Presentation on theme: "Cellular Respiration"— Presentation transcript:
Cellular Respiration The process by which the mitochondria breaks down glucose to produce ATP is called cellular respiration. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O
Cellular Respiration When the body has oxygen, aerobic respiration can take place and produce 36 ATP molecules. There are 3 stages of aerobic respiration: Glycolysis Citric acid cycle (aka Krebs Cycle) Electron transport chain
Glycolysis Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell.
Glycolysis Glycolysis is the process where glucose is broken down in 2 pyruvic acid molecules. Pyruvic acid is a 3 carbon molecule. The net gain of ATP molecules in glycolysis is 2 ATP molecules
Glycolysis Following glycolysis, the pyruvic acid moves into the mitochondria.
The Citric Acid Cycle The Kreb’s cycle takes place in the MATRIX! Pyruvic acid enters the citric acid cycle and becomes broken down. As this occurs, 2 carbon dioxide molecules are released. In addition, 2 ATP molecules are released. Electron carriers such as FAD and NAD are used to pick up energized electrons and pass them to the ETC. AKA Kreb’s cycle
The Electron Transport Chain The last step of respiration is the electron transport chain or ETC. It takes place in the inner membrane space. In the presence of oxygen, the electron transport chain will produce 32 ATP molecules and water. The total of ATP molecules released from AEROBIC respiration is 36.
Electron Transport Chain Animation: Electron carriers NADH and FADH 2 release the Hydrogen ions across the membrane. This creates a concentration gradient. When oxygen enters the ETC, it becomes the final electron acceptor of the Hydrogens and creates H 2 O. As the hydrogen ions come back across the membrane, ADP is converted into ATP.
Electron Transport Chain Electron carriers NADH and FADH release the Hydrogen ions to proteins to cross the membrane. This creates a concentration gradient. When oxygen enters the ETC, it becomes the final electron acceptor of the Hydrogen ions and creates H 2 O. As the hydrogen ions come back across the membrane, ADP is converted into ATP.
THE BIG PICTURE
Anaerobic Respiration There are times when cells are without oxygen for a short period of time. When this happens, anaerobic respiration is taking place. In anaerobic respiration, glycolysis takes place; then followed by one of two pathways: LLactic Acid Fermentation or Alcoholic Fermentation. Total ATP molecules released = 2. AKA Fermentation
Aerobic: presence of oxygen Anaerobic: absence of oxygen Aerobic respiration
Types of Anaerobic Respiration When our cells run out of oxygen and begin fermentation, we build up lactic acid. That lactic acid build up in the muscle makes us feel a cramp. C 6 H 12 O 6 ATP + lactic acid
Types of Anaerobic Respiration Some bacteria also undergo fermentation. They release ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. C 6 H 12 O 6 ATP + CO 2 + ethyl alcohol This process is key for the bacteria that create wine and apple juice.
Types of Anaerobic Respiration Yeast also undergo this type of fermentation when making bread.
Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration Photosynthesis Respiration Glucose made Light energy required ATP broken down in 2 nd phase of p.s. CO 2 taken in O 2 released Needs water Takes place in chloroplast Takes place in autotrophs Glucose broken down Light is not required Energy created in ATP CO 2 released O 2 taken in Water released Takes place in mitochondria Takes place in all organisms Require use of ATP molecules Take place in plants Necessary to sustain all life on earth