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Adding Variety to Your Writing NEC FACET Center. Have you ever felt as if your writing is monotonous and dull?Have you ever felt as if your writing is.

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Presentation on theme: "Adding Variety to Your Writing NEC FACET Center. Have you ever felt as if your writing is monotonous and dull?Have you ever felt as if your writing is."— Presentation transcript:

1 Adding Variety to Your Writing NEC FACET Center

2 Have you ever felt as if your writing is monotonous and dull?Have you ever felt as if your writing is monotonous and dull?

3 If so, bring it to life by varying your sentence structure.If so, bring it to life by varying your sentence structure.

4 Try Using These Special Phrases ParticiplePhrases GerundPhrases Infinitive Phrases

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6 Important Definition A gerund is the -ing form of a verb functioning in the sentence as a noun.A gerund is the -ing form of a verb functioning in the sentence as a noun. Strange... It looks like a verb, but it acts like a noun.

7 Gerunds as Subjects Some gerunds function as the subject of the sentence.Some gerunds function as the subject of the sentence. The subject identifies who or what the sentence is about.The subject identifies who or what the sentence is about. Painting is Jim’s favorite hobby.Painting is Jim’s favorite hobby. Gardening keeps Aunt Ruth busy for hours.Gardening keeps Aunt Ruth busy for hours.

8 Gerunds as Direct Objects My entire family likes bowling. (The verb is likes. Bowling tells what the family likes.)My entire family likes bowling. (The verb is likes. Bowling tells what the family likes.) The dirty floor required mopping. (The verb is required. Mopping tells what the dirty floor required.)The dirty floor required mopping. (The verb is required. Mopping tells what the dirty floor required.) Direct objects follow the verb and identify the receiver of the action.

9 Gerunds as Objects of the Preposition Will Rogers was famous for roping. (Roping follows the preposition for and identifies a cause of his fame.)Will Rogers was famous for roping. (Roping follows the preposition for and identifies a cause of his fame.) Derek finished work before skateboarding. (Skateboarding follows the preposition before.)Derek finished work before skateboarding. (Skateboarding follows the preposition before.)

10 Common Prepositions aboveabove aboutabout acrossacross amongamong aroundaround atat beforebefore below, beneathbelow, beneath besidebeside betweenbetween byby forfor fromfrom in, into, insidein, into, inside ofof offoff overover throughthrough to, towardto, toward underunder uponupon withwith

11 Gerund Phrases as Subjects Singing with a country band occupies most of my brother’s weekend.Singing with a country band occupies most of my brother’s weekend. Crying at the top of his lungs generally got little Joey what he wanted.Crying at the top of his lungs generally got little Joey what he wanted.

12 Gerund Phrases as Objects Herrmann the Great demonstrated making a rabbit appear from an empty hat.Herrmann the Great demonstrated making a rabbit appear from an empty hat. For our final few minutes at Frontier City, we chose riding the roller coaster.For our final few minutes at Frontier City, we chose riding the roller coaster.

13 Gerund Phrases as Objects of the Preposition David enjoys the ancient Japanese art of raising bonsai trees.David enjoys the ancient Japanese art of raising bonsai trees. Have you ever tried relaxing by watching tropical fish?Have you ever tried relaxing by watching tropical fish?

14 Identify the Gerund Phrase Hitting a grand slam homerun enabled Raphael to win the game for his team.Hitting a grand slam homerun enabled Raphael to win the game for his team. Charles was ready for a quiet evening at home after flying a rescue mission in the mountains.Charles was ready for a quiet evening at home after flying a rescue mission in the mountains.

15 Gerund Phrase Identified Hitting a grand slam homerun enabled Raphael to win the game for his team. (subject)Hitting a grand slam homerun enabled Raphael to win the game for his team. (subject) Charles was ready for a quiet evening at home after flying a rescue mission in the mountains. (object of the preposition after)Charles was ready for a quiet evening at home after flying a rescue mission in the mountains. (object of the preposition after)

16 Identify the Gerund Phrases Steve succeeded in climbing the mountain.Steve succeeded in climbing the mountain. When the director finished yelling at the production crew, he felt much better.When the director finished yelling at the production crew, he felt much better.

