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1 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008
2 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Releasing energy
3 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 How is digested food used by the body? Glucose, from digested carbohydrates, is an important substance that contains stored chemical energy. When glucose reacts with oxygen, a lot of energy is released. In the body’s cells, glucose and oxygen react to release energy. Some of this is released as heat and the rest is used by the cells. What is the release of energy from glucose called? The body needs a constant supply of energy which comes from digested food.
4 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 What is respiration? Respiration is the process that the body uses to release energy from digested food (glucose): This type of respiration is called aerobic respiration because energy is released in the presence of oxygen. How do the glucose and oxygen needed for aerobic respiration get to the all the body’s cells? oxygen carbon dioxide glucose ++ water ( energy) + from the digestive system from the respiratory system waste product (exhaled)
5 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Testing for the products of respiration
6 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 How do cells get oxygen and glucose?
7 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 The equation for aerobic respiration
8 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Respiration and combustion Burning is the reaction between a fuel and oxygen. This reaction is called combustion: During combustion, heat and light energy are released and carbon dioxide and water are also produced, so combustion is similar to respiration. The difference between combustion and respiration is that combustion is not a controlled reaction. Respiration is a controlled reaction that slowly releases energy from food in the body’s cells and the cells do not catch fire! fueloxygencarbon dioxidewater + +
9 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Respiration and combustion
10 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 The circulatory system
11 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Circulation The dissolved food and oxygen needed for respiration are carried around the body by the circulatory system. Which part of the circulatory system actually carries dissolved food and oxygen to the body’s cells? The circulatory system includes the blood, blood vessels, the heart and the lungs.
12 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Blood
13 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Your beating heart The heart is made of very special muscle called cardiac muscle. This is because it has to keep beating for the whole of a person’s life! If you tried to do the same action repeatedly (like the heart does), your muscles would get tired and, after a while, stop working. For example, if you keep clenching and unclenching your hand, it will get tired and may even start to get cramp. Why is it important for respiration that the heart keeps beating?
14 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Ideas about circulation
15 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Measuring pulse The heart pumps blood around the body in the blood vessels. Each time it pumps it causes the blood vessels to throb. This is called a pulse. 1.Hold out one hand with the palm facing up. 3. Press these fingers lightly on the underside of the other wrist, just under the thumb bone. 2. Put the index and middle fingers of your other hand together. To take your pulse:
16 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Different types of activity During sleep, the pulse falls. This causes blood to be pumped around the body more slowly. This means that oxygen and glucose take longer to reach muscle cells. During exercise, the pulse rises. This causes blood to be pumped around the body more quickly, which increases the amount of oxygen and glucose that can reach muscle cells. What happens to the pulse while someone is running? What happens to the pulse while someone is sleeping?
17 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 The breathing system
18 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 What is breathing? The breathing system is used by the body to get the oxygen needed for respiration. Breathing in and breathing out are separate processes in the body. It is also used to get rid of one of the waste products of respiration: the gas, carbon dioxide. Breathing in is called inhalation. When you inhale, you breathe air, including oxygen, into your lungs. Breathing out is called exhalation. When you exhale you breathe out the contents of your lungs and get rid of the waste gas carbon dioxide.
19 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Inhalation and exhalation
20 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 The alveoli
21 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Gas exchange
22 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Comparing inhaled and exhaled air What are the differences between inhaled and exhaled air? How could you test for the differences between inhaled and exhaled air? Inhaled Air Exhaled Air Oxygen:21% Oxygen: 16% Carbon dioxide: 0.04% Carbon dioxide: 4% Water vapour: small amount Water vapour: large amount What are the main differences?
23 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Respiration
24 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Anaerobic respiration
25 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Aerobic and anaerobic respiration When the body is able to supply its cells with the oxygen and glucose that they need, it carries out aerobic respiration. When the body cannot supply the cells with the oxygen needed to break down glucose, then it has to carry out anaerobic respiration. Energy is released without oxygen: lactic acidglucoseenergy + oxygen carbon dioxide glucose ++ water( energy) +
26 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Not enough oxygen! When anaerobic respiration takes place, lactic acid is also produced. glucoselactic acidenergy + After exercise the body needs to remove the lactic acid before it causes damage to cells. Lactic acid builds up in the muscle cells and prevents the muscles doing their job. This is thought to cause fatigue and sometimes cramp.
27 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Oxygen debt The amount of oxygen needed to remove all the lactic acid after exercise is called an oxygen debt. oxygenwaterlactic acidcarbon dioxide ++ After activity that has lead to anaerobic respiration, the person involved breathes heavily and their heart rate remains high to supply the body with the oxygen it needs. Lactic acid is broken down by oxygen.
28 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 How does running affect your pulse?
29 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Anaerobic respiration equations
30 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Summary activities
31 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Glossary
32 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Anagrams
33 of 33© Boardworks Ltd 2008 Multiple-choice quiz
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© Boardworks Ltd of 44. © Boardworks Ltd of 44.
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