAnaerobic respirationWhen the body cannot supply the cells with the oxygen needed to break down glucose, then it has to carry out anaerobic respiration. Energy is released without oxygen:energyglucoselacticacid
21Not enough oxygen! lactic acid energy glucose carbon dioxide lactic When anaerobic respiration takes place, the lactic acid produced soaks the muscle cells and prevents muscles from doing their job. This causes fatigue and sometimes cramp.After activity that has lead to anaerobic respiration, the person involved pants and breathes heavily.This happens because they need lots of oxygen to get rid of lactic acid that has built up in their body.carbondioxidelacticacidoxygenwater
238B Respiration Releasing energy The circulation system Contents8B RespirationReleasing energyThe circulation systemThe breathing systemAnaerobic respirationSummary activities
24Glossaryaerobic – The type of respiration that occurs with oxygen.alveoli – Tiny air sacs in the lungs where gas exchange takes place.anaerobic – The type of respiration that occurs without oxygen.exhalation – The process of breathing out.glucose – A type of sugar that the body releases energy from during respiration.inhalation – The process of breathing in.respiration – The process that the body uses to release energy from digested food.