17 Identify the Gerund Phrases Steve succeeded at climbing the mountain. (object of the preposition at)Steve succeeded at climbing the mountain. (object of the preposition at) When the director finished yelling at the production crew, he felt much better. (object of the verb finished, telling what he finished.)When the director finished yelling at the production crew, he felt much better. (object of the verb finished, telling what he finished.)

18 Identify the Gerund Phrases Yelling at the production crew made the director feel much better.Yelling at the production crew made the director feel much better.

19 Identify the Gerund Phrases Yelling at the production crew made the director feel much better. (subject telling what made Jack feel better)Yelling at the production crew made the director feel much better. (subject telling what made Jack feel better)

20 Like a participle, a gerund can sometimes be accompanied by other words that complete its meaning. A gerund phrase consists of a gerund accompanied by an adjective, an adverb, a direct object, or a prepositional phrase.

21 Examples (gerund + D.O.) Wearing tight shoes hurts. (adjective + gerund) Long-distance running is fun. (gerund + prepositional phrase) I like dancing on ice. (gerund + adverb) Performing alone is his dream.

22 Gerund phrases, like gerunds alone, function as nouns in a sentence. Like a noun, a gerund phrase can be a subject, a D.O., an object of the preposition, or a predicate noun. SubjectPreparing for a concert takes time. Direct ObjectLane began practicing his flute. Object of Preposition Before playing the music, he studied it. Predicate Noun His big challenge was walking onstage.

23 Be careful not to confuse a gerund phrase with a participial phrase. If the phrase functions as a subject, an object, or a predicate noun in the sentence it is a gerund phrase. If it serves as an adjective, it is a participial phrase. Gerund Phrase:Singing softly was difficult. (subject) Participial Phrase: Singing softly, he calmed the baby. Gerund PhraseWe began singing the song. (direct object) Participial Phrase: The girl singing the song is Pat.

24 Identify each gerund phrase. What is each phrase’s function in the sentence? 1.Skating at night is my hobby. 2.Bart received the prize for being the best tenor. 3.Bart had many solo parts for playing in the orchestra. 4.You should try singing high C. 5.Humming in the background, the chorus set a mood. 6.Appearing with a professional cast was Kristen’s dream. 7.Facing the audience can be the hardest part. 8.Practicing day and night is a necessary ingredient for succeeding as an opera singer. 9.The members taking their seats began tuning their instruments. 10.The violin section playing the tragic melody was not doing the best job in the performance.

25 Possessives in Gerund Phrases Always use the possessive form of a noun or pronoun before a gerund.

26 Which is correct? 11. I warned Gino about (them, their) being late. 12. I don’t appreciate (him, his) talking back to me. 13. (Fran, Fran’s) leaving will solve the problem. 14. (Me, My) being there was a help. 15. That ended (Martha, Martha’s) disrupting the rehearsals. 16. We are delighted by (Joe, Joe’s) sensitive acting. 17. (Him, His) continuing with the show is essential to its success. 18. (Us, Our) agreeing on how the other minor roles should be handled was also important.

27 Identify each gerund phrase. Does each gerund phrase act as a subject, a direct object, an object of a preposition, or a predicate noun? 19. The program’s goal is providing students with a variety of artistic opportunities. 20. Few question the benefits of encouraging talents. 21. The problem is obtaining the necessary money. 22. People find different ways of raising funds. 23. Asking for funds is an important activity. 24. Supporters must continue advertising the program.

28 Identify each gerund phrase and participial phrase. Does each gerund phrase act as a subject, a direct object, an object of a preposition, or a predicate noun? 25. Now the group will try campaigning on a large scale. 26. Starting such a campaign is a challenging task. 27. Requesting funds and other forms of assistance from large corporations will be the first strategy. 28. Contacting firms is the director’s role. 29. Companies find different ways of being helpful. 30. Helping young artists is a worthwhile cause.

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30 Important Definition A participle is a verb form used as an adjective (a descriptive word).A participle is a verb form used as an adjective (a descriptive word). Strange... It looks like a verb, but it acts like an adjective.

31 Present & Past Participles Present participles end in -ing.Present participles end in -ing. Past participles end in -ed or have irregular endings.Past participles end in -ed or have irregular endings. Remember this:

32 Examples The laughing child held up her brimming piggy bank.The laughing child held up her brimming piggy bank. With a cramped leg, the screaming boy waded out of the pool.With a cramped leg, the screaming boy waded out of the pool. Notice that each of these -ing or -ed words acts as an adjective by describing another word.Notice that each of these -ing or -ed words acts as an adjective by describing another word. Laughing describes child.Laughing describes child. Brimming describes the bank.Brimming describes the bank. Cramped describes leg.Cramped describes leg. Screaming describes boyScreaming describes boy.

33 Outside the Halloween spook house, dozens of grinning skeletons greeted the visitors.Outside the Halloween spook house, dozens of grinning skeletons greeted the visitors. Identify the Descriptive Participles Tired, I spilled the steaming coffee.Tired, I spilled the steaming coffee.

34 Outside the Halloween spook house, dozens of grinning skeletons greeted the visitors.Outside the Halloween spook house, dozens of grinning skeletons greeted the visitors. Tired, I spilled the steaming coffee.Tired, I spilled the steaming coffee. Descriptive Participles Identified

35 Identify the Descriptive Participles After the torrential rain, I returned home to a flooded basement.After the torrential rain, I returned home to a flooded basement. I read the gripping spy novel until 2:00 a.m.I read the gripping spy novel until 2:00 a.m.

36 Irregular Participles Although most participles end in -ing and -ed, some are irregular. To identify the verbs with irregular participles, think of the form correctly used with the helping verbs have, has, and had.Although most participles end in -ing and -ed, some are irregular. To identify the verbs with irregular participles, think of the form correctly used with the helping verbs have, has, and had. Example: Built to last, the great pyramids of Egypt may be around for the next millenium.Example: Built to last, the great pyramids of Egypt may be around for the next millenium.

37 Built to last, the great pyramids of Egypt may be around for the next millenium.Built to last, the great pyramids of Egypt may be around for the next millenium. Notice that the phrase “built to last” works as an adjective to describe the word pyramids; therefore, it is a participial phrase.Notice that the phrase “built to last” works as an adjective to describe the word pyramids; therefore, it is a participial phrase. However, you’ll see that the participle form, in this case, doesn’t end in -ed or -ing.However, you’ll see that the participle form, in this case, doesn’t end in -ed or -ing.

38 To indicate past tense, as in the following sentence, we don’t say builded: The two children builded an elaborate sand castle.To indicate past tense, as in the following sentence, we don’t say builded: The two children builded an elaborate sand castle. Instead, we would write “The two children built an elaborate sandcastle.”Instead, we would write “The two children built an elaborate sandcastle.” This is one of many irregular verbs.This is one of many irregular verbs.

39 Descriptive Participles Identified After the torrential rain, I returned home to a flooded basement.After the torrential rain, I returned home to a flooded basement. I read the gripping spy novel until 2:00 a.m.I read the gripping spy novel until 2:00 a.m.

40 Participial Phrases You have seen several examples of single word participles ending with -ing and -ed.You have seen several examples of single word participles ending with -ing and -ed. Some participles do not appear alone, but instead as the first word of a phrase.Some participles do not appear alone, but instead as the first word of a phrase. This phrase still serves as an adjective and, therefore, describes a noun.This phrase still serves as an adjective and, therefore, describes a noun.

41 How to Identify the Correct Past Participle Form If you are not sure what the correct past participle form is, pick the form that would be correctly used following the helping verbs has, have, or had.If you are not sure what the correct past participle form is, pick the form that would be correctly used following the helping verbs has, have, or had. For example, the past participle of the verb take is taken.For example, the past participle of the verb take is taken. You can tell by trying the verb with the words listed above: has taken, have taken, had taken.You can tell by trying the verb with the words listed above: has taken, have taken, had taken.

42 A Few Examples of Irregular Verbs and Their Past Participles begin-begun blow-blown bring-brought catch-caught choose-chosen draw-drew eat-eaten fall-fallen fly-flown forget-forgotten forgive-forgiven freeze-frozen go-gone hear-heard hold-held ride-ridden rise-risen speak-spoken think-thought wear-worn

43 Examples of Participial Phrases Laughing gleefully, the child held up her piggy bank.Laughing gleefully, the child held up her piggy bank. Notice that “Laughing gleefully” works as a participial phrase describing the noun child.Notice that “Laughing gleefully” works as a participial phrase describing the noun child. Attacked by a sudden leg cramp, the screaming boy waded out of the pool.Attacked by a sudden leg cramp, the screaming boy waded out of the pool. Notice that “Attacked by a sudden leg cramp” acts as a participial phrase describing the noun boy.Notice that “Attacked by a sudden leg cramp” acts as a participial phrase describing the noun boy.

44 Identify the Participial Phrase Listening intently, the students translated Spanish sentences into English.Listening intently, the students translated Spanish sentences into English. Using a hoe and a rake, Steve cleared the dead plants from the garden.Using a hoe and a rake, Steve cleared the dead plants from the garden.

45 Participial Phrases Identified Listening intently, the students translated Spanish sentences into English. (describes the noun students)Listening intently, the students translated Spanish sentences into English. (describes the noun students) Using a hoe and a rake, Steve cleared the dead plants from the garden. (describes the noun Steve)Using a hoe and a rake, Steve cleared the dead plants from the garden. (describes the noun Steve)

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47 Important Definition An infinitive is the word to plus the base form of the verb.An infinitive is the word to plus the base form of the verb. Strange... It looks like a verb, but it’s preceded by the word to.

48 Examples of Infinitives We started to practice for the concert.We started to practice for the concert. It’s time to rake the yard.It’s time to rake the yard. I asked Jeff to go sailing on Grand Lake.I asked Jeff to go sailing on Grand Lake.

49 Note When followed by anything other than a verb, the word to forms a prepositional phrase rather than an infinitive.When followed by anything other than a verb, the word to forms a prepositional phrase rather than an infinitive. Examples:Examples: –I took the ferry to the Statue of Liberty. –I went to the post office to mail the package. (Notice that the sentence also contains the infinitive “to mail.”) –I gave the gift to Michael –I need to talk to her. (This sentence also contains the infinitive “to talk.”)

50 Identify the Infinitives. Sally decided to enter the Tulsa Run.Sally decided to enter the Tulsa Run. Brad learned to operate the new photocopier.Brad learned to operate the new photocopier.

51 Identify the Infinitives Sally decided to enter the Tulsa Run.Sally decided to enter the Tulsa Run. Brad learned to operate the new photocopier.Brad learned to operate the new photocopier.

52 Identify the Infinitive Phrases When they went to the Fourth of July parade, they began to wave their flags.When they went to the Fourth of July parade, they began to wave their flags. Charles paid a visit to the gypsy fortune teller to learn what the new year would bring.Charles paid a visit to the gypsy fortune teller to learn what the new year would bring.

53 Infinitive Phrases Identified When they went to the Fourth of July parade, they began to wave their flags.When they went to the Fourth of July parade, they began to wave their flags. Charles paid a visit to the gypsy fortune teller to learn what the new year would bring.Charles paid a visit to the gypsy fortune teller to learn what the new year would bring.

54 Remember... You can bring monotonous sentences to life by using gerund, participial, and infinitive phrases in your writing. You can bring monotonous sentences to life by using gerund, participial, and infinitive phrases in your writing.


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